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a term that refers to the practice of growing multiple crops together in one plot or field.
a gently rolling land surface that results from the advanced erosion of mountains; the Piedmont on the eastern side of the Appalachian Mountain system is such a surface.
an archaeological subfield that is focused on investigating the nature and development of industry, especially that of the early part of the Industrial Revolution.
Gulf of Maine Archaic tradition
Glen Meyer phase
Early Horticultural period
Clemson Island culture
Summarize the debate over Iroquoian origins.
Iroquoian speaking tribal groups surrounded by Algonquian speaking groups. Differences go well beyond language. Iroquoian had matrilineal social structures, matrilocal residence patters and lived in multifamily longhouses within compact often fortified settlements. Subsistence was based on maize-bean-squash agriculture. Algonquian groups were patrilineal, patriocal residence, lacked the longhouse and often had more dispersed settlement patterns maintaining mixed economies. Early theory in Mississippian migration but no archeological data. Mid-twentieth century developed in situ theory, developing culturally from the area. Cites ceramic continuitiy between Owasco about 1000BP and Point Peninsula tradition. Separation of Northern Iroquoians from Cherokee around 3500-4000 years ago. Migration during termial archaic. Appearance of the Broadpoint tradition. Gradual transitiion to agriculture and sedentation and matrileality. 1990`s questioned the validity of the hunters home phase, amalgamation of distinct assemblages that spanned a discontinuity between PP and O. ASpect of this is the shift from coiling to molding. PP were seasonal mobile hg suppliment through horticulture not dependednt like I. Not enough liguistic diversity within Nothern I to argue more than a 1000 years of development from prot0language. Proposed the Clemson Island culture was ancestral to the Iroquois.
Describe the transformations in material culture, subsistence, and settlement that occurred during the Late Woodland/Late Prehistoric period. Why is this such an important period?
1. the Late Woodland/Late Prehistoric period. Why is this such an important period?
1300 years ago. Heavier emphasis on maize agriculture, settling into permanent year-round villages and the development of tribal confederacies. Small triangular projectile points become common around 1150 bp. All these are believed to be arrow points as opposed to spear or date points. Only during late this becomes widespread. May be linked to increased warfare or hunting strategies. Characterized by the manufacture of pottery with complex incised designs as well as cord-wrapped stick impressions, punctates and handles. Tempered with shell or limestone. Commonly have collars and castellations. Iroquois are distinct as molded not coiled. Subsistence and settlement changes around 1250 (cept coast). Greater committment to farming and in doing so settle more permanently into hamlets and villages. Concurrent changes in social organization, exchange, and intergroup alliances. Clemson Island site. Practise of secondary burial in ossuaries. Indicate some form of collective identity preseverd in coastal shell middents. bundle burials in circle with while boulder int he middle at Archery range ossuary site.
What evidence for Hopewell and Adena have archaeologists found in North East?
While not common, artifacts linked to the Adena culture have been found in numerous sites and burials throughout the region. In the Middle Woodland period, Hopewell influences appear in the form of pottery, earspools, mica sheets, and argillite artifacts.
Describe the Early and Middle Woodland periods with reference to material culture, subsistence, and technology.
Although some degree of sedentism and horticultural societies with ranking occured some places but did not happen until end of woodland period. Neither Early nor Middle included as much mound building or movement of highstatus items. Between 2700-1300 BP Woodland 1, early horticultural period. 1950 BP boundary between early and middle. As after this Hopewell influence appears. E&MW various stemmed, notched ad even triangular forms have been noted. In northern New England, decrease in the frequency of ground stone tools like gouges, adzes, and celts. Change may be linked with a switch from dugout to birchbark canoe technology. Ceramics often tempered with various types of crushed rock and sometimes shell. Usually cord marked on both exterior and interior reflecting use of a cord-wrapped paddle and anvil to meld and thin the coils. Vinette I and other Early Woodland varieties tend to be thick walled, while by the end of the Middle Woodland, thin walled ceramics were being made, the size of the temper particles was also reduced. Various forms of decoration including net impressions, incising and stamping, dentates and punctuates distinguish different middle types. Synergy between improvements in ceramic technology, the processing of seeds and toher plan foods and population growth. Farming appeared later than it did further west and south, maize, bean and squash agriculture not until quite late. Intensive sue of coastal and riverine resources inhibited development of farming between 3000-1300 ya. Number of resources in close proximity. Increasing sedentism over time without the adoption of agriculture. Some later and more permanent sites but human groups may have remained mobile in some areas.
