a system of rule in which the govt. recognizes no formal limit but may nevertheless be restrained by the power of other social institutions
Citizenship (pg. 9):
informed and active membership in a political community
Constitutional government (pg. 10):
a system of rule in which formal and effective limits are placed on the powers of the govt.
Democracy (pg. 10):
a system of rule that permits citizens to play a significant part in the governmental process, usually through the election of key public officials.
Direct Democracy (pg. 13):
a system of rule that permits citizens to vote directly on laws and policies
Government (pg. 4):
institutions and procedures through which a territory and its people are ruled
Laissez-Faire Capitalism (pg. 19):
an economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately owned and operated for profit with minimal or no government interference
Liberty (pg. 18):
freedom from government control
Limited Government (pg. 18):
a principle of constitutional government; a government whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution
Majority Rule/ Minority Rights (pg. 20):
the democratic principle that a government follows the preferences of the majority of voters but protects the interests of the minority.
Political Equality (pg. 20):
the right to participate in politics equally, based on the principle of “one person, one vote”
Politics (pg. 13):
conflict over the leadership, structure, and policies of governments
Popular Sovereignty (pg. 20):
a principle of democracy in which political authority rest ultimately in the hands of the people
Power (pg. 13):
influence over a government’s leadership, organization, or policies
Representative Democracy/Republic (pg. 13):
a system of government in which the populace selects representatives, who play a significant role in governmental decision making
Totalitarian Government (pg. 10):
a system of rule in which the govt. recognizes no formal limits on its power and seeks to absurd or eliminate other social institutions that might challenge it.
Amendment (p. 52):
a change added to a bill, law or constitution
Antifederalists (p. 48):
those who favored strong state govt. and a weak national govt. and were opponents of the constitution proposed at the American Constitutional Convention of 1787
Articles of Confederation (p. 33):
America’s first written constitution; served as the basis for America’s national govt. until 1789
Bicameral (p. 40):
having a legislative assembly composed of two chambers or houses; distinguished from unicameral
Bill of Rights (p. 40):
the first 10 amendments to the Constitution, ratified in 1791; they ensure certain rights and liberties to the people
Checks and Balances (p. 40):
mechanisms through which each branch of govt. is able to participate in and influence the activities of the other branches.
a system of govt. in which states retain sovereign authority except for the powers expressly delegated to the national govt
Elastic Clause (p. 43):
Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution (also known as the necessary and proper clause), which enumerates the powers of Congress and provides Congress with the authority to make all laws “necessary and proper” to carry them out.
Electoral College (p. 40):
the presidential electors from each state who meet after the popular election to cast ballots for president and vice president
Expressed Powers (p. 43):
specific powers granted by the Constitution to Congress (Article 1, Section 8) and to the president (Article II)
Federalism (p. 41):
a system of govt. in which power is divided, by a constitution, between the central (national) govt. and regional (state) govts.
Federalists Papers (p. 48):
a series of essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay supporting the ratification of the Constitution.
Great Compromise (p. 38):
the agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that gave each state an equal number of senators regardless of its populate, but linked representation in the House of Representatives to population.
Judicial Review (p. 44):
the power of the courts to review and if necessary declare actions of the legislative and executive branches invalid or unconstitutional. The Supreme Court asserted this power in Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Limited govt. (p.51):
a principle of constitutional govt; a govt. whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution
New Jersey Plan (p. 37):
a framework for the Constitution, introduced by William Peterson, that called for equal state representation in the national legislature regardless of population
Separation of Powers (p. 41):
the division of governmental power amoung several institutions that must cooperate in decision making
Supremacy Clause (p. 44):
Article VI of the Constitution which states that laws passed by the national govt. and all treaties “shall be the supreme law of the land” and superior to all laws adopted by any state or any subdivision
Three-Fifths Compromise (p. 39):
the agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that stipulated that for purposes of the apportionment of congressional seats, five slaves would count as three-fifths a person.
Tyranny (p. 49)
oppresive and unjust govt. that employs cruel and unjust use of power and authority.
Virginia Plan (p. 37):
a framework for the Constitution, introduced by Edmund Randolph, that provided for a system of representation in the national legislature based upon the population of each state.
Block Grants (p. 79):
federal grants-in-aid that allow states considerable discretion in how the funds are spent
Categorical Grants (p. 74):
congressional grants given to states and localities on the condition that expenditures be limited to a problem or group specified by law
Commerce Law (p. 70):
Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution which delegates to Congress the power “to regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States and with the Indian Tribes”; the Supreme Court interpreted this clause in favor of national power over the economy.
