what is the meant by the term underway replenishment (UNREP)?
the transfer of fuel, munitions, supplies, and personnel from one vessel to another while underway
what does the term replenishment at sea now apply to?
all methods except those for fueling at sea
what are the 2 general method of UNREP?
1-connected replenishment (CONREP)
2-vertical replenishment (VERTREP)
how is CONREP accomplished?
two or more ships steam side by side, and the hoses and lines used used to transfer fuel, ammunition, supplies, and personnel connect the ships
how is VERTREP accomplished?
what 2 processes concern CONREP?
refueling and resupply
in fueling at sea, what ships could be a delivering ship?
a replenishment oiler (OAR), oiler (AO), fast combat support ship (AOE), or a large combat ship
what is the primary purpose of the combat store ship (AFS), and the ammunition ship (AE)?
to deliver solid cargo (could deliver small amounts of fuel)
what are the most common refueling rigs?
span-wire and close-in rigs
what are some of the variations of the span-wire rig?
single hose, double hose, and probe (could either be tensioned or untensioned)
how is the span-wire tensioned?
by a ram tensioner
what is meant by the acronym STREAM?
Standard Tensioned Replenishment Alongside Method
what does STREAM consist of?
all-tensioned rig, highline, outhaul, and inhaul
what is represented by the acronym SURF?
Standard Underway Replenishment Fixture (method of fairleading the outhaul)
what is used with SURF?
2 STREAM rigs, the regular traveling SURF and the SURF traveling actuated remotely (STAR) rig
what are 2 sources of information for determining the details of rigging, and the personnel and tools required to rig each?
the Standard Organization and Regulations of the US Navy (SORM), OPNAVINST 3120.32, NWP 4-01.4 (Series), and Underway Replenishment Hardware and Equipment Manual
what is provided the Underway Replenishment Hardware and Equipment Manual?
a catalog of the equipment used in the transfer of solid cargo and bulk fluids and a description of the methods used in UNREP
who has the responsibility for selecting a suitable course and speed when underway replenishment operations are to be conducted?
the Officer in Tactical Command (OTC)
what are the positions taken by the ships when making UNREP?
generally, the delivering ship takes station, and the receiving ship maneuvers to come alongside and maintain position during the operation
why do aircraft carriers fire the shot lines to the delivering ships?
because of the danger of hitting an aircraft on deck
which ship is required to furnish all the equipment for UNREP?
the delivering ship, except for the gear actually rigged on the receiving ship, and the distance line and Burton ships
what is provided by the bridge-to-bridge (B/B) phone/distance line?
both a sound-powered (S/P) phone circuit and a distance-between-ships visual indicating system
what are the daytime distance markers on the B/B phone/distance line?
colored cloth, nylon-coated fabric, or painted-canvas markers, each 8 inches by 10 inches spaced at 20-foot intervals from 0 to 300 ft
what are the night time distance markers on the B/B phone/distance line?
you will rig chemical lights by using 2 blue chemical lights, one on each side of the 60-, 100-, 140, and 180-foot markers. Lash one red chemical light on the approach-ship side of the other markers
where is the "zero" end of the distance line secured?
at or near the outermost rail of the delivering ship, and the other end is hand tended on the receiving ship
what is embedded in the polypropylene distance lines?
the conductors for the S/P telephone line, which provides the communication link between the bridges of the 2 ships
how are necessary commands transmitted during UNREP?
by S/P telephone, and a Signalman also gives them by the hand or by light signals
when replenishing at sea, what is indicated when the prep pennant is at the dip on the receiving ship?
expect to disengage in 15 minutes
what is indicated by markers attached to the phone/distance line?
the distance between ships, enabling coning officers to know immediately when the ship is opening or closing distance
what color is the 100-foot marker on the B/B phone/distance line?
what color is the 160-foot marker on the B/B phone/distance line?
during night replenishment, who must keep the conning officer informed on the distance between ships?
the line tender
what is used for communication during the approach until telephones are connected?
what flaghoist signal should the receiving ship hoist to indicate it is disengaging at final station?
PREP closed up
during nighttime replenishment, what color lights are used by the Signalman to pass orders between ships?
