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-wing of ilium is originally vertical in orientation=> changes to horizontal orientation
-to support increasing visceral weight as more normal forage begins to be consumed
-wide pelvis helps form a broad sling to support the visceral weight
-hind limb muscles have a greater muscle mass due to propulsive, rather than supportive function
-extrinsic mm. not as important in hind limb during force transfer b/c the sacroiliac joint facilitates much of force transfer from limbs to axial skel.
-Muscle coat concentrated in a number of bands, which form sacculations when the muscles contract
-horse, pig, and human
-rectococcygeus (from longitudinal coat of rectum to ventral part of caudal vertebrae; horizontally directed)
-retractor penis/clitoris (vertically directed and deep to levator ani m.)
-Composed of the coccygeus and levator ani mm. that arise from the inside or edge of pelvis and attach on terminal parts of digestive UG tracts and tail
-Main value here is to provide main visceral pressure of abd. press (the "grunt")
-Dog: perineal hernias
-Mare: perineal lacerations during parturition
Compare the sacrosciatic ligament of ungulates with the sacrotuberous ligament of the dog.
Sacrosciatic is broad, flat and covers a huge area; the caudal edge corresponds to the sacrotuberous
Sacrotuberous is cord-like
-Greater: sciatic n. and cranial gluteal a
-Lesser: internal obturator tendon in the HORSE; caudal gluteal a. in the OX
-pelvic floor is flat in horse and concave in cow
-in the horse, they are covered by the vertebral origin of the semimembranosus m.
-Inlet (bony): sacrum, iliac shafts and pubis,
-Outlet(bone and ligament): sacrum, sacrotuberous ligament and ischial arch
-problems more likely to occur at inlet
-inlet is much larger, but problems occur there more often (because the outlet is quite elastic in response to hormones)
-Hormones (relaxin) relax pelvic outlet and sacroiliac joint
-widest at greater trochanters in fetus
-this can casue hip lock at the pelvic inlet during calving
-colli:refers to collar/neck; coli: refers to intestines or colon
-longus: long: longissimus: longest
-peroneal: pertains to outer side of leg;perineal: pertains to perineum/pelvis
-ilium: bone of pelvis;ileum: most distal part of sm. intestine
-sciatic and ischiatic: both pertain to ischium
-estrus: noun; estrous: adjective form
-prepuce: noun; preputial: adjective form
-crus: singular noun;crura: plural noun; crural: adjective form
-Hook bones: tuber coxae; Pin bones: tuber ischii
-Wider tuber ischii facilitate greater ease during parturition
-Pelvic diaphragm: composed of two muscles; accomadates visceral pressure for abdominal press; attaches on terminal parts of digestive and UG tract: more dorsal
-Cow: U-shaped; blends w/ caudal ventral part of levator ani m. near ext. anal phincter; just caudal to major vestibular gland
-covers retractor clitoris m; contraction narrows genital passage/raises a ridge in its floor-makes vulvar opening gape
-smooth: retractor penis; rectococcygeus
-striated: levator ani, constrictor vestibulae; coccygeus
-smooth: internal anal sphincter
-striated: external anal sphincter
-carnivore ovarian position is more cranial due to suspensory ligament
-ungulate ovarian position is more caudal, there is no suspensory ligament
-these differences are due to the presece or absence of suspensory ligament
-tight fusion of the mesosalpinx and mesovarium in the carnivore result in a more closed ovarian bursa that encloses the ovary
-mesosalpinx forms the bursa along w/ the mesovarium
-the peritoneal opening in the carnivore is small and fat-filled
-in the ungulate it is wide open and transparent
In what ways is the ovary of the mare different from that of other ungulates?
-mare has large ovulation fossa on the free border, smooth surface
-the sow has many prominent follicles like a clump of grapes
-the cow has a a flat ovary, copora lutea are prominent on the surface projections
How does fusion of the uterine horns and other derivatives of the paramesonephric ducts vary among the domestic mammals?
-dog has two aas: uterine branch of ovarian a and uterine branch of the vaginal a, the main supply of the uterus
Mention two things that could make the passage of a pipette difficult in a cow.
-winks it at the stallions to alert them to the mare being in or close to estrus
-urethral sinus: horse, male, penis
-urethral diverticulum: horse, female, near ischiatic arch
-suburethral diverticulum: male ruminants/sows
-preputial divert: pig, boar, preputial opening
What is the clinical significance of the above strucutres?
