as the seventh President of the United States (1829–1837). Based in frontier Tennessee, Jackson was a politician and army general who defeated the Creek Indians at theBattle of Horseshoe Bend (1814), and the British at the Battle of New Orleans (1815).
nicknamed "Old Hickory" because of his toughness and aggressive personality
He expanded the spoils system during his presidency to strengthen his political base.
was a leading politician and political theorist from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. A powerful intellect, Calhoun eloquently spoke out on every issue of his day, but often changed positions. Calhoun began his political career as a nationalist, modernizer, and proponent of a strong national government and protective tariffs.
was a lawyer, politician and skilled orator who representedKentucky separately in both the Senate and in the House of Representatives. He served three different terms asSpeaker of the United States House of Representatives and was also Secretary of State from 1825 to 1829.
Got John Quincy Adams in to presidency with corrupt bargaining being the speaker of the house
John Quincy Adams
was the sixth President of the United States(1825–1829). He served as an American diplomat, Senator, and Congressional representative. He was a member of the Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, and later Anti-Masonic and Whig parties.
Got into presidency with the help of Clay in corrupt bargaining
He was a spokesman for modernization, banking and industry, but not for the common people who comprised the base of his enemies in Jacksonian Democracy;
was a leading American statesman and senator from Massachusetts during the period leading up to the Civil War.
the right of a state to ban a law they believe is unjust or unright by the federal government
rewarding the political supporters with public office; developed by Jackson; initiated true equality between both parties to obtain public office; but also put many untrained commoners into office; some who embezzled money
rotation in office
Term limits in the United States apply to many offices at both the federal and state level, and date back to the American Revolution. * HELP
were a political party in the United States. During the administration of John Quincy Adams (1825-1829), the president's supporters were referred to as Adams Men or Anti-Jackson. When Andrew Jackson was elected President of the United States in 1828, this group went into opposition. The use of the term "National Republican" dates from 1830.
in 1828 (45%) tax on imports issued by Jackson; South Carolina greatly opposed to this and John Calhoun wrote the "South Carolina Exposition" based on this tariff
South Carolina Exposition
also known as Calhoun's Exposition, was written in December 1828 by John C. Calhoun, then vice president under John Quincy Adams and later under Andrew Jackson. Calhoun did not formally state his authorship at the time, though it was known.
protest against the Tariff of 1828
stated that if the tariff was not repealed, South Carolina would secede
Tariff of 1832
Slight decrease after Tax of Abomination but people still angry
refers to three separate events that each involved a United States presidential election and a deal that was struck that many viewed to be corrupt from many standpoints, such as in the Election of 1824 controversy over the House of Representative's choice for president with accused corruption on the part of the Speaker of the House
Henry clay speaking to Congress to get Adams into presidency and in result he would get secretary of state
authorized president to use army and navy to collect federal tariff duties; later nullified by SC as unconstitutional
In 1819, the Bank of the United States was re-chartered and President James Monroe appointed Biddle to the position of Government Director. In order to undermine the credibility of the bank, Jackson withdrew all the government deposits in 1833, which had repercussions throughout the national economy. He continued his bank war through another recession in 1837 until 1839, when Biddle resigned as President of the Bank, and the Bank failed completely in 1841.
a long shot strategy developed by Clay which gathered possible candidates for presidency that had popular appeal in different regions of the country. This strategy would prevent jackson from receiving majority vote due to the spreading out of the vote within the region; still unsuccessful
refers to the unusual practices of banks chartered under state law during the periods of non-federally regulated state banking between 1816 and 1863 in the United States, also known as the Free Banking Era. banks were only free of federal regulation, and banking was still left to the states to regulate. The death of the US bank gave Feds power to inject funds into the state regulated wildcat banks which proved to be a disaster for the economy with the paper currency not meaning anything
was an executive order issued by U.S. President Andrew Jackson in 1836 and carried out by President Martin Van Buren. It required payment for government land to be in gold and silver; this was in reaction to the useless paper money of the wildcat banks
Trail of Tears
is a name given to the forced relocation and movement of Native American nations from southeastern parts of the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. The removal included many members of the Cherokee, Muscogee (Creek), Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw nations, among others in the United States, from their homelands to Indian Territory (eastern sections of the present-day state of Oklahoma)
Indian Removal ACt
trongly supported in the South, where states were eager to gain access to lands inhabited by the Five Civilized Tribes. In particular, Georgia, the largest state at that time, was involved in a contentious jurisdictional dispute with theCherokee nation. President Jackson hoped removal would resolve the Georgia crisis.
the only indian tribe to become accustomed to the white society developing a legal code, constitution, and system of government (3 branches) by the whites; later betrayed by whites and forced to move to Oklahome in the Trail of Tears
He was known as the Father of Texas, led the second, but first legal and ultimately successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States.
