Last Modified: 2014-08-31
- a system of rule in which the govt. recognizes no formal limit but may nevertheless be restrained by the power of other social institutions
- informed and active membership in a political community
- Constitutional government (pg. 10):
- a system of rule that permits citizens to play a significant part in the governmental process, usually through the election of key public officials.
- a system of rule that permits citizens to vote directly on laws and policies
- Government (pg. 4):
- an economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately owned and operated for profit with minimal or no government interference
- freedom from government control
- a principle of constitutional government; a government whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution
- the democratic principle that a government follows the preferences of the majority of voters but protects the interests of the minority.
- the right to participate in politics equally, based on the principle of “one person, one vote”
- Politics (pg. 13):
- a principle of democracy in which political authority rest ultimately in the hands of the people
- influence over a government’s leadership, organization, or policies
- a system of government in which the populace selects representatives, who play a significant role in governmental decision making
- Totalitarian Government (pg. 10):
- a change added to a bill, law or constitution
- those who favored strong state govt. and a weak national govt. and were opponents of the constitution proposed at the American Constitutional Convention of 1787
- America’s first written constitution; served as the basis for America’s national govt. until 1789
- having a legislative assembly composed of two chambers or houses; distinguished from unicameral
- the first 10 amendments to the Constitution, ratified in 1791; they ensure certain rights and liberties to the people
- mechanisms through which each branch of govt. is able to participate in and influence the activities of the other branches.
- a system of govt. in which states retain sovereign authority except for the powers expressly delegated to the national govt
- Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution (also known as the necessary and proper clause), which enumerates the powers of Congress and provides Congress with the authority to make all laws “necessary and proper” to carry them out.
- the presidential electors from each state who meet after the popular election to cast ballots for president and vice president
- specific powers granted by the Constitution to Congress (Article 1, Section 8) and to the president (Article II)
- a system of govt. in which power is divided, by a constitution, between the central (national) govt. and regional (state) govts.
- a series of essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay supporting the ratification of the Constitution.
- the agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that gave each state an equal number of senators regardless of its populate, but linked representation in the House of Representatives to population.
- the power of the courts to review and if necessary declare actions of the legislative and executive branches invalid or unconstitutional. The Supreme Court asserted this power in Marbury v. Madison (1803)
- a principle of constitutional govt; a govt. whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution
- a framework for the Constitution, introduced by William Peterson, that called for equal state representation in the national legislature regardless of population
- the division of governmental power amoung several institutions that must cooperate in decision making
- Article VI of the Constitution which states that laws passed by the national govt. and all treaties “shall be the supreme law of the land” and superior to all laws adopted by any state or any subdivision
- the agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that stipulated that for purposes of the apportionment of congressional seats, five slaves would count as three-fifths a person.
- oppresive and unjust govt. that employs cruel and unjust use of power and authority.
- a framework for the Constitution, introduced by Edmund Randolph, that provided for a system of representation in the national legislature based upon the population of each state.
- federal grants-in-aid that allow states considerable discretion in how the funds are spent
- congressional grants given to states and localities on the condition that expenditures be limited to a problem or group specified by law
- Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution which delegates to Congress the power “to regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States and with the Indian Tribes”; the Supreme Court interpreted this clause in favor of national power over the economy.
- authority possessed by both state and national govts. such as the power to levy taxes.
- a type of federalism existing since the New Deal era in which grants-in-aid have been used strategically to encourage states and localities (without commanding them) to pursue nationally defined goals. Also known as “intergovernmental cooperation”
- a policy to remove a program from one level of govt. by delegating it or passing it down to a lower level of govt. such as from the nation govt. to the state and local govts.
- the system of govt. that prevailed in the United States from 1789 to 1937 in which most fundamental govt. powers were shared between the federal and state govt.
- specific powers granted by the Constitution to Congress (Article 1, Section 8) and to the president (Article II)
- a system of govt. in which power is divided by a constitution between the central govt. and regional govt.
- a system of govt. in which the national govt. shares power with lower levels of govt. such as states.
- provision from Article IV, Section 1, of the Constitution requiring that the states normally honor the public acts and judicial decisions that take place in another state.
- the process by which one unit of govt. yields a portion of its tax income to another unit of govt. according to an est. formula. Revenue sharing typically involves the national govt. providing money to state govts.
- programs through which Congress provides money to state and local govts. on the condition that the funds be employed for purposes defined by the federal govt.