Concurrent Powers (p. 64):
authority possessed by both state and national govts. such as the power to levy taxes.
Cooperative Federalism (p. 76):
a type of federalism existing since the New Deal era in which grants-in-aid have been used strategically to encourage states and localities (without commanding them) to pursue nationally defined goals. Also known as “intergovernmental cooperation”
Devolution (p. 75):
a policy to remove a program from one level of govt. by delegating it or passing it down to a lower level of govt. such as from the nation govt. to the state and local govts.
Dual Federalism (p. 68):
the system of govt. that prevailed in the United States from 1789 to 1937 in which most fundamental govt. powers were shared between the federal and state govt.
Expressed Powers (p. 63):
specific powers granted by the Constitution to Congress (Article 1, Section 8) and to the president (Article II)
Federalism (p. 63):
a system of govt. in which power is divided by a constitution between the central govt. and regional govt.
Federal System (p. 63):
a system of govt. in which the national govt. shares power with lower levels of govt. such as states.
Full Faith and Credit Clause (p. 65):
provision from Article IV, Section 1, of the Constitution requiring that the states normally honor the public acts and judicial decisions that take place in another state.
General Revenue Sharing (p. 80):
the process by which one unit of govt. yields a portion of its tax income to another unit of govt. according to an est. formula. Revenue sharing typically involves the national govt. providing money to state govts.
Grants-In-Aid (p. 73):
programs through which Congress provides money to state and local govts. on the condition that the funds be employed for purposes defined by the federal govt.
Home Rule (p. 66):
power delegated by the state to a local unit of govt. to allow that govt. to manage its own affairs.
Implied Powers (p. 63):
powers derived from the necessary and proper clause of Article I, Section 8, such powers are not specifically expressed, but are implied through the expansive interpretation of delegated powers.
Necessary and Proper Clause (p.63):
provision form Article I, Section 8, providing Congress with the authority to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out its expressed powers.
New Federalism (p. 80):
policy of Presidents Nixon and Reagan to return power to the states through block grants
Police Power (p. 64):
power reserved to the govt. to regulate the health, safety, and morals of it citizens
Preemption (p. 77):
the principle that allows the national govt. to override state or local actions in certain policy areas; in foreign policy, the willingness to strike first in order to prevent an enemy attack
Privileges and Immunities Clause (p. 66):
provision, from Article IV, Section 2, that a state cannot discriminate against someone from another state or give its own residents special treatment
Reserved Powers (p. 64):
powers, derived from the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution, that are not specifically delegated to the national govt. or denied to the states.
State’s Rights (p. 72):
the principle that the states should oppose the increasing authority of the national govt; this principle was most popular in the period before the Civil War
Unfunded Mandates (p. 78):
regulations or conditions for receiving grants that impose costs on state and local govt. for which they are not reimbursed by the federal govt.
Unitary System (p. 63):
a centralized govt. system in which lower levels of govt. have little power independent of the national govt.
How do American's view the government and it's politicians?
Americans have been reluctant to grant government too much power, and they have often been suspicious of politicians. But Americans have also turned to government for assistance in times of need, and they have strongly supported the government in periods of war.
Why should Americans pay attention to their government during good times?
to make sure that the government does not make decisions that might result in unjustified wars, riots, or an economic downturn.
The key to understandingAmerican govt. is to what?
understanding the relationship between the citizen and the government. Politics takes on a different character according to the extent to which people are informed and involved.
What is citizenship?
Citizenship is defined as informed and active membership in a political community.
In order to influence our govt., we must ______.
have knowledge about our govt.
What are other ways American's can participate in their govt. ?
Serving on a jury, lobbying, writing a letter to the editor, or engaging in a public rally or protest.
What is the term that describes the formal institutions and procedures through which a territory and its people are ruled. Governments vary in their structure, in their size, and in the way they operate.
Describe the political system, democracy.
Where popular wishes and preferences regularly and systematically shape who controls the government and what the government does. Under such a system, the norm is constitutional government, in which governmental power is described and limited by a governing constitution.
What are two important changes that took place in the governance of some Western nations in the 17th century?
governments began to acknowledge formal limits on their power, and governments began to give citizens a formal voice in politics through the vote.
Describe politics and it's goals.
Refers to conflicts over the leadership, structure, and policies of governments. The goal of politics is to have a share or a say in the composition of the government’s leadership, how the government is organized, or what its policies are going to be.
influence over a government’s leadership, organization, or policies
Describe a RepresentativeDemocracy or Republic.
A system of government that gives citizens a regular opportunity to elect government officials.
Describe Direct Democracy.
