What is habituation? Give an example. Why is this important?
Habituation is when you stop responding to an event that has become familiar through repeated presentation.
Birds see hawks fly overhead and are scared for a long time, but since they keep flying overhead and don't come down to harm the birds, the birds stop responding to the hawks flying overhead with fear, and start becoming more comfortable.
This is important because you learn what to care about and what not to care about. Which will save you stress in the long run.
What is sensitization? Give an example. Why is this important?
Sensitization is when your response increases to a recurring event.
If your alarm goes off, it's going to get more and more annoying over time.
This is important because it helps us solve important issues. Usually events that involve this are important ones (food, alarm, etc.)
What is cognitive view of classical conditioning?
A relation between an unconditioned stimulus and a conditioned stimulus has to be learned, and the conditioned response can be exhibited in different ways from the unconditioned response.
What are unconditioned stimulus and unconditioned response? Give an example.
An unconditioned response is the natural response to a given natural factor (unconditioned stimulus).
A conditioned stimulus is a learned factor that produces an automatic response (conditioned response).
Hearing a bell when you see food-conditioned stimulus Salivating when you hear the bell- conditioned response
What is stimulus discrimination? Give an example.
Stimulus discrimination is when you respond differently to a new stimulus than you do to a conditioned stimulus.
Baby Albert was conditioned to be upset when he saw a rat. When he was shown animals similar to a rat, like a rabbit, he got upset. The rabbit is the stimulus discrimination.
What is acquisition and what happens to learning in acquisition?
Acquisition is the pairing of conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus.
In this learning, the response increased and then eventually leveled off.
What is extinction and what happens to learning in extinction? Give an example.
In extinction, the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly, but the unconditioned stimulus is never shown.
Learning in extinction results in a loss of responsiveness.
Dogs hear a bell and knowing that means food. If the bell is repeatedly rung and the food doesn't follow, they learn not to salivate when they hear the bell anymore.
What is spontaneous recovery and what happens to learning in spontaneous recovery? Give an example.
Spontaneous recovery is when a response reappears when there is a delay after extinction.
Some of the learning remains in spontaneous recovery.
If the dogs heard the bell the day after the extinction, they might start salivating again.
What is conditioned inhibition? Give examples.
In conditioned inhibition, you learn that a stimulus means the absence of an unconditioned stimulus.
If the dogs know the bell will be followed by food and then a light is turned on when the bell is rung and does not follow food, the dogs will learn that the light on with the bell means no food will follow.
What is the difference between classical and operant conditioning? Give examples.
In classical conditioning, you cannot control the outcome, but in operate you do control the outcome.
Classical- You cannot change that if you see lightning, you will hear thunder. Operant- If you study a lot and you make an A on the quiz, you learn that studying earns you good grades.
What are discriminative stimuli? Give some examples.
Discriminative stimulus is the stimulus situation that sets the occasion for a response to be followed by reinforcement or punishment.
If you raise your hand and ask an intelligent question in psychology and are praised for it, you aren't going to walk down the street raising your hand for praise, but you will keep doing it in a classroom setting.
What do the terms positive and negative refer to with respect to reinforcement?
Reinforcement is doing something to increase a behavior
What are some practical considerations in the use of punishment?
-May hurt the child -Child could feel ignored and lash out to get attention -Teaches that the action is wrong, but it doesn't teach how you should fix it -Can lead to aggression -Can break the quality of a relationship
What is a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement? Give an example.
A fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement is a schedule in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is fixed and does not change.
Assembly lines are an example of this because for every x amount of product they make y dollars.
What is a variable-ratio schedule? Give an example.
A variable-ratio schedule is a schedule in which a certain number of responses are required for reinforcement, but the number of required responses typically changes.
Gambling is a type of variable-ratio schedule because they know a reward will come eventually, but they never know how many times they are going to have to play to get a reward.
What is a fixed-interval schedule? Give an example.
A fixed-interval schedule is a schedule in which the reinforcement is delivered for the first response that occurs following a fixed interval of time.
This could occur if a pigeon is rewarded for pecking after 2 minutes
What is a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement? Give an example.
