Last Modified: 2011-10-06
Birds see hawks fly overhead and are scared for a long time, but since they keep flying overhead and don't come down to harm the birds, the birds stop responding to the hawks flying overhead with fear, and start becoming more comfortable.
This is important because you learn what to care about and what not to care about. Which will save you stress in the long run.
If your alarm goes off, it's going to get more and more annoying over time.
This is important because it helps us solve important issues. Usually events that involve this are important ones (food, alarm, etc.)
Seeing food- unconditioned stimulus
Salivating- unconditioned response
Hearing a bell when you see food-conditioned stimulus
Salivating when you hear the bell- conditioned response
Baby Albert was conditioned to be upset when he saw a rat. When he was shown animals similar to a rat, like a rabbit, he got upset. The rabbit is the stimulus discrimination.
In this learning, the response increased and then eventually leveled off.
Learning in extinction results in a loss of responsiveness.
Dogs hear a bell and knowing that means food. If the bell is repeatedly rung and the food doesn't follow, they learn not to salivate when they hear the bell anymore.
Some of the learning remains in spontaneous recovery.
If the dogs heard the bell the day after the extinction, they might start salivating again.
If the dogs know the bell will be followed by food and then a light is turned on when the bell is rung and does not follow food, the dogs will learn that the light on with the bell means no food will follow.
Classical- You cannot change that if you see lightning, you will hear thunder.
Operant- If you study a lot and you make an A on the quiz, you learn that studying earns you good grades.
If you raise your hand and ask an intelligent question in psychology and are praised for it, you aren't going to walk down the street raising your hand for praise, but you will keep doing it in a classroom setting.
Positive- adding something
Negative- taking away something
Positive- adding something
Negative- taking away something
-Child could feel ignored and lash out to get attention
-Teaches that the action is wrong, but it doesn't teach how you should fix it
-Can lead to aggression
-Can break the quality of a relationship
Assembly lines are an example of this because for every x amount of product they make y dollars.
Gambling is a type of variable-ratio schedule because they know a reward will come eventually, but they never know how many times they are going to have to play to get a reward.
This could occur if a pigeon is rewarded for pecking after 2 minutes
If you call someone and the line is busy, you have to wait for the time to pass before they answer, but you don't know exactly how much time that will be.
In teaching your dog to lie down, you might tell him to lie down and if he responds in any way give him a treat. Then give him a treat for getting closer and closer to laying down each time.
(Children scared of going to the doctor can be shown videos of children going to the doctor and it will ease their mind about going)
-Axon (Sends messages to other cells)
-Dendrites (Receive messages from other neurons)
Disadvantage: Action potentials are slower than electrical conduction.
1. Brain---->(Forebrain(4 lobes), Midbrain, Hindbrain)
2. Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System
1. Somatic Nervous System
2. Autonomic Nervous System (Sympathetic and Parasympathetic)
They might look at a red tomato and a yellow lemon and report seeing a yellow tomato.
Difficulty remembering names of objects and understanding speech
-Judging which of two visual stimuli is moving faster
-Judging whether the delay between one pair of sounds is shorter or longer than the delay between another pair
Left (Logic): Analytic thought, logic, language, math and science
Right-Creative, so creative people are right brained
-Glia cell (a "support" cell)
-4 F's (fight, flight, fright, sex)
-Increase in heart rate and blood pressure
-Adrenaline (epinephrine released)
-Calm, resting behavior
-Everything but the 4 F's
-Decrease in heart rate and blood pressure
-Aids in digestion
*Contains primary motor cortex (picking up pens)
-Cause people to follow satanic advice
-Cause you to lose weight, improve your memory, help you quit smoking, etc.
-Get people to do evil--->rock bands' satanic messages
-Make people more knowledgeable---->Cassette tapes
Certain areas of the brain appear specialized for facial recognition
Method: Inserted electrodes into their brains and recorded activity
Results: Each cell responds best in the presence of a particular stimulus
Interpretation: Feature detector neurons exist in cats/monkeys and more than likely humans, since we're closely related
The object is not going to a different area in the background
-You compare the moon to the distance from the horizon (Psychologists don't agree because many people say moon looks closer at horizon)
-Perceiving: Making sense of information
-Proximity: we group things close together
-Similarity: we group similar items together
-Continuation: we see things continue even though they are blocked
-Common fate: objects all moving together
-Good figure: see lines continue with geometric shapes
-Closure: we know something is still there when it's blocked
-Brightness contrast: increase or decrease in an object's brightness because of objects around it
-Stimulus motives: Express our needs for stimulation and information (Activity, Exploration, Curiosity, etc)
-Secondary motives: Learned needs, drives, and goals (Making music, status, approval, etc.)
-Distorted views of body
-Exaggerated fears of becoming fat
-Reading magazines that promote skinniness
In these cultures there is a general preference for a fuller figure
Information, exploration, manipulation, and sensory input.
-The Cannon-Bard Theory: Emotional feeling and bodily arousal occur at the same time (We see a bear, brain activity simultaneously produces bodily arousal of running and feeling fear)
-Schachter's Cognitive Theory of Emotion: Emotion occurs when we apply a label to a physical arousal (Someone sneaks up on you, you are aroused, you see who it is and label them, interpret arousal)
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