A system that permits citizens to vote directly on laws and policies
Describe the early years of population in America. Who were the majority of settlers? Who was NOT originally counted on the census.
In the early years of the Republic, the majority of Americans were European settlers, mainly from northern Europe. One in five Americans was of African origin, the vast majority of whom had been brought to the United States against their will to work as slaves. There were also an unknown number of Native Americans, the original inhabitants of the land, who were not initially counted by the census.
What was the foreign born population in 1910? Which countries made up most of that population?
a large wave of immigrants from Germany, Ireland, and later from southern and eastern Europe changed the demographic profile of the United States. The percent of foreign-born residents reached 14.7 percent in 1910,
What was the movement tat was established after WWI to limit immigration?
National Origins Quota System was designed to limit the number of immigrants from eastern and southern Europe.
What was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882?
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 outlawed the entry of Chinese laborers to the United States, a restriction that was not reversed until 1943.
What did the American govt. use to draw boundaries around it's population?
From the start, the American government used racial and ethnic criteria to draw boundaries around the American population. Until 1870, nonwhites could not become naturalized citizens.
What year did Congress open doors to immigrants?
In 2006, which race counted for 2/3rds the population?
European Americans accounted for only two-thirds of the population in 2006.
In 2006, which population stood at 13%?
The African American population
At what percent in 2006, was the Hispanic population?
Asian American population was at what percentage in 2006?
with Asian Americans at 4 percent
In 2005, what percent of the population was foreign born?
12 percent of the population was foreign-born.
What are Three important political values in American Politics?
liberty, equality, and democracy.
What does liberty mean to Americans?
For Americans, liberty means freedom from government control and also economic freedom. Both are closely linked to the idea of limited government, meaning that powers are defined and limited by a constitution.
What is Political equality?
the right to participate in politics equally, based on the principle of “one person, one vote.”
Define Popular Sovereignty.
The principle of democracy in which political authority rests ultimately in the hands of the people.
At times in American history there have been large gaps between what?
the ideals embodied in Americans’ core values and the practice of American government.
Over time what is stronger, democracy or liberty?
Over time, democracy promotes stronger, more active government, which may threaten liberty.
Many of the important dilemmas of American politics revolve around conflicts over fundamental political values. Name one example of a conflict?
One such conflict involves the ideals of liberty and democracy.
Who influenced the Founder's beliefs about limited government and other issues?
The writings of philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Montesquieu
Five sectors of society had interests that were important in colonial politics, and that were in conflict over issues of taxation, trade and commerce, were:
(1) the New England merchants, (2) the southern planters, (3) the “royalists,” (4) shopkeepers, artisans, and laborers, and (5) small farmers.
For the most part, in the mid-eighteenth century governments relied on what?
tariffs, duties, and other taxes on commerce.
In an effort to alleviate financial problems, including considerable debt, the British government sought to what?
to raise revenue by taxing its North American colonies.
Colonial resistance set into motion a provocation and reaction that resulted in what?
the First Continental Congress and eventually the Declaration of Independence.
What did the Declaration of Independence attempt to do?
identify and articulate a history and set of principles that might help to forge national unity
The Articles of Confederation created what?
a central government based entirely in Congress, yet Congress had little power.
What led to the Annapolis Convention of 1786?
Concern over America’s precarious position in the international community, coupled with domestic concern that “radical forces” had too much influence in Congress and in state governments.
The House of Representatives was designed to
to be directly responsible to the people, to encourage popular consent for the Constitution.
What was the Senate designed for?
to guard against the potential for excessive democracy in the House.
To guard against possible misuse of national government power, the framers incorporated, what?
the principles of the separation of powers and federalism, as well as the addition of a Bill of Rights, in the Constitution.
What is the Bill of Rights?
The First 10 Amendments to the Constitution.
What did the Federalists support? The Antifederalists?
The Federalists supported the Constitution and a stronger national government. The Antifederalists, on the other hand, preferred a more decentralized system of government and fought against ratification.
Is it easy to mend the Constitution?
No, incorporated into Article V, have proven difficult criteria to meet. Relatively few amendments have been made to the Constitution.
What do most of the amendments of the Constitution deal with?
the structure or composition of the government.
Expressed powers are examples of what?
the power to collect taxes, to coin money, to declare war, and to regulate commerce.
Implied powers include what?
The Constitution also gave Congress implied powers in the necessary and proper clause that enables Congress “to make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers.”
The 10th Amendment is also known as what?
The reserved powers amendment (reserves power to the states)
Define Interstate Commerce
limit's the govt.'s control of the economy.
the states did not lose power, the national government paid states through grants-in-aid to administer federal programs.
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