Houston became a key figure in the history of Texas and was elected as the first and third President of the Republic of Texas, U.S. Senator for Texas after it joined the United States, and finally as governor of the state. He refused to swear loyalty to the Confederacy when Texas seceded from the Union, and resigned as governor; fought in the battle of San Jacinto which finally beat the Mexiccans
was the ninth President of the United States (1841), anAmerican military officer and politician, and the first president to die in office; He originally gained national fame for leading U.S. forces against American Indians at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811, where he earned the nickname "Tippecanoe" (or "Old Tippecanoe").
Mexican general who beat the pugnacious Texans at both the battle of the Alama and Goliad, but was then defeated at San Jacinto by Sam Houston
incorporation of some territory into another geo-political entity (either adjacent or non-contiguous). Usually, it is implied that the territory and population being annexed is the smaller, more peripheral, and weaker of the two merging entities, barring physical size
was a celebrated 19th century American folk hero,frontiersman, soldier and politician. He is commonly referred to in popular culture by the epithet "King of the Wild Frontier". He represented Tennessee in the U.S. House of Representatives, served in the Texas Revolution, and died at the Battle of the Alamo.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
was an American poet and educator whose works include "Paul Revere's Ride", The Song of Hiawatha, and Evangeline. He was also the first American to translate Dante Alighieri's The Divine Comedy and was one of the five Fireside Poets; short evocative lines provoked a wide audience
James Fenimore Cooper
writer who gave staples of western fiction to the American vocabulary including "paleface" war paint; was a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century.
transcendentalist writer who believed one could create art with native elements; wrote "The Legend of the Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle"
group of New Englanders; Unitarian; believed liberal religion was to formal a and rational for spiritual and emotional needs; logic reason wasnt enough to explain human existence; person contains infinite godlike potentialities which society corrupts; emotion and senses are better than logic and reason; Nature is a dynamic force where people can discover their true selves and commune with the supernatural
Ralph Waldo Emmerson
Transcendentalist writer who was the central figure
wrote Self Reliance- "strive for true individuality in situations of social conformity"
Philosophy: "All people contain feeds of divinity, but society thwarts these potentialities
pro emmerson; believed in individuality (wore a green gown at Harvard when it was supposed to be black"; wanted to seek out true individuality
Waldon Pond: A 26 month experience where he grew his own food and built his own cabin in order to live a life without social conformity; tried to find inner self
by George Ripely one example of major transcendentalist experiments
A large society went by beliefs of selfish competition rather than the conventional brotherly cooperation; was a large society formed where people grew their own food and lived independently
Edgar Allen Poe
was an American author, poet, editor and literary critic, considered part of the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre, Poe was one of the earliest American practitioners of the short story and is considered the inventor of the detective fiction genre; died at 40
orks belong to romanticism or, more specifically, dark romanticism, cautionary tales that suggest that guilt, sin, and evil are the most inherent natural qualities of humanity; inspired by Puritan New England,combining historical romance loaded with symbolism and deep psychological themes, bordering on surrealism; negative view of the transcendentalist movement; wrote the Scarlet Letter
was an American novelist, short story writer, essayist, and poet. He is best known for his novel Moby-Dick; He was the first writer to have his works collected and published by the Library of America.
was a mid-19th century American art movement embodied by a group of landscape painterswhose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism. The paintings for which the movement is named depict the Hudson River Valley and the surrounding area, including the Catskill, Adirondack, and the White Mountains; eventually works by the second generation of artists associated with the school expanded to include other locales.
