HUMAN PSYCH QUIZ 3 1. Guidelines offered by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (2002) suggest that preschool children should engage in ________ of physical activity per day. -2 hours 2. As children move through the zone of proximal development (ZPD), they: -take the responsibility of the task they are learning from the adult who is helping 3. Which of the following emotions are not in the same "category" as the other three? -fear 4. Which of the following is not one of the main precepts of a child-centered kindergarten? -the implementation of monitored structure is crucial for development of self-regulation 5. Myelination occurs in the brain when: -nerve cells become insulated with a layer of fat 6. Compared to lower socioeconomic status (SES) parents, higher SES parents are more likely to: -emphasize delaying gratification. 7. Overall, the effects of television on children's development are: -some positive, some negative 8. In order for children to take effective moral action, they need to be able to __________ and ________. - learn to identify others' emotional states; anticipate what will improve others' emotional states 9. Alicia and Jason are watching their two sons have a fight. One of the sons is almost 5 years old, and the other is just over 3 years old. According to research on parental response to sibling behaviors, which is the most likely response that Alicia and Jason will demonstrate? -They will do nothing at all. 10. Which statement below summarizes Erik Erikson's view of how guilt, initiative, and conscience operate during the early childhood period? - Children's consciences make them feel guilty about some of the initiatives that they take 11. Dante is encouraged by his parents to control himself and delay gratification. His parents give him some say in the rules of the house and are more likely to talk to him when he makes a mistake than to use physical discipline. His parents are most likely: - of a higher socioeconomic status.. 12. Suzanne believes that helping children develop their independence while still placing appropriate boundaries and limits on their actions is the most important function of parenting. Suzanne is probably a(n): -authoritative parent 13. About ________ of parents who abuse their children were abused as children themselves. - 1/3 14. Brendan is 3 years old. His parents are concerned because he is always running and jumping on things. He cannot seem to sit still. Even when watching his favorite movie on TV, he still fidgets, bounces, and wiggles around. It is especially frustrating when Brendan will not sit still through dinner. Given what we know about child development, we would advise Brendan's parents to: - be patient and recognize that Brendan is developing as a normal 3-year-old 15. What changes were made to the Women, Infants, and Children program in 2009? -The program was adjusted to provide healthier foods to recipients 16. Alicia is enrolled in a kindergarten where she spends much of her time in unstructured activity. She plays with different toys she chooses, and her teacher facilitates rather than teaches. What approach is Alicia's kindergarten using? -Montessori 17. Jean Piaget claimed that children between the ages of 2 and 7 years are in a stage called preoperational thought, so named because he believed that: -children at this age do not yet use mental operations in their thought 18. When her mother asks Selena why she feels so sad, Selena says it is because her best friend just lost her puppy. Selena is exhibiting: -empathy 19. Sanjay and Ryan are 4-year-old friends. When they are together, they often wrestle, run, race, push, and shove each other. Although their level of activity often aggravates their parents, we know that this activity will: - help the boys develop gross motor skills. 20. All of the following children are likely to be shorter than their peers, EXCEPT: - firstborn children 1. Research conducted by Ruth Chao (2001, 2005, 2007) suggests that: -the high control of "authoritarian" Asian parents is best conceptualized as "training" and is distinct from the domineering control that is generally associated with the authoritarian style of parenting 2. A child is categorized as obese if his or her BMI is above the ___ percentile for their age group. - 97th 3. Marella and Ricardo have recently had a very serious fight. They pushed and smacked each other, and both ended up with bruises and black eyes. Their young son, Juan, witnessed the entire event. Which of the following forms of child maltreatment would best describe this situation? ?Emotional Abuse 4. Which parenting style leads to social incompetence in children? - neglectful 5. A parent who denies, ignores, or tries to change the negative emotions of their children would be called an: -emotion-dismissing parent 6. Myelination occurs in the brain when: - nerve cells become insulated with a layer of fat 7. The theory of _______ refers to the idea that children can begin thinking about their own thought processes. - Mind 8. Guidelines offered by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (2002) suggest