-urethral sinus: location of bean, painful
-urethral diverticulum: causes catheterization problems
-suburethral diverticulum: could make passage of pipette diffic
-preputial diverticulum: stink sac, masturb. prob, if the boar ejaculates into div.
-sow: 7 pair
-bitch: 5 pair
-cow: 2 pair
-queen: 4 pair
-mare and ewe: 1 pair
-doe: 1 pair
Compare and contrast the udders 1st and 2nd vascular supply in regard to edema and amputations.
-amputation: tying off the ext. pudendal a. (main supply of blood to mammary) resulting in the gland atrophies and sloughs off
-edema: udder edema is caused by poor development of the secondary venous supply( subcutaneous abdominal vein)
Compare and contrast the two types of erectile tissue of penis. Whic muscle squeezes each?
-corpus cavernosum: paired crura that unites to form the body of the penis, ischiocavernosus compresses the corpus cavernosum
-corpus spongiosum: sits in a ventral groove of the corpus cavernosum, bulbospongiosus, compresses the corpus songiosum
-dog: musculocavernosus; retractor penis not essential for normal penile function
-horse: musculocavernosus; retractor penis not essential; urethral sinus
-bull: fibrous (rigid rather than elastic); sigmoid flexure; retractor penis essential
-boar and llama resemble corkscrews
-cat penis points to the rear
-cat penis has spines at apex which serve to help fixate it w/in female
-smegma: waxy fetid secretion associated w/ male external genitalia
-bean: is a hard concretion formed in the horse urethral sinus
-if damamged during slaughter, can contaminate whole carcass
-shortening of the gubernaculums
-failure of descent is known as cryptorchidism
-in the horse, the retractor penis m. is not essential for erection, as it is for the bull, which
and retract the penis
-secretes a watery substance that probably cleanses the urethra before the sperm passes
Which muscle is most reponsible for erection?
Compare the pressures inside the erectile tissue of stallion and bull during erection, why is one much higher?
What is belling?
-testis: singular testicle
-testicles: testis and epididymis
-vas deferens: clinical term
-ductus deferens: anatomical term
What is the cod and pizzle?
-cod: fat-filled scrotal sac
-pizzle: lay term for penis
(early investigatorsfound spermatozoa there when the fluid within was examined under a microscope)
-this site is deep within the pelvis, where the internal temp would not be optimal for survival
What is the urethral process and in which domestic animal is it elongated?
-Structure/deep acet.; accessory ligt./weak, missing intra-articular ligament
-Function/exten. and flexion in saggital plane only/exten. and flexion primarily, but also rotation
-Luxation susceptibility/rare/more common
-lesser trochanter: 1/3 of way down femur on medial side
-third trochanter: 1/3 of way down femur on lateral side
-extensor fossa: distal to lateral condyle
-trochlea lip: the craniometrical side of the distal femur
-lesser trochanter attaches to the iliopsoas
-third trochanter attaches to the superficial gluteal muscle
-The patellar tendon/ligament is both a tendon and a ligament
-Phys/neurologists say it is a tendon and that patella is a sesamoid bone in qudriceps tendon, which inserts on the tibial
-Anat/surgeons say is a ligament b/c quad. tendon inserts on patella and patellar ligament connects the patells & tibia
-the loop is formed by the medial and middle patellar ligaments vertically and the patellar fibrocartilage dorsally
-the hook is the medial lip of the femoral trochlea
-desmotomy means to cut a ligament
-this would be done to the patellar ligament if the "loop" was getting stuck on the "hook" and keeping the horse from flexing the stifle. This would prevent the horse from locking the stifle joint
-Three indiv. joints: femoropatellar, medial femoraltibial, and lateral femoalrtibia
-the femoropatellar always communicates w/ the femorotibial and comm. with the lateral femorotibial in 25% of horses
-in ruminants, the femoropatellar and medial femorotibial cavities always communicate, but lateral femor. never comm. w/ other two
- sig. b/c if injection into one of joints, it is imp. to know which other joint capsule it will migrate to (antib.)
-most of the time, if there is an infection in one joint, it probably is in the others as well
-femorotibial joints have menisci
What are the components of the reciprocal apparatus?
