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Roosevelt in 1904 denied any territorial ambitions in Latin America but declared that “chronic wrongdoing” by any Latin American nation would justify U.S. intervention. It was an addition to the Monroe Doctrine & was in response to European powers in Venezuela & the Dominican Republic.
Foreign policy of the Taft administration focused on advancing American commercial interests abroad (in Latin America & East Asia), a policy some called “dollar diplomacy.” America gave loans to foreign countries to open up foreign markets. Ex: In Nicaragua the U.S. had a mine & gave Diaz, the owner, millions of dollars & protection.
In 1908: The Roosevelt administration negotiated a “gentleman’s agreement” with Japan by which Tokyo pledged to halt Japanese emigration to America. This was due to Asian immigrants being put in segregated schools on the U.S. west coast.
Unrestricted submarine warfare is one of the reasons why the U.S. went to war against the Germans because they kept killing American citizens in their warfare that would not stop. They resumed these actions & eventually in 1917 sank 5 American ships.
African Americans scored the lowest on the IQ tests that the U.S. military held & so blacks held usually the lowest of ranks & jobs in the military. More than 260,000 blacks volunteered for war & 50,000 were dragged & went to France. They were excluded from the marines, were abused, & were assigned to menial positions.
Half-million blacks moved North during the war & settled in cities. Immigrants lacked so many people hired blacks instead. Letters, newspapers, & reports of work got many blacks to go North.
Justice Oliver Holmes Jr. writing for unanimous court, justified such repression in cases where a person’s exercise of the 1st amend right of free speech posed a “clear & present danger” to the nation.
Sam Gompers & the AFL urged workers not to strike during the war & with the booming economy most of the members of the AFL did not strike and union members resisted the urge for conditions were good during this time of war and there was no need to strike for their demands for hours, wages, and conditions were being met.
The Council of National Defense set up the WIB to coordinate military purchasing; ensure production efficiency, & provided weapons, equipment, & supplies to the military. Bernard Bawch was the leader & under him the WIB controlled the industrial sector: it allocated raw materials, established production priorities, & made competing companies standardize/coordinate their products & processes to save scarce commodities.
Journalist George Creel headed the key wartime propaganda agency the CPI, Committee on Public Information. They publicized the gov’s version of events & discredited all questioners. Had 21 divisions—some made posters & other distributed propaganda or “news.” Published foreign-language pamphlets & news for immigrants. Targeted workers & had “Four-Minute Men” that went around & gave 7.5 million speeches or pro-war talks to audiences.
After the Boxer issue, John Hay issued a series of Open Door Notes: reaffirmed the principle of open trade in China for all nations & announced America’s determination to preserve China’s territorial & administrational integrity.
In “The Man Nobody Knows,” ad man Bruce Barton described Jesus Chris as a managerial genius who “picked up 12 men from the bottom ranks of business & forged them into an organization that conquered the world.”
Created an efficient manner where employees where most productive in assembly lines. Ford employees sat in one place & performed repetitive tasks, no individuality was encouraged, workers were not allowed to talk, learned to speak without moving their lips, & they had expressionless masks on called “Fordization of the face,” employees had no pride, no skills were needed, & there was no chance of advancing. Fordism became a synonym worldwide for American industrial might & assembly line methods.
Farmers rallied for this bill because it was a price-support plant under which the government would annually purchase the surplus of six basic farm commodities: cotton, corn, rice, hogs, tobacco, & wheat at their average price in 1909-1914. The government would sell these surpluses abroad & make up for losses through a tax on domestic sales. Coolidge vetoed this, however.
This was Harding’s greatest achievement. He called for a conference to address the problem between the U.S., Great Britain, & Japan. They along with Italy & France pledged to reduce their battleships & to halt all battleship construction for 10 years.
In automobile suburbs, cars were used for: driving to work, to run errands, attend meetings, visit friends, explore, go to dances or parks, to go to roadside restaurants, go to tourist cabins, & to go on vacation. Also used to go to suburban department stores, shopping centers, & fast-food chains.
Most enduring 1920’s stereotype was the Flapper: it was the sophisticated, pleasure-mad young woman. The term originated with a drawing of a young woman whose rubber boots were open & flapping. These women had bobbed hair (boy cut), smoked cigarettes, wore lipstick, and wore shirt skirts. This was a way the youth could reject old wars of dress.