A variable-interval schedule is one in which the allotted time before a response will yiled reinforcement varies from trial to trial.
If you call someone and the line is busy, you have to wait for the time to pass before they answer, but you don't know exactly how much time that will be.
What is shaping? Give an example.
Shaping is reinforcing closer and closer approximations of a goal.
In teaching your dog to lie down, you might tell him to lie down and if he responds in any way give him a treat. Then give him a treat for getting closer and closer to laying down each time.
What are some examples of shaping with humans?
Teaching someone golf- reward someone for making contact with the ball, then for specific techniques later.
How do psychologists explain that humans will learn certain associations more quickly than others?
We have special circuitry in the brain, acquired through evolution that allows us to process and learn about stimuli related to survival threats (Habituation and Sensitization)
How are taste aversions learned through classical conditioning?
You might have had a bad experience with getting ill after ingesting clams and thus have an aversion when you taste them because the taste is associated in your brain with sickness.
What are some positive effects of observational learning?
-It can be used to improve or change unwanted behavior (Children scared of going to the doctor can be shown videos of children going to the doctor and it will ease their mind about going)
What did Ivan Pavlov do?
Developed the model of Classical Conditioning by experimenting on dogs salivating
What did John Watson do?
Ran the experiment on baby Albert in which a rat (conditioned stimulus) was given to him and a loud noise (unconditioned stimulus) was administered that made him cry (unconditioned response). Albert started crying every time he saw the rat (conditioned response) and then later similar stimulus like a bunny rabbit made him cry(stimulus discrimination).
What did B.F. Skinner do?
He conducted experiments in "skinner boxes" to train rats to push a button. When they pushed the button enough times, they got a reward.
What are the parts of a neuron and what do they do?
-Cell Body (Contains nucleus of the cell) -Axon (Sends messages to other cells) -Dendrites (Receive messages from other neurons)
What is the advantage and disadvantage of an action potential over electrical conduction?
Advantage: Action potential travels at a constant strength, no matter the distance whereas electrical conduction cannot travel very far and may not ever reach where they are needed.
Disadvantage: Action potentials are slower than electrical conduction.
How does action potential work?
It either happens or it doesn't. It is generated by the movement of positively charged ions and must reach -70mV to happen, which can occur by spontaneous activity or when other axons excite a neuron's membrane. There is a sodium-potassium pump that fluctuates the ions.
What is a synapse and what does a neuron do at a synapse?
A synapse is a place between one neuron and another where a neuron releases a chemical (neurotransmitter) that either excites or inhibits the next neuron.
What do neurotransmitters do?
Transmit information! They do this by moving across a synaptic cleft to the next neuron and either excites or inhibits the neuron. Then it separates from the receptor and terminates the message. After that, it can either be reabsorbed by the axon that released it, fade away and exit the body, or get re-excited.
Why is it possible to develop drugs for some behaviors and psychological conditions?
Drugs can be developed to suppress certain feelings by increasing or decreasing activity of the synapses that the behaviors take place in.
What did Loewi do to demonstrate that neurons communicate chemically?
He took fluid from a the heart of a frog, that he electrically stimulated neurons in that were known to lower heart rate, and transferred it to another frog's heart. This caused the other frog's heart to slow, proving specific chemicals caused the stimulation of a slowing heart.
What hypothesis does the drug L-dopa for Parkinson's disease support?
That any unusual behavior is due to an excess or deficiency of some kind of synaptic activity. All the symptoms from Parkinson's disease can be traced to a gradual decay of a pathway of axons that release the neurotransmitter, dopamine. L-dopa causes the brain to convert the medicine into dopamine and helps treat Parkinson's.
Why does using Ritalin for ADD muddle the hypothesis that unusual behavior is due to an excess or deficit of synaptic activity?
Ritalin prevents neurons from reabsorbing dopamine and serotonin, but people with ADD have normal dopamine release and receptors and people with abnormal dopamine receptors do not have ADD.
What are the major divisions of the nervous system?