that preschool children should engage in ________ of physical activity per day. - 2 Hours 9. According to Dunn (2007) there are three important aspects to sibling relationships. Which of the following is not one of those points? -the age differences that exist in the relationship 10. When teachers adjust their level of support and guidance to the level of skill of the student, it is called: -scaffolding 11. Lev Vygotsky differs from Jean Piaget in how he stresses the relative importance of _______ for cognitive development. - Social Interaction 12. Approximately __________ of lesbians are parents. - 20 % 13. Howie and his little sister, Stephie, are each given one large cookie. The mother breaks Stephie's cookie into four pieces to help her eat it more easily. Howie immediately begins to cry and says that it isn't fair for Stephie to get so many cookies when he only has one. Howie is showing a lack of: - conservation 14. Which idea about divorce is best supported by available evidence? - A divorce may improve children's lives under some circumstances 15. Researchers believe that after the age of 6 or 7 years, children become more reflective and less impulsive in their thinking, because they learn to pay less attention to what is _______ and more attention to what is ______. -salient; relevant 16. What are the long-term effects of being maltreated as a child? - depression, delinquency, and substance abuse 17. Three-year-olds scribble all over the page, but 4-year-olds can make more precise drawings that adults can understand. This is because 4-year-olds have more highly developed: - fine motor skills 18. When looking at the heights and weights of preschool children, we know that: - there are ethnic differences 19. The social role theory of gender differences suggests that: - differences result from the contrasting roles of women and men in most cultures Ursula just brought home her report card. She earned Cs and Ds in all of her classes. Ursula's mom's first response was "Oh, you must be very disappointed." Then, the two of them sat down and tried to determine why she was having difficulty and what they could do to help her get her grades up. They decided that Ursula would start seeing a tutor after school. Ursula's mom is most likely a(n): -authoritative parent. Tatia wants to know how good a tennis player she is. To determine this, she should play with: -her same-aged best friend. How does maternal employment outside of the home affect children? -Children of working mothers engage in less gender stereotyping. Approximately __________ of gay men are parents. -10% Which parenting style leads to social incompetence in children? -neglectful Five-year-old Marta draws a picture with pretty lavender, purple, and blue colors intermixed with green, yellow, and brown. "It's a boat on the ocean at sunset, with whales jumping all around it!" she explains to her teacher. Marta is showing clear evidence of: -symbolic function. In explaining the ability to conserve, Rochel Gelman focuses on ______, whereas Jean Piaget focused on ______. -attention; centration. During early childhood, on average girls are ________ than boys. -slightly smaller There are approximately ______ Montessori schools in the United States today. -4,000 In talking with Grandma on the phone, little Marcelo suddenly exclaims, "Oh, look at that pretty red bird!" When his grandmother asks him to describe the bird, Marcelo says, "Out there, out there! Right there, Grandma!" He finally gets frustrated and hangs up. This is an example of: - egocentrism. According to Erik Erikson, what is the "great governor" of initiative? - conscience The support that parents give each other in raising children, including coordination of rules and parenting efforts, is called: -coparenting The drawings that 3-year-old Sally creates tend to be rather inventive and include scribbled designs that represent people, houses, cars, dogs, and so on. Which Piagetian stage/substage of cognitive development is Sally in? -symbolic function substage The stage of preoperational thought lasts from age ________ years until age ________ years. -2; 7 At what age will children generally learn to adapt their style of language use to the listener? -4 to 5 years of age Same-sex boy peer groups are characterized by all of the following, EXCEPT: -cooperative play. In general, which of the following best describes birth-order effects? -They are limited in predicting behavior considering the many other influencing factors. All of the following have been found to be advantages for the participants of the Perry Preschool program, except: - higher college graduation rates. The most frequent criticism of early childhood intervention programs is that: -many of them are of questionable quality. At what age will children generally learn to adapt their style of language use to the listener? -4 to 5 years of age By the end of early childhood, boys have _______, whereas girls have _______. -more muscle; more fat. Which of the following is NOT one of the stated goals of a developmentally appropriate practice? -better physical