*note: hock movement reciprocates w/ stifle movement
1. superficial digital flexor (extends)
2. peroneus tertius (flexes) -the peroneus tertius will rupture if the stifle flexes and the leg is caught so the hock is not allowed to flex (diagnose by flexing the stifle while keeping hock extended)
-Horses: have semicircular oblique trochlea of talus that articulates w/ tibia. Most movement of hock is w/ tibio/tala joint which has a wide range of mvmts. and slackened joint capsule
-Ruminants: have prox. and dist. trochlea of talus
-ruminants spend a lot of time in sternal recumbancy w/ hocks flexed (it is thought that two joints allows the hock to be flexed for an ext. period of time)
-the talus has a trochlea that acts like a pulley whereas the calcaneus is lever arm that is respons. for movement, but is not weight bearing
-the sustentaculum tali is so named b/c in plantagrade walkers, weight of talus is "sustained" by sus. tali
-talus: semicircular trochlea (pulley), which rotates the tibia, virtually all hock movements occurs in tibio/talal joint, and is weight bearing
-calcaneous: is a lever arm which is not weight bearing
-formed by a groove on the medial side of the calcaneus and the flexor retinaculum
-contains: the lateral tendon of the deep digital flexor m. and plantar nerves
-a swelling of the sheath of the lateral tendon (like carpel tunnel syndrome) of the deep digital flexor m.
-the name comes from shuttle pin since fluid in the swelling can shuttle from proximal lateral to distal medial as the swelling is palpated
-plantar ligament tearing causes a round swelling
-occurs as a result of great force applied to the calcaneus by tendons of the calcanean group
-bog spavin: is a swelling to the dorsal side medial to the peroneus tertius/cranial tibial tendons and medial collateral ligament
-bone spavin: is an arthritis in the region of tc/t3 and t3/mt3 in the horse
-cuneal tendon: medial tendon of the cranial tibial m.
-significance: it is often cut to release pressure it applies which exacerbates the pain caused by bone spavin
-they support the body weight and are usually extensors and stronger than their non-weight-bearing antagonists
-though flexors, the digital flexor muscles are also antigravity muscles
-Extrinsic muscles attach the limb to the body: serratus ventralis, deep pectoral, latissimus dorsi, brachiocephalicus
-Intrinsic muscles make attachments only w/in the limb; brachialis, biceps brachii, shoulder muscles, extensor carpi radialis
-Sweeny: damage to suprascapular n.; assoc. w/ a horse collar; supplies infraspinatous and supraspinatus mm.
-Radial n. paralysis: supplies all intrinsic extensors; distal part vulnerable to damage where wraps around humerus caud. to brachialis m.
-long tendon of biceps; connects central tendon of biceps to extensor carpi radialis
-continuous tendon extending from metacarpus to scapula; fixes the shoulder and carpal joints w/ little or no effect on elbow joint
-basis of forelimb stay appart
-Hind: stifle/patella lock mechanism, SDF and suspensory apparatus; locks one leg at a time
-Fore: biceps tendon, lacertus fibrosus, extensor carpi radialis, and suspensory apparatus; both legs are fixed at same time so support tripod establ.
Compare radius and ulna fusion in various domestic species.
-Pig: fibrous fusion of radius and ulna
-Cow: bony fusion of radius and ulna
-Horse: bony fusion; distal part of ulna is absorbed w/in radius
-Primates: radius rotates around ulna
-Carnivores: limited rotation
-Allows the shoulder to not be fixed, allowing for a much more mobile scapula to increase stride length (and therefore speed)
-Advancement: caused by brachiocephalicus
-Retraction: caused by deep pectoral m. (ascending) and latissimus mm.
-Inputs: numbered nerves- C5,6,7,8; T1,2
-Outputs: named nerves-suprascapular, thoracodorsal, subscapular, axillary, median, ulnar, radial, musculocutaneous
Differentiate between the flexor and extensor epicondyles of the humerus
-Flexor: medial epicondyle; origin of antebrachial flexor mm.
-Extensor: lateral epicondyle; origin of antebrachial extensor mm.