- power delegated by the state to a local unit of govt. to allow that govt. to manage its own affairs.
- powers derived from the necessary and proper clause of Article I, Section 8, such powers are not specifically expressed, but are implied through the expansive interpretation of delegated powers.
- provision form Article I, Section 8, providing Congress with the authority to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out its expressed powers.
- policy of Presidents Nixon and Reagan to return power to the states through block grants
- power reserved to the govt. to regulate the health, safety, and morals of it citizens
- the principle that allows the national govt. to override state or local actions in certain policy areas; in foreign policy, the willingness to strike first in order to prevent an enemy attack
- provision, from Article IV, Section 2, that a state cannot discriminate against someone from another state or give its own residents special treatment
- powers, derived from the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution, that are not specifically delegated to the national govt. or denied to the states.
- the principle that the states should oppose the increasing authority of the national govt; this principle was most popular in the period before the Civil War
- regulations or conditions for receiving grants that impose costs on state and local govt. for which they are not reimbursed by the federal govt.
- a centralized govt. system in which lower levels of govt. have little power independent of the national govt.
- Americans have been reluctant to grant government too much power, and they have often been suspicious of politicians. But Americans have also turned to government for assistance in times of need, and they have strongly supported the government in periods of war.
- to make sure that the government does not make decisions that might result in unjustified wars, riots, or an economic downturn.
- understanding the relationship between the citizen and the government. Politics takes on a different character according to the extent to which people are informed and involved.
- Citizenship is defined as informed and active membership in a political community.
- have knowledge about our govt.
- Serving on a jury, lobbying, writing a letter to the editor, or engaging in a public rally or protest.
- What is the term that describes the formal institutions and procedures through which a territory and its people are ruled. Governments vary in their structure, in their size, and in the way they operate.
- Where popular wishes and preferences regularly and systematically shape who controls the government and what the government does. Under such a system, the norm is constitutional government, in which governmental power is described and limited by a governing constitution.
- governments began to acknowledge formal limits on their power, and governments began to give citizens a formal voice in politics through the vote.
- Refers to conflicts over the leadership, structure, and policies of governments. The goal of politics is to have a share or a say in the composition of the government’s leadership, how the government is organized, or what its policies are going to be.
- A system of government that gives citizens a regular opportunity to elect government officials.
- In the early years of the Republic, the majority of Americans were European settlers, mainly from northern Europe. One in five Americans was of African origin, the vast majority of whom had been brought to the United States against their will to work as slaves. There were also an unknown number of Native Americans, the original inhabitants of the land, who were not initially counted by the census.
- a large wave of immigrants from Germany, Ireland, and later from southern and eastern Europe changed the demographic profile of the United States. The percent of foreign-born residents reached 14.7 percent in 1910,
- The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 outlawed the entry of Chinese laborers to the United States, a restriction that was not reversed until 1943.
- liberty, equality, and democracy.
- For Americans, liberty means freedom from government control and also economic freedom. Both are closely linked to the idea of limited government, meaning that powers are defined and limited by a constitution.
- the right to participate in politics equally, based on the principle of “one person, one vote.”
- The principle of democracy in which political authority rests ultimately in the hands of the people.
- the ideals embodied in Americans’ core values and the practice of American government.
- Over time, democracy promotes stronger, more active government, which may threaten liberty.
- The writings of philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Montesquieu
- (1) the New England merchants, (2) the southern planters, (3) the “royalists,” (4) shopkeepers, artisans, and laborers, and (5) small farmers.
- tariffs, duties, and other taxes on commerce.
- to raise revenue by taxing its North American colonies.
- the First Continental Congress and eventually the Declaration of Independence.
- identify and articulate a history and set of principles that might help to forge national unity
- a central government based entirely in Congress, yet Congress had little power.
- Concern over America’s precarious position in the international community, coupled with domestic concern that “radical forces” had too much influence in Congress and in state governments.
- to be directly responsible to the people, to encourage popular consent for the Constitution.
- the principles of the separation of powers and federalism, as well as the addition of a Bill of Rights, in the Constitution.
- The Federalists supported the Constitution and a stronger national government. The Antifederalists, on the other hand, preferred a more decentralized system of government and fought against ratification.
- the structure or composition of the government.
- the power to collect taxes, to coin money, to declare war, and to regulate commerce.
- The Constitution also gave Congress implied powers in the necessary and proper clause that enables Congress “to make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers.”
- the states did not lose power, the national government paid states through grants-in-aid to administer federal programs.
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