health At what age do children show a preference to spend time with a same-sex playmate? -around 3 years old What are the long-term effects of being maltreated as a child? -depression, delinquency, and substance abuse Research linking corporal punishment and child behavior has been associated with all of the following, EXCEPT: -higher levels of moral internalization. According to Erik Erikson, the psychosocial stage that characterizes early childhood is: -initiative versus guilt. Brendan is just learning to walk. He can take a few steps by himself if he uses both hands to hold on to a piece of furniture for support, but he can walk out into the middle of the room only if one of his parents holds his hands. Which of the following represents the lower limit of Brendan's zone of proximal development (ZPD) for walking? -Brendan walking alone by holding on to a piece of furniture with one hand Children's shows like Sesame Street are: -good at modeling prosocial behaviors for children. Project __________ is a program designed to break the cycle of poverty and poor education for children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. -Head Start A toddler is likely to learn something in the zone of proximal development (ZPD) if: -the task is more difficult than the child can do alone. Which of these is TRUE of gender schema theory? -This theory states how ideas of gender appropriateness are developed. According to the textbook, many deaths of young children around the world could be prevented by: - reducing poverty and improving nutrition, sanitation, education, and health services. Overall, the effects of television on children's development are: -some positive, some negative. The term "child maltreatment" includes all but which of the following possibilities? -tough love An overwhelming worldwide health concern in the last decade has been death as a result of: -acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). What is morphology? -the units of meaning involved in word formation In a recent national survey of U.S. parents with 3- to 4-year-old children, about __________ reported that they frequently spanked their children. -26% Research linking corporal punishment and child behavior has been associated with all of the following, EXCEPT: -higher levels of moral internalization. In response to child misbehavior, most child psychologists recommend: - all of these. When Travis decided he wanted to catch a bird with a butterfly net, his parents encouraged him to test out his idea. Because his parents supported his plan, he will probably grow up with: -initiative. In general, conservation involves the ability to understand that changes in physical arrangement: -are irrelevant for the total amount. Children cannot conserve because they cannot yet: -reverse. Young children tend to believe that when a rule is broken, punishment will follow inevitably. This is referred to as belief in: - immanent justice. If a mother wants to reduce the risk that her child will develop asthma, wheezing, and sleeping problems, she should: -stop smoking. Children between the ages of 4 and 12 usually prefer to play in groups that are made up of: -the same sex. In which of the following countries are adults most likely to report that their parents used corporal punishment? -Canada Researchers believe that after the age of 6 or 7 years, children become more reflective and less impulsive in their thinking, because they learn to pay less attention to what is _______ and more attention to what is ______. -salient; relevant Mauricio has been having difficulties in his preschool classroom, and his teacher notes on his report card that she has noticed deficits in the areas of planning and inhibition. What is the term that might encapsulate these mental skills? -executive function For Jean Piaget, failing a conservation task indicates that the child is: -demonstrating centration. Katrina becomes extremely upset when her brother tries to change the rules of their game, yelling, "You can't do that! You can't change rules!" Katrina is exhibiting which of the following types of moral reasoning? -heteronomous morality Which of the following is NOT a marked change in emotional development during early childhood? -Children can deceive others with their emotions. Using props, plots, and roles in play is characteristic of: -pretense/symbolic play. Which of the following best describes the relation between centration and conservation? -Lack of conservation is reflected in centration. Which child will find the task of arranging objects in a precise pattern on a table most challenging? -3-year-old Which type of classrooms has been found in research to enhance advanced writing skills, and improve self-regulatory and cognitive control skills in at-risk preschool children? -Tools of the Mind classrooms Four-year-old Becky has just hit her sister again. What should Becky's mom do? Most developmental psychologists would suggest: -explain to Becky that "hitting hurts"; she is old enough to understand the consequences of her behavior.
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