Red, Green, and Amber
what is used to pass shot line between ships?
line-throwing guns or bolos
what is the preferred method for passing the shot line in daylight?
the bolo, which consists of about 10 ounces of lead with rounded corners. it is well padded and encased in rubber or leather
how are line-throwing gunners and bolo heavers outfitted?
in red helmets and red jerseys or red vests
what action is taken before firing or heaving the lines?
the word is passed on both ships over the IMC and/or by electric megaphone (bull horn)
what is the word passed by the firing ship?
"ON THE (name of receiving ship), STAND BY FOR SHOT LINES. ALL HANDS TOPSIDE TAKE COVER"
what must be done by each station on the delivering ship, before firing the shot?
sound one blast on a whistle
what must be done by each station on the receiving ship, when ready to receive the shot line?
reply with 2 blasts on a whistle
what transpires if the delivering ship has difficulty getting its shot lines across?
the receiving ship uses its own line-throwing guns when requested to do so by the delivering ship
what is the main line used in hauling a rig between ships?
what should each transfer station maintain, as part of station equipment?
a listing of all items (tools, spares, and so forth) that may be required to repair the station, together with the stowage location of such items
what is the preferred location for handling the messenger and other lines?
forward of the rig
lines, such as the station-to-station phone line and the lead line messenger for the B/B phone/distance line, are attached to beckets on the basic messenger at what minimum distance?
200 ft from the smaller soft eye or clip end
the span wire or highline is stopped off to beckets on the messenger at what minimum distance?
350 ft from the large soft eye end
what is the length and composition of the STAR messenger?
800 ft (243.8 m) of graduated plaited polyester or three-strand nylon with tapered splices
what specification lays down the requirements for most of the wire rope used in the NAVY?
Federal Specification RR-W-410
specifically, what type must the wire rope be that is used by the Navy?
type 1, class 3, and construction 6. in plain language, this is a general-purpose, preformed, right regular lay. 6x37 rope with an independent wire rope core
where can a list of all replenishment tools needed at each station be located?
NWP 4-01.4 Replenishment-At-Sea Manual
what tools are required at each station during UNREP?
emergency breakaway tools
when should safety precautions be reviewed by all personnel assigned to transfer stations?
immediately before each replenishment operation
if temporary lifelines must be rigged, what size line is used?
no smaller than 2 1/4 inches in circumference, three-strand, nylon line
how must all line handlers be instructed to work the lines?
to work the lines from inboard side and keep at least 6 feet from blocks through which the lines pass
why should span wires, whips, and wire highlines be secured to winch drums by one wire clip or specially designed clamps?
this minimizes the possibility of damage in an emergency breakaway
what must deck space in the vicinity of the transfer station be covered with?
what must a life-buoy watch on both delivering and receiving ships be equipped with?
S/P phone communications with the bridge and have 2 smoke floats and a 24 inch ring buoy fitted with a float light
what must all personnel involved in VERTREP wear?
protective gear and safety devices as indicated in NWP 42
what must all personnel who are rigging aloft or who must work outboard of bulwarks use?
safety harness with DYNA-BRAKE assemblies and safety and working lines
during fueling operations, what items must be checked prior to each replenishment?
1) check use of a single wire clip to secure the span wire and saddle whips to the winch drums
2) check the span wire weak link, end fitting
3) check that UNREP working and repair tools are on station
what must personnel in the immediate area of the transfer station wear?
construction-type safety helmets, equipped with quick-acting breakaway devices. chin straps must be fastened and worn under the chin
how can safety helmets be identified?
they are color-coded
what personnel wear white safety helmets?
Officers and CPOs
what personnel wear yellow safety helmets?
the Rig Captain
what personnel wear blue safety helmets?
line handlers/deck riggers
what personnel wear green safety helmets?
what must personnel at transfer stations wear during night replenishment?
a one-cell flashing (or green chemical light) and a whistle on the outside of their life jacket
what action is necessary prior to the transfer of dangerous material such as acids, compressed gases, or hypochlorite?
the delivering ship will identify the load to the receiving ship; and the safety officer on the receiving stations must verbally acknowledge that they are prepared to receive the material
how are potentially dangerous materials such as acids, compressed gases, flammable material, or material which will support combustion, and hypochlorite transferred?
