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Illinois State University
Illinois State University
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Era in which the grand thought put forth was that the world could be understood in terms of natural phenomena
This man proposed that water was the "basic stuff" of the world.
This man proposed that the "basic stuff" of the world could not be defined and called it "Boundless."
This man ventured that air was the "basic stuff" and that all manifest manner was a result of the process of "rarefaction" and condensation.
A series of paradoxes designed to probe the concept of infinity; the most simply version denies the possibility of motion from one point to another.
The father of atomism
Democritus - "nothing exists but atoms and the void; all else is opinion."
idea that there is an ultimate, un-cuttable constituent of all matter
Founder of formal logic, his natural philosophy found the idea of void as rationally repulsive and held that matter was continuous and that there were five basic elements.
What were Aristotle's proposed five basic elements?
Earth, air, water, fire, aether.
Knowledge provided by the senses.
Knowledge resulting form rational thought process
Greek and/or Egyptian mathematician whose Almagest was the defining work on motion of the planets for 1400 years
Describe Ptolemy's model for planetary motion.
He believed that the universe revolved around us, our moon, and our sun.
Describe the Copernican (or Heliocentric) model for planetary motion.
Moon revolves around the Earth, Earth and other planets revolve around the sun.
What is a scientific model?
an explanation designed to rationalize the behavior of nature
communicating accumulated sensory experience or observations
Occam's Razor/ Law of Parsimony
principle by which an explanation with the fewest assumptions is deemed best
Steps of the scientific method
1. state a hypothesis
2. design an experiment
3. gather data, make observations
4. either change hypothesis to fit data or design another experiment for further testing of original hypothesis
Valid arguments are arrived at using what kind of reasoning?
deductive reasoning; drawing a specific conclusion based upon a general principle
Invalid arguments are arrived at using what kind of reasoning?
inductive reasoning; inferring a general principle based upon a specific observation
Can you prove a scientific theory or hypothesis?
NO... an experiment can only be consistent with or disprove a hypothesis. The more experiments performed, however, the more likely a hypothesis is true.
What is chemistry?
natural science that attempts to understand the ability of matter to change its identity
What is science?
rational attempt to communicate sensory perceptions from one generation to the next by the simplest possible predictive mechanism/model
Statement summarizing many facts
process of formulating a hypothesis and using it to suggest testing experiments
What did Toricelli's experiment rationalize about the "void"?
"void" is actually an absence of matter created from equal but opposite forces; weight of water vs. weight of atmostphere
force over a given area (ex. lbs/inch)
cubic linear measurement; length x width x height
How is mass defined?
density of water; (1g/ml)
How is temperature calculated (C)
total temperature change between ice and boiling water divided by 100; melting point of water is 0 degrees celsius
What is the original metric unit for energy?
the amount of energy (expressed in calories) required to raise 1.0 gram of water by 1 degree celsius
any characteristic that involves chemical change
any characteristic that does not involve chemical change
physical combination of two or more substances that may be present in variable amounts
one that cannot be separated into two or more substances by physical means
pure substance that cannot be broken down by chemical change into simpler substances
pure substance made up of two or more elements, chemically combined, in a fixed or constant composition
any change in matter that involves a change in identity (combined physical and chemical properties) of the matter
any change in matter that does not involve a change in identity
What did the Phlogiston theory say about chemical change?
theory held that all combustable materials contained the principle of fire, which was released during the combustion.
quantitative physical property
one which can be measured from one or more measurements
qualitative physical property
one that can be described
an identifying characteristic of matter; mass/volume
In order to account for the retrograde motion in the planets, Ptolemy invoked what theory?
movements of the planets in smaller circles as the planets moved in a large circle around the earth
The shaving away of unnecessary entities in the rational explanation of phenomena was the reason behind what concept of William Ockham?
In early 19th century France, at what stage of the wine making process was the spoiling taking place?
What's the best estimate of the volume of a basketball in liters? 25 L, 5.0 L, or .5 L
What is the distance covered by a runner in a 10,000 m event?
Charcoal is best classified as what type of matter?
Diamond is best classified as which type of matter?
Ethanol is best classified as what type of matter?
Orange juice is best classified as which type of matter?
Sulfure is best classified as which type of matter?
The conversion of water to hydrogen and oxygen can best be described how?
How may the dissolution of salt into water best be described?
Which best describes catsup? Compound, homogenous mixture, heterogenous mixture, or pure substance?
That the phlogiston theory grew out of Aristotlean natural philosophy is most evident in what greek element?
phlogiston theory described combustion as a process involving..?
a decomposition reaction as a result of the release of the essence of fire
a strange aspect of phlogiston theory that contributed to its eventual demise was...?
the phlogiston appeared to have a negative mass
Lavoisier concluded what after careful measurements of masses of reactants and products undergoing chemical change?
combustion (as described in the phlogiston theory) is actually a process of synthesis
What laboratory tool accounted for most advancement in chemistry at the dawn of the 19th century?
the revival of the atomic concept was necessitated by what experimental observation?
constant composition in compounds
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