Central Nervous System 1. Brain---->(Forebrain(4 lobes), Midbrain, Hindbrain) 2. Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System 1. Somatic Nervous System 2. Autonomic Nervous System (Sympathetic and Parasympathetic)
What happens to people with occipital lobe damage?
What is the effect of extensive damage to the parietal region?
Damage here interferes with spatial attention. People may see something but cannot decipher where it is relative to their body, could have trouble walking around, shifting attention from one object to another, reaching for an object.
They might look at a red tomato and a yellow lemon and report seeing a yellow tomato.
What area is damaged in and what happens in Wernicke's aphasia?
Damage to the temporal lobe Difficulty remembering names of objects and understanding speech
What is the effect of damage to the amygdala?
Slow or no processing of emotional information
What is the only sensory information that goes directly to the cerebral cortex?
Olfaction (The sense of smell)
What is the path of touch, pain, and other skin senses?
They enter the spinal cord, which sends information that eventually reaches the thalamus (a forebrain area that relays information to the cerebral cortex).
What is the cerebellum important for?
-Movement -Balance -Posture -Motor Coordination -Aim -Timing -Rhythmic movement -Judging which of two visual stimuli is moving faster -Judging whether the delay between one pair of sounds is shorter or longer than the delay between another pair
What is some evidence for and against the hypothesis that exercising the brain makes the brain bigger?
Professional musicians have a larger than average auditory cortex and expansions of several other brain areas important for timing and other musical processes.
What happens to a split-brain patient when they feel something with their left hand?
They can feel something with their left hand (which goes to the right hemisphere) but cannot describe it because that is the non-speech hemisphere. If asked to point to it, the person points correctly only with the left hand.
What happens when a split-brain patient sees something?
They can see the object and they know what it is, but they cannot connect their brain to the speech side and say what they saw.
What do the right and left hemispheres consist of?
Right (Artsy): Holistic thought, intuition, creativity, art and music
Left (Logic): Analytic thought, logic, language, math and science
What is the generalization about the specializations of the right and left hemispheres?
Left-Logical, so logical people are left brained Right-Creative, so creative people are right brained
What is the evidence for the notion of right brained and left brained people?
There is no evidence, except rare cases of people with damage to one hemisphere or the other
What are the two types of nervous system cells?
-Neuron -Glia cell (a "support" cell)
What does the somatic nervous system control?
Skin and muscles
What does the autonomic nervous system control?
What does the sympathetic nervous system control?
Stress: -Uses energy -4 F's (fight, flight, fright, sex) -Increase in heart rate and blood pressure -Slows digestion -Constricts vessels -Adrenaline (epinephrine released)
What does the parasympathetic nervous system control?
Peace: -Conserves energy -Calm, resting behavior -Everything but the 4 F's -Decrease in heart rate and blood pressure -Aids in digestion -Dilates vessels -Sleep
What does the frontal lobe control?
-Planning, judging -Memory, emotion -Inhibition -Intellectual functioning *Contains primary motor cortex (picking up pens)
What does the parietal lobe control?
Sensory info and location of body parts and objects in space
What does the temporal lobe control?
Hearing, complex aspects of vision
What does the occipital lobe control?
What does the hypothalamus control?
Hunger, thirst, metabolism, body temperature, sexual behavior
What is your corpus collosum?
Thick band in the middle of the brain that connects the two hemispheres
What does the medulla do?
-Controls life sustaining functions
What do the pons control?
-Sleep -Arousal -Respiratory center
What are three things subliminal perception cannot do?
-Control people's buying habits -Cause people to follow satanic advice -Cause you to lose weight, improve your memory, help you quit smoking, etc.
What is one example of each of the things subliminal perception cannot do?
-Eat Popcorn--->movie theaters' advertisements -Get people to do evil--->rock bands' satanic messages -Make people more knowledgeable---->Cassette tapes
What can subliminal messages do?
Produce small, subtle effects
How do we recognize people's faces?
Whole patterns Certain areas of the brain appear specialized for facial recognition
What were the hypothesis, method, results, and interpretation of the Hubel and Weisel research on feature detection?