Alexis De Tocquille
was a French political thinker and historian best known for his Democracy in America (appearing in two volumes: 1835 and 1840) and The Old Regime and the Revolution (1856). In both of these works, he explored the effects of the rising equality of social conditions on the individual and the state in western societies
Second Great Awakening
was a Christian revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States. The movement began around 1800, had begun to gain momentum by 1820, and was in decline by 1870; birth to new sects (Disciples of Christ, Mormon, and Shakers) while the growing of new ones
Church of the Latter Day Saints
the largest denomination in the Latter Day Saint movement, a Christian primitivist movement started by Joseph Smith during the American Second Great Awakening. The church is headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah, and has established congregations (called wards or branches) and built temples worldwide; for Mormonism
was an American religious leader and the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement who is regarded by his followers as a prophet; found the Book of Mormon and established the church of Latter Day Saints and the mormon religion
Book of Mormon
is a sacred text of the Latter Day Saint movement that adherents believe contains writings of ancientprophets who lived on the American continent from approximately 2600 BC to AD 421. It was first published in March 1830 by Joseph Smith, Jr. as The Book of Mormon: An Account Written by the Hand of Mormon upon Plates Taken from the Plates of Nephi.
was an American leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and a settler of the Western United States. He was the President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints(LDS Church) from 1847 until his death in 1877, he founded Salt Lake City, and he served as the first governor of the Utah Territory, United States.
Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom
was drafted in 1777 (though it was not first introduced into the Virginia General Assembly until 1779) by Thomas Jefferson in the city of Fredericksburg, Virginia. In 1786, the Assembly enacted the statute into the state's law. The Statute for Religious Freedom is one of only three accomplishments Jefferson instructed be put in hisepitaph. It supported the Establishment Clause and Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment, and freedom of conscience.
in religious philosophy is the belief that reason and observation of the natural world, without the need fororganized religion, can determine that the universe is the product of an all-powerful creator. According to deists, the creator does not intervene in human affairs or suspend the natural laws of the universe.
Three Pronged Test
is the United States Supreme Court's test for determining whether speech or expression can be labeledobscene, in which case it is not protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution and can be prohibited.
is a social movement urging reduced use of alcoholic beverages. Temperance movements may criticize excessive alcohol use, promote complete abstinence (teetotalism), or pressure the government to enact anti-alcohol legislation or complete prohibition of alcohol.
first statewide prohibition in America prohibiting alchohol in 1851; these laws followed providing statewide prohibition of different things
1796-1859- the nations leading educational reformer; led the fight for government support for public schools; state legislator that established a state board of education and his efforts resulted in a doubling of state expenditures on eduction; also won state support for teacher training, improved curriculum in schools, and the grading of pupils by age and ability and the lengthened school year no more corporal punishment
39 year old school teacher determined to improve education for the mentally ill; improvements seen and got state legislature on board for improving conditions; first deaf + blind school established in 11817 in Hartford conneticut
is a term used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Saint-Simon,Charles Fourier, and Robert Owen which inspired Karl Marx and other early socialists and were looked on favorably; referred to all socialist ideas that were simply a vision and distant goal for society as utopian; wanted a more equal society
Sojourner Truth (18430
originally named isabella; slave in NY; a preacher in NY famously known for the abolition of woman's rights; african american woman's rights to equality; wanted to completely emanciapitae slavery and went all over the country collecting signatures till her death
Declaration of Sentiments
signed by 66 women and 34 men; was a product of the Senaca Falls Convention establishing more rights for women including the right to be sued and sue; divorce laws; marriage property equality with men, join custody over children; formed over the declaration of Independence etc..
Senaca Falls Convention
started by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott which was the first womens rights convention in history in 1848; formed Declaration of Sentiments which was modeled by the Declaration of Independence
delegate of the American Anti-slavery society; one of the two women that initiated the Senaca Falls Convention
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
delegate of the American Anti-slavery society; one of the two women that initiated the Senaca Falls Convention
American Anti-Slavery Society
included delegates Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton; was split in 1840 over womans rights issues; the society issued 3 delegates to speak on behalf of slavery but they were later restricted to speak in "fear of offending the British"
Angelina and Sarah Grimke
first women to speak in front of a "mixed" audience (woman and men); Angelina spoke about the abolition of slavery and Sarah wrote a pamphlet on equality of women; majority of the public reacted badly and restricted other woman from speaking in their institutions
Susan B Anthony
was a prominent American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women's rights movement to introduce women's suffrage into the United States; co-founded the women's rights journal, The Revolution; important advocates in leading the way for women's rights to be acknowledged and instituted in the American government
early perfectionist society founded in 1776 by Ann lee; believed that the millenium was at hand and that the time had come for people to renounce sin; male and females were equals; communal ownership of property and a way of emphasizing simplicity; abstinence;
community established by Robert Owen in Indiana that had communal ownership of property; no religion; marriage = single sentence; children raised outside of home to create total equality community; lasted 3 years (1825-1828)
French theorist who wanted to eliminate poverty through organized coopertive communities called phalanxes; each were a joint stock community and had total equality for all women and men; lasted for 18 years and unsucessful
John Humphrey Noyes
established the Oneida community which practiced communal ownership and complex marriage --> this was marriage of each member of the community to another member; men practiced coitus interruptus and their was child rearing; most successful of all the communities and people from that society can be seen today in the 1990s even though the creator fled in 1879 due to adultery
cult of domesticity
was a prevailing value system among the upper andmiddle classes during the nineteenth century in the United States and Great Britain. Although all women were supposed to emulate this ideal of womanhood, it was assumed that only white women could live up to the ideal.Black and lower class women in antebellum America were regarded as "unfeminine" because they had to leave the domestic sphere to perform physical labor.