-Located higher in the forelimb (above carpus, on medial side of antebrachium about middle of its length) than the hind limb (below the hock, on medial side of distal tarsus)
-Likely a remnant of carpal/tarsal pad
-check ligaments provide passive support w/out expenditure of muscular effort
-checking=preventing dropping of fetlock
-Proximal:radial head of SDF m.; attaches to middle phalanx and prevents buckling forward of the digit by pulling back on the middle phalanx
-Distal.: extension of palmar carpal ligament: inserts on distal phalanx and counteracts its extension
-Long head of triceps m= vastus medialis of quadriceps femoris
-Brachiocephalicus m. = middle gluteal m.
-Cephalic v. = medial saphenous v.
-Carpal: canal formed via access. carpal bone laterally, other carpal bones dorsally and flex. retinac. on palmar side;
-tendons and synovial sheaths of S/DDF
-ulnar and median nerve
-arteries and veins
-Tarsal: canal formed by tarsal bones and flex. retinaculum
-tendon and sheath of LDF
-plantar branch of saphenous artery and vein
-medial and lateral plantar nerves
-SDF arises from medial epicon. of humerus, inserts on prox. end of middle phalanx and dist end of prox. phalanx
-extends carpus and digits
-Prox. check is the radial head of SDF, attaches to mid. phalnx to prev. buckling forward of digit
-attaches to femur deep to gastoroc, attaches superfic. to calcanean tuberosity, extends to plantar aspect of limb to middle phalange
-responsible for flexing the stifle and digits & extending tarsus
-no check ligs. are assoc. w/ SDF
-inteross. ligament is between the olecranon and radius
-inteross. tendon is homologous to inteross. m. in dogs except it is mostly tenindous and plays a role in stay apparatus and locomotion
-in the forelimb, the lateral digital extensor m. extends to proximal or middle phalanges
-the LDET in the hindlimb completely joins the long digital extensor m. tendon
Compare and contrast the main digital extensor tendons of fore and hind limbs.
-in forelimb, the common digital extensor tendon extends to distal phalanges
-in hind limb, it is the long digital extensor that fulfills this role
What is the name and location of the major artery of the fore and hind cannon regions?
-Medial Palmar A. in forelimb
-Dorsal Pedal A. in hind limb
What is the lever type bone that projects out behind the carpus? What is it iin the tarsus?
-accessory carpal bone in the carpus
-tuber calcis bone in the tarsus
-Cannon bone and lateral sides of proximal sesamoid bones
-the extensor branch of the suspensory ligament is palpable
1. Radiocarpal-considerable movement, more movement than intercarpal
2. Intercarpal-considerable movement
3. Carpometacarpal-virtually no movement
-Suspensory apparatus: suspensory ligament plus distal sesamoidean ligaments, the three tendons form a passive support system for the fetlock
-Suspensory ligament: just one ligament
= Distal cannon bone physis
-if the physis is broken at the slaughter house the animal is considered to be a lamb
Nasopharynx: rostrally by soft palate and hard palate, dorsally by nasal septum, caudally by roof of nasopharynx, ventrally by palatopharyngeal arch
1. Ventral meatus: largest, ventral to ventral cocha (stomach tube passed)
2. Middle meatus: between dorsal and ventral conchae
3. Dorsal meatus: dorsal to dorsal concha
4. Common nasal meatus: lateral to nasal septum (unites the other meati)
-Tonsils are Lymphoepithelial structures made of aggregations of unencapsulated lymph nodules w/in various mucosa
-L nodes made of lymphoid tissue as well; consist of outer cortical and inner medullary part; main source of lymphocytes for the blood
-like a leaf w/ "leaf" veins opening into oropharynx
-buried deep and only an orifice is visible from oropharynx
A pair of "gutters" that run beside the rostral projection of the larynx, below the epiglottis, and into the pharynx
-lateral to the larynx and forms ventral part of laryngeal pharynx
-equine=the guttaral pouches
-divided into right and left guttaral pouches by a septum
-each side then divided into medial and lateral compartments by stylohyoid bone (comes up from ventrally and reaches approx. half way up guttaral pouch)
-medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes bulge into guttaral pouch ventrally to pouch and medially to stylohyoid
-rectus capitis ventralis bulges into pouch dorsally along midline
-many vulnerable structures lateral to the pouches
-internal carotic a. (caudal and dorsal surface) can hemorrhage into pouch if eaten away by aspergillus, the ext. carotid a. (lat. surface), retropharyngeal lymph nodes (lat. surf.), Cranial nn (IX, X, XI, and XII)
-stylohyoid bones is largest
-basihyoid bone (the lingual process is where the base of the tongue attaches)
It acts as a valve to close off the respiratory pathway to:
1. Prevent entry of debris into trachea
2. Create a negative pressure in thorax by inspiration against a closed glottis. Allows aspir. of ingesta into the thorac. esoph for regurg
3. Trap air in chest during abdominal press in defecation and parturition. The air trapped in the lungs serves to stablilize the diaphragm for abd. press
Differentiate between the glottic cleft and the glottis
-glottic cleft= the narrow passageway through the glottis
-glottis=vocal folds+arytenoid cartilages and covering mucosa
-position=entry to larynx
-shape=U shaped and large
-position=surrounds larynx, wide dorsally to furnish attachment for cricoarytenoideus dorsalis m.