Hypothesis: Neurons in cats/monkeys will respond when light strikes retina
Method: Inserted electrodes into their brains and recorded activity
Results: Each cell responds best in the presence of a particular stimulus
Interpretation: Feature detector neurons exist in cats/monkeys and more than likely humans, since we're closely related
Why don't feature detectors explain perception?
They only perceive early stages of visual processing and don't explain complex pattern processing (12, 13, 14, A, B, C)
How does Gestalt psychology help us understand vision and hearing perception?
The Gestalt Psychology is the whole is different than the some of it's parts. It helps us to understand our ability to perceive overall patterns. If you look at one dot, you don't see anything, but if you look at all the dots, you see a picture.
How are feature detectors and Gestalt psychology complementary?
Our perception assembles individual points through feature detectors and forms an interpretation of the pattern through gestalt psychology.
Why does an object appear stationary when you move your eyes?
Your vestibular system informs the visual areas of the brain about your head movements The object is not going to a different area in the background
What are two explanations for the moon illusion and why don't many psychologists accept these explanations?
-You compare the moon to objects you see at the horizon and when it's up in the sky there is nothing to compare it to -You compare the moon to the distance from the horizon (Psychologists don't agree because many people say moon looks closer at horizon)
What is the difference between sensing and perceiving?
-Sensing: Taking in information -Perceiving: Making sense of information
What are the parts of Gestalt Psychology and a brief explanation of each?
-Figure ground: face/vase -Proximity: we group things close together -Similarity: we group similar items together -Continuation: we see things continue even though they are blocked -Common fate: objects all moving together -Good figure: see lines continue with geometric shapes -Closure: we know something is still there when it's blocked -Brightness contrast: increase or decrease in an object's brightness because of objects around it
What is visual constancy?
Perceiving objects as keeping their size, shape, and color even though the actual stimulus changes
What was the Ames Room?
Room that's right corner was closer and higher up, but your eyes won't let you perceive the angle
In these cultures there is a general preference for a fuller figure
How are the food, air, water, sleep, and elimination drives similar?
They are all generated by a combination of activities in the body and the brain and they are influenced by various external factors. However, the sex drive and the drive to avoid pain are more unusual.
What does pain prompt people to do that's different from most drives?
Avoid or eliminate sources of discomfort, which is opposite of what most drives do (prompt us to seek a desired goal)
What do stimulus drives reflect the need for?
Needs for stimulation and information
Information, exploration, manipulation, and sensory input.
What does the inverted U function suggest about the relationship between arousal and performance?
If your arousal is further away from the peak (too high or too low) your performance will suffer. As you move toward the peak, your performance improves.
How can emotions be considered adaptive?
They aid attempts to survive and adapt to changing situations
How does the amygdala regulate emotion?
It recieves sensory information by bypassing the cortex, which as a result allows us to respond to potential danger before we really know what's happening.
What is the lie detector's most common error?
It measures emotion and not lies, so it is more likely to label an innocent person guilty rather than a guilty person innocent.
What cultures differ with respect to expressions of anger and positive emotions?
American culture differs from Asian cultures because in American we emphasize roles as individuals and in Asia a high value is placed on group harmony. So anger is less acceptable in Asia than in America if you feel as if you have been treated unfairly. Positive feelings in America are more individual related (pride, happiness, superiority) whereas in Japan, they are more group related (friendly feelings, closeness to others, respect.)
What is the most easily recognized universal emotion?
A genuine smile
What are the sequences of the three main theories of emotion?
-The James-Lange Theory: Emotional feelings follow bodily arousal (We see a bear, run, are aroused, and then feel fear) -The Cannon-Bard Theory: Emotional feeling and bodily arousal occur at the same time (We see a bear, brain activity simultaneously produces bodily arousal of running and feeling fear) -Schachter's Cognitive Theory of Emotion: Emotion occurs when we apply a label to a physical arousal (Someone sneaks up on you, you are aroused, you see who it is and label them, interpret arousal)
What does attribution theory predict about arousal and interpersonal attraction?
Attribution is the mental process of assigning causes to events. This was experimented with guys seeing a picture of a naked woman and hearing a false heartbeat, thus leading them to say she was the most attractive.
What are the sequences for the contemporary model of emotion?