they are kept segregated from each other in the loading and receiving areas
why are calcium hypochlorite base materials and liquid hydrocarbon base materials kept segregated?
because the inadvertent mixture of the two will produce an explosive fire within seconds
how are most containers of inflammable solids and oxidizing materials identified?
by a 4-inch yellow diamond label and other special hazardous warnings conspicuously displayed on the containers
what is the minimum number of bolos required at each RAS station?
how is fueling at sea normally conducted?
by using a span wire to support the fuel hose rig between the two ships
what method of fueling at sea is used when fueling ships smaller than DDs and when operating with NATO ships?
the astern rig
what are the features common to 2 or more fueling rigs?
hoses, hose saddles, terminal fittings, and riding lines
what type of hose is used by the US Navy in refueling?
a collapsible, lightweight hose that comes in 35-foot sections or 4, 6, or 7-inch diameters
why are hose saddles used?
to support bights of hose from the various rigs
what type hose-end couplings are used on the hose of fueling rigs?
a split-clamp type that permits joining sections together and joining sections to flow-through riding lines, to terminal fittings, and to flow-through hose saddles
what are the 2 types of hose saddles?
1-type A (19 inches long) is found in single-hose rigs and in the lower hose in double-hose rigs
2-type B (32 inches long) is found in the upper hose in double-hose rigs
what 3 types of terminal fittings designed for quick release are used by the Navy?
1-breakable-spool quick release coupling (NATO)
2-combined quick release (ROBB) coupling and valve
3-the fueling probe
what quick release terminal fitting is used in fueling operations with NATO and MSC ships?
the breakable-spool quick release coupling
what constitutes the breakable-spool quick release coupling?
an A end and a B end. the A end is rigged on the receiving ship and is a cast-iron spool with a standard hose flange on one end and a slotted flange on the other
why is the spool of the breakable-spool quick release coupling weakened by a groove machined around it?
the groove is easily broken in an emergency by a blow from a sledge hammer
what is the B end of the breakable-spool quick release coupling equipped with?
a spool with a standard hose flange on one end and a special floating-ring flange with drop bolts on the other
why is a blank flange attached to the B end on the breakable-spool quick release coupling?
to prevent oil from spilling and water from entering the hose when the hose is being passed
what constitutes the combined quick-release (ROBB) coupling and valve?
a female end and a male end. the male end, rigged on the receiving ship, is a slightly tapered tube with a flange at one end and is machine grooved near the other end
to provide for emergency breakaway, what is inserted between the receiving ship's manifold and the male end of the ROBB coupling?
a breakable spool
what inspired the probe fueling method?
by the method used to refuel aircraft in flight. the probe itself was modeled after that used by the aircraft
how is the probe supported during refueling operations?
by a tensioned span wire by means of a hinged trolley block assembly that can be attached to the span wire without disassembling the trolley
what is mounted on either side of the receiver of the probe to show when the probe is seated?
in the probe fueling method, how do the visual indicators show that the probe is engaged properly?
the indicators rise to the vertical, then drop back to a position approximately 30 degrees above the horizontal
in the probe fueling method, what is the usual way to disengage the probe?
pull on a manual release lever mounted on the receiver; however a pull of about 2500 pounds on the inhaul all will disengage it
what is the purpose of the re-mating line, in the probe fueling method, that is furnished by the receiving ship?
it is dropped over the hook on the trolley block and provides means for manually engaging the probe, or re-engaging it should it be disengaged for any reason
what is the purpose of the riding lines that secure the end of the hose on the receiving ship?
to take the strain off the hose from terminal couplings
in the span-wire method of fueling at sea, what is the un-tensioned span wire referred to as?
the conventional span-wire rig
what constitutes a riding line?
a two-fold tackle, 2 7-inch blocks reeved with 2 1/2 inch manila line, and a 4-inch manila riding line 25 to 45 feet long
what is the tensioned span-wire method of fueling at sea referred to as?
what is the purpose of the saddle whips that are used on STREAM rigs?
they position the hose while fueling and serve to retrieve the hose after the fueling operation is completed
what is the distance the span-wire rig permits ships to open out?
from 140-180 feet
what may be substituted for one or more of the whips, in the span-wire method, when the necessary drums are not available and winches with gypsy heads are available?