-shape=small and triangular
-position=vent angle is vocal process- vocal ligament and vocalis m. attaches, lateral angle is muscular process - cricoarytenoideus dorsalis m. attaches, articulates w/ cricoid cart.
1. Prominent thyroid notch of the ventral aspect of the thyroid cartilage. Divides thyroid cart. in to left and right parts which are joined cranially by a narrow connection portion, which is ossif. to strengthen their conn.
2. An ossified portion?
-true vocal foldsand largy. vent.: human, dog, horse, pig
-Ruminants and cats have vocal ridge=> softer vocalization than animals w/ true vocal folds
MUSCLES/ FUNCTION/NERVE SUPPLY(DERIVED FROM VAGUS N.)
1. cricoarytenoideus dorsalis m.//dilate glottis;pulls vocal folds lateral//recurrent laryngeal n.
2. cricoarytenoideus lateralis m.//constrict glottis;pulls vocal folds medial//rec. laryn. n.
MUSCLES/FUNCTION/NERVE SUPPLY (DERIVED FROM VAGUS N.)
3. vocal (vocalis) m.//relaxes vocal fold;pulls arytenoid cartilage downward//recurrent laryngeal n.
4. cricothyroid m.////cranial laryngeal n.
-it affects the larynx (laryngeal) and mainly the left side (hemiplegia)
-it is mostly on the left b/c the intrathoracic course of the recurrent n. differs from left to right=>the left side is more susceptible
-proximal ph=long pastern bone=P1
-middle ph=short pastern bone=P2
-distal ph=coffin bone=P3
-distal sesamoid bone=navicular bone
-middle distal sesamoidean ligament=oblique sesamoidean ligament
-palmar or plantar=volar
-interosseus tendon=suspensory ligament
-superficial distal sesamoidean ligament=straight sesamoidean ligament
-due to stress placed on ligamentous sys. when body weight places downward force on fetlock joint in rapid motion
-sesamoids caught between suspensory ligament and distal sesamoidean ligaments
-plantigrade=all of the foot (entire sole) is on ground; humans, bears
-digitigrade=stands on digital pads-camelids and carnivores
-unguligrade=stands on hoof; horses, cow, most ungulates
-toe, quarters, and heel
-the bar is where wall reflected invward and back towards toe (at heel)
-frog=wedge-shaped, horny prominence in the sole of horses' hooves (the space between the bar)
-heel=caudal part of hoof
-bulbs=caudal aspect of heel
-coronet=junction between skin and hoof
-long conical papillae in coronary band produce tubular horn which forms buk of hoof wall
-toe grows out slowly b/c it's long part of wall and therefore is oldest part of hoof wall
-as hoof wall ages it becomes less moist and therefore less flexible
-dorsal suface in contact with palmar surface of coffin joint
-palmar surface in contact with navicular bursa
What is the structure and significance of the digital cushion?
-similar to dig. pad in dog; made of collagen, adipose tissue, and hyaline cart.