as an American explorer, soldier, and public administrator, best known for his role as the leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition also known as the Corps of Discovery, with William Clark. Their mission was to explore the territory of the Louisiana Purchase, establish trade and sovereignty over the natives near the Missouri River, and claim the Pacific Northwest and Oregon territory for the United States before European nations
was an American explorer, soldier, Indian agent, and territorial governor. A native of Virginia, he grew up in prestatehood Kentucky before later settling in what became the state ofMissouri. Clark was a planter and slaveholder; led the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1803 to 1806 across the Louisiana Purchase to thePacific Ocean, and claimed the Pacific Northwest for the United States.
historic east-west wagon route that connected the Missouri River to valleys in Oregon and locations in between.; primary route for pioneers traveling west and took about 6 months and required a large amount of endurance
started a factory in 1810 and took virtuous girls to work in the factory and gave them originally high wages and it was a textile factory
was an American engineer and inventor who is widely credited with developing the first commercially successful steamboat.
is a waterway in New York that runs about 363 miles (584 km) from Albany, New York, on the Hudson River to Buffalo, New York, at Lake Erie, completing a navigable water route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes.
was an American contributor to the invention of a single-wiretelegraph system based on European telegraphs, co-inventor of the Morse code,
American System of Production
was a set of manufacturing methods that evolved in the 19th century. It involved semi-skilled labor using machine tools and jigsto make standardized, identical, interchangeable parts, manufactured to a tolerance, which could be assembled with a minimum of time and skill, requiring little to no fitting.
was an American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin. This was one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution and shaped the economy of the Antebellum South; also created interchangeable parts
was an early English-American industrialist known as the "Father of the American Industrial Revolution", (a phrase coined by Andrew Jackson) or the "Father of the American Factory System" because he brought British textile technology to America.; believed in a factory system under one roof to be more efficient and to have heavy supervision of the employees
"where people and machines were all under one roof." Also, a series of mills and factories were built along theMerrimack River by the Boston Manufacturing Company, an organization founded in years prior by the man for whom the resulting city was named, Francis Cabot Lowell.
favors the interests of certain established inhabitants of an area or nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants.It may also include the re-establishment or perpetuation of such individuals or their culture.
Know Nothing Party
was a movement by the nativist American political faction of the 1840s and 1850s. It was empowered by popular fears that the country was being overwhelmed by German and Irish Catholic immigrants, who were often regarded as hostile to Anglo-Saxon Protestant values and controlled by the Pope in Rome.
Commonwealth vs. Hunt
was a landmark legal decision issued by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court on the subject of labor unions. Before this decision, based on Commonwealth v. Pullis, labor unions which attempted to 'close' or create a unionized workplace could be charged with conspiracy. However, in March 1842, Chief Justice Lemuel Shaw ruled that unions were legal organizations and had the right to organize a strike.
It was theDemocratic Party political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City politics and helping immigrants, most notably the Irish, rise up in American politics from the 1790s to the 1960s.
was an American inventor and founder of the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company, which became part of International Harvester Company in 1902. He and many members of the McCormick familybecame prominent Chicagoans. Although McCormick is often called the "inventor" of the mechanical reaper, it was based on work by others, including his family members
was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times.
is a concept where by a person's financial liability is limited to a fixed sum, most commonly the value of a person's investment in a company or partnership with limited liability.
steamboats, railroads, canals, steam locomotives
was a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work. A strike usually takes place in response to employee grievances. Strikes became important during the industrial revolution, when mass labour became important in factories and mines.
are parts that are, for practical purposes, identical. They are made to specifications that ensure that they are so nearly identical that they will fit into any device of the same type. ; Eli Whitney
The belief that all individuals, or nearly all individuals, can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal.
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