3 1/2 inch nylon line
what is the main line used to assist in hauling the span wire and fuel rig across between the ships?
the hose line messenger
what is used when passing a single or double-hose rig to double-probe receivers?
the star messenger without the 60-foot releasing line section an attach it to the special inhaul clamp using a 5/8-inch screw pin anchor shackle or the pip-pin (if provided) on the trolley carriage
in the span-wire method, how many feet from the shackle end of the hose line messenger is the span wire secured?
what is the size of a span-wire weak-link end fitting used on a single-hose rig?
when refueling has commenced, who decides what method is used to return the messenger to the oiler?
the delivering ship, by labeling the return line identification tag with the additional words small end or large end
what is the largest size of the line that can be used for an easing out line for the span wire?
12 to 21-thread manila and of an appropriate length to ease the wire clear of the ship's side
what is the major advantage the tensioned span wire has over the untensioned?
it is designed to automatically compensate the slackening and tensioning of the span wire or highline, due to roll, and to accommodate heavier, palletized loads and missiles
what is the primary means of tensioning employed by the Navy?
the hydraulic ram tensioner
what constitutes the hydraulic ram tensioner?
a ram cylinder, accumulator cylinder, air flasks, and an indicator assembly
on the hydraulic ram tensioner, how many pounds of line pull on the span wire do you get from 1 pound of air pressure on the accumulator?
what is the tension maintained on the span-wire, if there is 900 psi in the air flask on a span-wire rig?
what is the rating for all fueling-at-sea attachment points for span wire (tensioned or untensioned)?
what comprises the system of probe fueling?
a male probe attached to the end of the oiler's 7-inch hose and a receiver supported by a swivel arm mounted on the receiving ship
what integral part of the swivel fitting of the probe is used for securing the span wire?
a pelican hook
approximately how many pounds of force is required to seat the probe in the receiver?
why was the double-hose method of fueling developed by the Naval Sea Systems Command?
they were looking for a way to increase the transfer rate of JP-5 without increasing the number of hose rigs
what is an advantage of the double-hose rig?
it can transfer 2 different types of fuel from the same station or to transfer twice as much of the same type of fuel by using both hoses
currently, what ships can be refueled by using the double probe method?
only carriers, but it can be used by 2 oilers to consolidate their loads
what constitutes the double probe?
2 single probes suspended from a trolley block assembly
in the double probe method, how is the messenger shackled to an eye located between the hoses in the trolley block assembly?
with a pip-pin
what is required to mate the 2 probes in the double-probe method of fueling?
power, therefore, the messenger is fair-lead to a winch with a gypsy head, and after mating, the messenger is removed and the re-mating line is secured to the pip-pin
why are stress wires added to the rig in the double probe method?
to prevent hoses from taking any strain in case the oiler has to disengage the probe by heaving around on the inhaul
when is the close-in method of fueling at sea used?
when the delivering ship is not equipped with the span-wire rig or the receiving ship does not have a padeye strong enough to hold a span-wire
how is the hose in the close-in rig supported?
by whips leading from the hose saddles to booms, king posts, or other high projections on the delivering ship
what device is added to a normal span-wire rig on a receiving ship to rig a close-in rig?
an additional 12- or 14-inch snatch block must be shackled to a high, convenient, and adequately tested point above the point where the hose will come aboard
when the close-in rig is used to fuel ships larger than destroyers, how is the outboard bight of the hose supported?
by an outer bight line leading from the outboard saddle to a high point on the receiving ship
what equipment on the delivering ship travels vertically on a king post and lifts the load clear of observations before transfer?
the sliding block
what is the function of the sliding pad eye that travels vertically on a king post or bulkhead on the receiving ship?
to pick up and lower loads to the deck of the receiving ship
how is a saddle whip secured to the winch?
with only a single clamp, and in an emergency, the whip should be allowed to pay out and pull loose from the clamp
what happens if a saddle parts?
the rig may become uncontrollable
what should be the first action by the delivering ship if the inboard saddle whip parts?
lead the wire pendant to a winch and hoist the inboard saddle from the water
what is the first step to be taken if there should be a span-wire casualty?
take a strain on both saddle whips and the retrieving line
what is an emergency breakaway?
an accelerated standard breakaway, using an orderly and prearranged procedure, that is brought on by certain conditions
what are some conditions for an emergency breakaway?
engineering casualty, enemy contact reported, emergency launch or recovery of aircraft, and when a person is lost overboard and a lifeguard ship or helicopter is not on station
upon recognizing a condition warranting emergency breakaway, who must the officer in charge, senior petty officer, or rig captain at a replenishment station notify of the situation?