-becomes squashed when weight is put on foot and compresses vein between hoof wall and cartilages and squeezes blood out of venous spaces that lie between skin/cart
cows are diff. form horses b/c:
-bear weight on heel and wall; bov. heel separate from wall (part of wall in equ.-volar third); bov. heel homologous to bulbs of eq. heel
-bov. feet have wall and sole (no homol. of frog or collateral cartilages)
cows are diff. from horses b/c/:
-laminae lack secondary (microscopic) laminae (prob. relates to fact that in horse wall bears all wgt. but in cattle >half of weight is borne by wall-thus laminitis in cattle not as painful)
-Antlers: deer, moose, and elk-only males have antlers
-Horns: occur in both sexes except for in Dorset sheep
-Teeth: horse canines in mares are often small and may not erupt
2 (I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4/, M 3/3) = 44 (full adult)
2 (Di 3/3, Dc 1/1, Dp, 3/3) =28 (full deciduous mouth)
-pig is only animal with full set
-llama and rum. both have dental pads; llamas have upper canines and I3 in addition to dental pad
-llamas lower canines are differentiated from incisors; rumin. the canine is I4
-Fighting teeth are llamas upper canines and I3 (often cut off)
-Ivory=upper canine tooth
-Tusks of swine are the canines
-Tusks of elephants are upper I2s
-Similar to rodent incisors in that have continuous growth and eruption and also have wide open root which facilitates growth (increase in length) throughout life
-cup is the depression in infundibulum and is often filled with black decaying material
-enamel spot is the bottom of the cup and the dental star is a darker, secondary dentin filling the pulp cavity that is rostral to enamel spot
-Incisor teeth (in horse)
-Complex larger infundibula in upper cheek teeth of ruminants and horse
-all upper cheek teeth have two infun. in horsesbut ruminants have one in premolars and two in molars
-formation of infun. occurs as a mechanism to combat the wear and tear of grinding
-enamel is harder than dentine and becomes sharper as it wears down aiding the cutting and macerating of plants
-Are differentiated by premolars having deciduous precursors (except for PM1)
-exception is horses where molars and premolars are indistinguishable except for eruption patterns
-Caps-a deciduos tooth remaining attached to its perm. replacement: affected teeth are Dp2, Dp3, Dp4
-Alveolus-bony socket of incisive, mandible, and maxillary bones in which teeth roots embedded
-Deciduous teeth="baby teeth," smaller/fewer in no.
What are the two major factors used in dental aging?
1. eruption dates (most reliable)
2. wear- are first "in wear," when entire occlusal surface is worn down then the tooth is level
Why are hypsodont teeth protected from abscess? What occurs instead?
-hyp. teeth protected b/c enamel protects unerupted portion of tooth from bacterial penetration
-alveolar periostitis (inflmamation of alveolar periostium) occurs instead
-erupt throughout animals life as ages and wears
don't shed//shed annually (rapid growth)
**Note: above shows taxonomic limits; also antlers and horns are unique to ruminants
-passageways between the nasal cavity and nasal pharynx
-clin. sig.: choanal atresia
-the nasal diverticulum, a cutaneous pouch lateral to the nasal cavity
-allows extreme dilation of nostril (flaring)
-form via invasion of nasal epithelium between the external and internal plates of skull
-function may be to give a large head w/ light weight, protection, or to create resonance for vocalization
-only in ruminants
-communicates with maxillary sinus
-the infraorbital canal separates these two cavities
-found in ruminants at caudal end of maxillary sinus
-paper thin sheet that acts as a barrier at end of max. sinus
-horse: unique-max. sinus divided into caudal and rostral compartments. Pigs and rums. only have one max. sinus
-caudal compt. communicates w/ frontal sinus via frontal-maxillary opening (unique to horse)
-rost compt. sep. from caudal compt. by perpendic plate (bony septum). Opens into the nasal cavity via a nasomaxillary opening.
-Horse: slit-like nasomaxillary opening in between two max. sinuses (sep by a perp. plate/slit-like nasomax. opening)
Why is the tibial n. larger than the peroneal n?
-rectus femoris-femoral n.
-internal obturator-sciatic n.
-external obturator-obturator n.
-vastus lateralis-femoral n.
-cranial tibial-common peroneal n.
-LDE, Per. Ter- ??
-cup gone (6-8 years)
-infundibulum gone (13-17 years)
-I1, I2, I3 decid. erupt at 6 days, 6 weeks, 6 months
-I1, I2, I3 perm. erupt at 2.5 yr, 3.5 yr, 4.5 yr
*use upper incisors to age
At what age will a horse obtain a full deciduous mouth? Full permanent mouth?
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