Despite soem farming, were most likely egalitarian in their social structure. No indication of amrked status differentiaon in burials or in site plants. Not much distinction ebtween males and females.
explain why archaeologists often designate a separate Terminal Archaic or Transitional period within these areas
Because the Susquehanna tradition was originally conceptualized as transitional ebtween the Archaic and Woodland stages, a separate period may be recognized. 3700-2700. This period several development occurred which would impact the Early and Middle Woodland Periods. During this period Moorehead burial complex. Burials containing gouges, adzes, celts, rods, lumets and ground slate points with substantial amounts of red ochre. Assemblages of stealite bowls and first ceramics. Tend to be shallow, thick walled and round to oblong with lug handles. Exchanges among transitional groups. Container revolution with growing emphasis on processing of native seeds, may also have ritual significance. Environmental factors such as the end of the Hypsithermal interval or the stabilization of the coastline could have been and important stimulus for cultural experimentation. Greater use of coastal riverine resources might have allowed some degree of sedentism and the beginnings of social complexity.
Describe the four Middle-Late Archaic periods
· Sites between 5000BP-2700 BP are much more common.
· In Maritime Provinces, Maine and Labrador, the Maritime Archaic focused on the ocean and its resources, Many of the sites are burial sites.
· Late Forest Archaic found throughout the northern parts of the areas and represents an adaptation to the transitional forests of the Eastern Woodlands
· The Narrow Point Mast Forest ARchaic represents an adaptation to the deciduous foests dominated by oak, chestnut, hickory, and beech that characterize the cost.
· Broadpoint tradition, Susquehanna tradition. Because it origianlly was conceptualized as transitional between archaic and woodland it is called either the reansistional or terminal archaic.
Compare the Early and Middle Archaic periods, and discuss why the evidence for these periods is incomplete.
The ephemeral nature of archaeological data from the means that no firm conclusions can be drawn about the actual lifeways of people who lived in this area before 5,000 B.P. Some little difference from Paleo and Early Archaic lifeways, viewing both adaptive strategies as generalized foraging. Arch evidence indicates people used an assortment of nuts, fruits, berries, and other kinds of plants for food, medicine, tools, and containers. In addition, many species of birds, mammals, fish, and turtles were hunted. One of the few artifact types to be preserved in large numbers is the projectile point, including spear points and atlatl points. The chronological sequence of projectile points based on sequences already established for the Southeast and Midwest regions. Projectile point styles changed to include bifurcate and stemmed forms, and the use of ground stone tools continued. The continuation of warming trends that developed during the lengthy Holocene period opened up vast areas of eastern North America, improving access to both plant and animal resources. Whether or not people were cultivating plants at this time is unknown due to the lack of well preserved botanical remains. However, recent discoveries of gourd rind in archaeological sites hint at the use of domesticated plants about 5,000 years ago.
Describe the nature of Paleo-Indian societies in this region, including technology, subsistence, and settlement patterns.
Describe the main environmental features, including climate change, of the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic areas.
The Northeast and Mid-Atlantic area stretches along the Atlantic coast from Newfoundland to North Carolina, and inland to southern Quebec and Ontario. Much of this area is dominated by a series of northeast-trending mountains, plateaus, and coastal plains known as the Appalachian Mountain system. As in the other two Eastern Woodlands culture areas, the dominant plant cover is forest: boreal coniferous forest in the north, temperate deciduous in the south, and a mixed transition zone in between. As the last of the Wisconsin glaciers melted and retreated during the late Pleistocene, sea-level changes, isostatic rebound, meltwater drainage, and plant and animal colonization wrought dramatic environmental changes in this area.
True or false: After the Paleoindian period, the northern parts of the
Northeast proper were not inhabited by foragers until late in the Archaic
Which of the following artifacts would be considered diagnostic of the Late Woodland in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic?
True or false: Both steatite bowls and ceramic wares were made by
people in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic during the Terminal Archaic.
Which of the following is a signiﬁcant trait of the Northern Iroquoian traditions of the interior Northeast?
the construction of large multifamily, bark-covered houses called longhouses
Which of the following four Middle-to-Late Archaic traditions has been proposed to be a foraging adaptation to the deciduous forests of the
True or false: Large numbers of people in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic
may have died from European diseases to which Native Americans had
True or false: Archaeologists agree that the Iroquoian peoples of the
interior Northeast developed their distinctive cultural patterns in situ or
from earlier Woodland populations in the same area.
Which of the following is a true statement about the Early and Middle Woodland in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic?
Mounds are not common, but some Early and Middle Woodland sites
in these areas contain artifacts indicating possible exchange with Adena
and Hopewell people.
a. the participation of American colonials in the global economy of the
b. the development of early American industry such as iron making
c. the history of African Americans, including early slave populations
and free blacks in the North
All of the above are topics that Historic archaeologists can investigate.
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