Command control, the bridge, and fuel (cargo) control
who can order an emergency breakaway?
the Commanding Officer on either ship
how is the signal for emergency breakaway passed between ships?
by telephone and hand signals to keep unnecessary noise to a minimum. however if necessary, bull horns and voice radio circuits should be used to ensure rapid ship-to-ship communications
how many short blasts are sounded on the ship's whistle in an emergency breakaway?
once emergency breakaway is initiated, which ship will assume control and initiate proper hand signals with appropriate parallel information on the sound-powered phones?
the delivery ship
what type of hose terminal fitting is used with astern refueling?
NATO breakable spool coupling
what size hose must be used when a merchant tanker is refueling an escort ship?
a single 6-inch hose rig through a stern roller assembly
where does the astern fueling rig's characteristics dictate fueling?
at a forward receiving station, and you should make no attempt to receive the rig at an after station
what is the minimum size for station flags or bunting used in astern fuel lines?
the flags will consist of 3-foot squares of bunting of the designated color
when astern fueling, who will determine the fueling course and speed?
the officer-in-tactical command (OTC)
at what speed can astern fueling be carried out?
between 8 and 15 knots (best is at 12)
during the fuel transfer phase of astern fueling, how many feet behind the tanker's port side is the position buoy towed?
about 600 feet astern
in astern fueling, what is the ideal position of the receiving ship in relation to the tanker?
a horizontal position about 40 feet outboard of a line extended aft from the tanker's starboard beam
what part of the breakable-spool coupling should be rigged when rigging the receiving ship's fuel riser?
install an adapter ell on the fuel riser with the A-end only
what is the size of the inhaul/retaining line used when fueling astern?
a 4-inch manila 50 foot line
in astern fueling, what size safety hook is spliced into the end of the inhaul/retaining line?
standard No. 27
what is used as the easing-out line in astern fueling?
use a regular safety anchor shackle and shackle a 3-inch manila line to the probe receiver's swivel joint
in astern fueling, when the messenger buoy is alongside, when is the grapnel line heaved across the messenger?
before the float enters the bow wash
when the receiving ship has the messenger and float assembly firmly in hand, how many turns should be taken on the messenger to increase enough speed to bring the ship on station?
disconnect the messenger from the float and connect it to the reeving line with 3 turns of 21 thread
on an astern fueling rig, what is the inhaul line securely engaged to?
the most outboard hose bridle link that can be safely reached
what size socket is used to open the air valve in the conical cap to bleed off the air from the hose?
a 1 1/2-inch socket
when astern fueling, what color flag is used to signal the delivery ship to commence pumping?
Green flag during daylight, green wand at night
when you are within how many gallons of fuel required should you signal the delivery ship to cease pumping?
when the delivery ship has signaled that blowdown has stopped, what action should you take?
close the fuel riser valve ans disconnect the A-end and the B-end of the breakable-spool coupling
what system is used to clean out the astern fueling hose?
what constitutes the pigging system?
a polyethylene pig, launching and receiving stations, associated hardware, and air supplied from the delivery ship's service air system
what is the overall objective in fleet-issued loading of replenishment ships?
ensuring efficiency in unloading
why are fleet-issued-loaded ships NOT loaded to capacity?
because they are loaded for mobility, and much cargo space has to be sacrificed to provide passageways throughout the stacks of cargo because each item must be constantly accessible
how is the method for a particular replenishment operation selected?
1-by type and quantity of cargo to be transferred
2-capacity of the rig and associated fitting
3-weight and size of the heaviest or largest load
4-type and location of the receiving station
what is the maximum safe load for transfer by synthetic highline?
what type of line is used for transfer of personnel by highline?
only double-braided, polyester line (MIL-R-24536), 4 inches in circumference and at least 350 feet long
what line is used for the inhaul for the synthetic highline?
a 3-inch plaited, polyester line (MIL-R-24537), at least 350 feet long, with a 7/8-inch or 3/4-inch safety anchor shackle is dipped through the eye splice on the end for connecting to the trolley block
when transferring personnel by highline what is used to secure the highline to the receiving ship's attachment point?
a synthetic (newco type) thimble of appropriate size is spliced in the delivery end of the highline with a 1-inch, grade-A safety anchor shackle
what piece of equipment is used for transferring personnel?
a transfer chair
what is used for safety when preparing the transfer at sea chair?
a 1/2-inch wire preventer, 2 feet in length. connect one end of the preventer to the inhaul shackle and the other end to the trasfer chair or litter protective frame
when preparing for transfer, which ship is responsible for the condition of the equipment and fittings?
the ship that provides the highline [same kind of equipment, using different in a hazardous risk]
what is the minimum number of personnel required to tension the highline and tend the inhaul for the delivery ship?
25 personnel to the highline and a minimum of 10 personnel to the inhaul
how many personnel must the receiving ship assign to the outhaul?
a minimum of 10 personnel
when the highline comes aboard, what action does the crew of the receiving station take?
shackles the 1-inch safety anchor shackle on the end of the highline to the attachment point, removes the stops, reeves the outhaul through the fairlead block, and tends the outhaul
what is the primary consideration during personnel transfer?
the safety of personnel
what should anyone who is being transferred be wearing and have in their possession?
an orange-colored, inherently buoyant, life jacket; and wear a safety helmet with a chin strap; and have in possession a one-cell, white, watertight flashlight, or a chemical light; and a whistle
when are immersion suits required?
when the temperature of the water is 45 degree F (7 degrees C) or below
when making personnel transfers, what is done if there is no lifeguard ship or helicopter available?
each ship must have a lifeboat and crew ready in all respects for rescue operations
what is an ideal means for underway transfer of light fleet freight, non-registered mail, and movies?
what is the static test load for a synthetic highline padeye?
what should be attached to mail bags during night transfer?
a cluster of at least 3 chemical lights or a cluster of at least 3 one-cell white, watertight flashlights
where should you obtain a weighted bag for transfer of classified material, drugs, registered US Mail, or narcotics?
from the CMS custodian
how are regular US mail and movies transferred?
in a flotation bag to prevent them from sinking
what is the weight capacity of a single burton rig?
up to 6,000 pounds
what are the essential elements for the Burton ring?
2 winches and 2 whips, one each in each ship
how is the load transferred when using the Burton rig?
the outer ends of the whips are shackled to a triple-swivel cargo hook, and the load is transferred by one ship by paying out on its whip while the other ship heaves in on its whip
what is used in the construction of the Burton whips?
6x37, high-grade plow-steel wire rope, 3/4-inch in diameter and 800 feet long
how do Housefall methods of transferring differ from Burton methods?
all sources of power are located on the delivering ship
what rig should be used when it is necessary to keep the loads higher above the water than is possible with the ordinary housefall rig?
the modified housefall method
what are the 3 primary STREAM rigs in order of preference?
1-STREAM with all-tensioned lines
2-STREAM with burton-whip outhaul
3-STREAM with hand-tended outhaul
what major components comprise the STREAM transfer station?
3-STREAM transfer head
what component of the STREAM transfer station is driven up and down on the track inside the king post and carries the transfer head?
the sliding block
what does the STREAM system require at each station?
3 winches of the 2 different types
each STREAM station is equipped with how many hauling winches?
2 electrohydraulic winches (the inhaul and the outhaul winch)
the electrohydraulic hauling winches may be operated in what 2 control modes?
speed control and tension control
when is the speed control on the hauling winches used?
during the rigging of STREAM rigs or during rigging and operation of untensioned rigs
what happens when the winch is in speed control mode?
the winch holds, pays out, or hauls in, in direct response to the position of the winch control handle
what happens when the winch is switched to the tension control mode?
it activates a tension-sensing mechanism in the winch, which cause the winch to heave in until the proper tension is reached on the whip, about 1,000 pounds
what are the 4 basic receiving stations that receiving ships are equipped with?
1-sliding pad eye
2-fixed pad eye
4-STREAM support leg (CV only)
how is the sliding-padeye receiving station powered?
to move up an down in a guide track, which is mounted on the king post or a bulkhead
what does STREAM rigs require when using the fixed-padeye arrangement?
one padeye with a long link for connecting the 1 3/8-inch pelican hook on the highline
what is the preferred method for lowering loads at a pendant receiving station when using STREAM rigs?
using a cargo drop reel
what piece of equipment is used on a carrier only to rig a receiving station for a STREAM rig?
a STREAM support leg
what is a cargo drop reel?
a device that lowers the load from the tensioned highline, allowing the STREAM rigs to be used by ships having only fixed-padeyes, a pendant station, or support legs
where can information be found on the use and limitations of ammunition and missile transfer equipment?
NAVORD OP 2173, Approved Handling Equipment for Weapons and Explosives
how are conventional ammunition and missile components normally transferred?
On pallets (Palletized munitions require special slings)
what manual provides configuration data regarding palletized ordnance units authorized for transfer at sea?
NAVORD OD 44617, Underway Replenishment Ordnance Handling Equipment and Transfer Units
what equipment should be used, due to their heavy weight, when transferring ammunition and missiles?
1-positive lock, used in conjunction with the CDR, to prevent accidental lowering of the load
2-load stabilizer, used in conjunction with the CDR, to prevent a long load from rotating on a hook, but still allows the load to be lowered to the receiving ship's deck safely
3-STREAM strongback, is used when missiles and components are delivered to a sliding-padeye
what do all STREAM rigs use to support the trolley and load?
a tensioned highline
what is done when delivering a STREAM rig to a sliding-padeye or to another STREAM delivery station?
attach a cargo hook to the trolley
what is done when rigging a STREAM rig to a fixed-padeye or pendant?
attach a CDR to the trolley to lower the load to the receiving ship's deck
what is required of the receiving ship if the STREAM with a Burton whip outhaul is used?
to have a Burton whip available on station to receive the rig
how is the highline tensioned when using the STREAM with messenger-rigged STAR?
by hauling in slack wire and compressing the ram tensioner
how is the STAR latching assembly released?
a strain is taken on the messenger releasing line until the latches tilt open, indicating they are unlatched
what is the indication that the STAR rig is latched onto the probe?
when the STAR latching assembly comes in contact with the probe head, the latches momentarily tilt open and then snap closed after they have passed the head of the probe
what position does the delivering ship raise the STREAM transfer head to during transfer to reduce the force needed to haul the load?
to the full-up position on the king post
when is the Burton whip outhaul used?
when the delivering ship cannot provide an all-tensioned rig, because of equipment failure, and the receiving ship has a Burton winch
what attachment point can the STREAM with Burton whip outhaul be attached?
a fixed-padeye, a pendant receiving station, or another STREAM delivery station
where should the outhaul fairlead be located in relation to the higline attachment point in the STREAM wit Burton whip outhaul?
below the highline attachment padeye
why does the use of STREAM with Burton whip outhaul instead of the Burton rig, reduce the workload on Burton winches?
the highline supports the load, and the Burton winch is only required to move the load
what is the preferred rig for transferring personnel while ships are alongside?
what is used for transfers to a STREAM delivery station or a sliding-padeye receiving station when transferring personnel?
a one-person or two-person transfer chair or a stokes litter and cargo hook or gull wing strongback at the delivery station
what is used for delivery to a fixed-padeye receiving station when delivering personnel?
a one-person transfer chair or a stokes litter and a CDR with a safety cable extender
what does VERTREP employ to transport cargo from the deck of an UNREP ship to the deck of the receiving ship?
under what conditions can VERTREP operations take place?
alongside during connected replenishment; over the horizon in an ASW screen, firing gunfire support, or at anchor anywhere within range
what does VERTREP range depend upon?
the helicopter, flying conditions, and the load
what is the preferred method of transporting cargo by helicopter?
to sling it externally since this method is faster and provides more flexibility
what is internal cargo carried by helicopter restricted to?
to that which can be handled by a winch inside the helicopter with a capacity of 600 pounds
how much weight can be carried by a helicopter externally during a VERTREP?
up to 6,000 pounds, depending on the helicopter and flying conditions
who must inspect all ships with VERTREP capabilities?
a group of specialists who are knowledgeable in the requirements of both the ship's safety and the helicopter's safety of flight
what is determined by the specialists who inspect ships with VERTREP capabilities?
the ship's deck strength, obstruction free landing hover area, fire-fighting capability, ability to communicate with the helicopters, accuracy of deck markings, aircraft fuel, and other items related to support and safety
what is the primary different between night and day VERTREP?
a reduction in speed of operations, due to decreased visibility
what must a lifebuoy watch be equipped with during UNREP?
S/P phone communications with the bridge, and have 2 smoke floats and a 24-inch ring buoy fitted with a float light
what are cargotainers?
steel pallets with wire mesh sides that fold down for compact storage
what is a cargo wraparound?
a laminated, vinyl-nylon cloth load retainer used to strap loads on the nestable, tubular-steel pallet
when using a cargo wraparound, what is the preferred height cargo can be stacked?
the cargo is stacked as tightly as possible to a height of 50 inches
what is an adjustable pallet sling?
also known as the Peck and Hale sling, is a 2-loop, wire rope sling used for transferring pallets
what is the color of the MK 100 adjustable sling used for VERTREP?
what is the color of the adjustable sling that is used for load 13-31 inches high?
what adjustable sling used for VERTREP is used for loads 36-50 inches high?
Green (MK 87)
what is the MK 105 hoisting sling?
sometimes called the multileg pole pendant, it is approved for all types of VERTREP loads up to 6,000 pounds, and consists of 2 part; the pendant and the legs
what is the size of the MK 105 hoisting sling pendant?
1 1/8-inch diameter double-braided nylon rope, and is approximately 12 ft long, with a silicone impregnated eye at one end
what is the purpose of a 6-foot plastic reach tube that encases the upper-portion of the pendant of the MK 105 hoisting sling used in VERTREP?
it provides the rigidity needed to place the upper eye over the helicopter cargo hook
what is the size of the nylon rope used for the legs on the MK 105 hoisting sling used in VERTREP?
they are made of 15/16-inch double-braided nylon, and are 6 and 10 ft long, with an open eye splice at one end and a positive-closing, self-locking cargo hook at the other
what determines the number of legs used on the MK 105 hoisting sling?
the number of attachment points on the load. 4 legs are furnished with each pendant at the time of issued (the SWL for a single leg is 3,000 pounds)
what is the benefit of using double-braided nylon rope on the MK 105 hoisting sling?
being conductive, it prevents the discharge of static electricity from the helicopter to the ship, through the hookup person; and it has the ability to act as a shock absorber between the helicopter and the load
why is cargo staged near the VERTREP area, by destination and type within the specific area?
so as to be accessible to the hovering helicopter
what type of cargo is normally broken out last and transferred first?
chilled and frozen cargo
how is the bulk of VERTREP cargo transported?
in nylon cargo nets by placing a loaded pallet on the center of the net and drawing the net up around the pallet
what is the size of the nets used by VERTREP?
they are made of 1 1/2-inch nylon webbing with an overall size of 12x12 or 14x14 ft
why should complete loads never be made up of items such as light bulbs?
because the wind or rotor wash may blow lit loads against the fuselage of the helicopter, damaging either the load or the aircraft, or both
how should cargo be staged for each ship?
in a manner that will permit an orderly delivery sequence of like commodities
what is the primary consideration in staging cargo?
leave room for the hookup person to move about and have an escape route
what is the most efficient load for helicopters engaged in VERTREP?
around 3,000 pounds
why should paired loads be approximately the same size and shape?
to reduce the possibility of their tipping when being picked up or set down
who must be notified if registered mail or classified material is included in a VERTREP load?
the helicopter pilot
where does the hookup person take position when the helicopter approaches the delivering ship?
alongside the load and holds up the pole pendant to show the location of the load to the pilot
why must all loose gear be cleared of the VERTREP area on a receiving ship?
because the powerful rotor wash of the helicopter can pick up a loose object and hurl it with sufficient force to injure an individual or aircraft
when no pallet trucks are furnished or they cannot be used, what is done by the last crew member as soon as the helicopter departs during VERTREP?
removes the pendant, empty pallet, and loose debris from the drop zone and places them in a staging area
what is the signal given to the helicopter pilot for HOVER?