Harding’s administration was very corrupted and poorly selected. He chose Henry Wallace as his Sec. of Agriculture, Hughes as his Sec. of State, Mellon as Sec. of the Treasury, Hoover as Sec. of Commerce, Daugherty as attorney general, Fall as Sec. of Interior, & Forbes as Veterans’ Bureau head. “Teapot Dome” became a label for a tangle of president scandals after secretary Fall went to jail for leasing gov. oil reserves to 2 oilmen for a $400,000 bribe.
U.S. immigration policy in 1924
The National Origins Act of 1924: Revision of immigration law, restricted annual immigration from any country to 2% of the total number of persons of that “national origin” in the U.S. in 1890 (eventually changed to 1920). This law excluded Asians. This restriction was on immigrants from Southern & Eastern Europe but not on immigrants from the Western Hemisphere. This caused immigration to fall by about 1 million.
Marcus Garvey & the UNIA
Marcus Garvey led the Negro Improvement Association & was born in Jamaica. He moved to NYC’s Harlem and that became the UNIA’s headquarters. He founded the UNIA grocery stores & business & encouraged blacks to go to Africa. There were 80,000 black members. They had parades, uniforms, & flags. They had white critics, black critics from the NAACP, & critics from churches. Garvey was convicted of fraud & deported to Jamaica. The UNIA then died because of this.
These were a series of essays that were published in 1909-1914. The fundamentalists insisted on literal truth of the Bible, including the creation account. They targeted Darwin’s theory of evolution as a threat to their faith. Many states made bills to bar evolution teachings in schools. William Jennings Bryan endorsed this.
Sacco & Vanzetti
In 1920: 2 robbers shot & killed the paymaster & guard of a shoe factory & stole 2 cashboxes. The police charged 2 Italian immigrants, Sacco & Vanzetti. In 1921: the jury found them guilty—after appeals & a review of the case by citizens, the 2 men were sentenced to electrocution. They were electrocuted in 1927. The men were anarchists. Conservatives wanted to kill these men while liberals & socialists wanted to save them.
In 1915: the KKK returned & revived as hooded men gathered at Stone Mountain, Georgia. Griffith’s glorification of the KKK in “The Birth of a Nation” in 1915 also provided further inspiration for revival. 1920: the KKK became big with a national membership drive & sales of KKK items (like clothes & special member items). They attacked blacks, Catholics, Jews, & immigrants. The Klan promised to restore the nation’s lost purity. Died in 1925 but for a time they controlled many gov. positions.
Hoover described his social creed in a 1922 book called “American Individualism.” It praised big business & it made Hoover appear to be the Great Engineer.
The Monetarist School, which was composed of economists, focused on the baking system’s collapse in the 1930s. They blame the collapse on the Federal Reserve System’s tight-money policies. They argued the policy stopped economic recovery by reducing the money available for growth & investments for businesses.
Initial reaction Hoover had to the stock market crash & the first group he set up to try to turn around the declining economy. Hoover had Congress set up the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) to make loans to major economic institutions like banks & insurance companies. This group put $1.2 billion into the economy. They gave $2 billion to governments for public-works programs fro jobs & $750 million for loans to small businesses.
He was elected by the Democrats & his program included appeal to urban voters, wanted to repeal prohibition, to create programs to aid farmers, & to create budgets & cuts for federal spending.
John Lewis & Sidney Hillman, frustrated w/ the AFL, created the Committee for Industrial Organization within the AFL. CIO activists preached unionization in Pittsburgh steel mills, Detroit auto plants, Akron rubber factories, & Southern textile mills. CIO unions welcomed all workers of any race, sex, & skill level.
CIO-sponsored org. committee created a strike, won union recognition by U.S. Steel (were granted wage increases, 40 hour weeks). 400,000 joined the CIO.
Eventually became the Congress of Industrial Organization with 2-million members who broke off from the AFL. They were recognized by U.S. Steel, Little Steel, & other steel companies. They created organization for textile mills, too.
FDR wanted to add an additional Supreme Court member for each justice over 70 years old (with up to 6 additional justices). Conservatives called/ridiculed this plan as a “court-packing” scheme. Many hated/disapproved of this measure & it was never passed.
Roosevelt set up the Works Progress Administration (WPA). Harry Hopkins was in charge of this group & the WPA funneled assistance directly to individuals. Roosevelt wanted it to provide work for the jobless. They employed more than 8 million Americans, put $11 billion into the economy, constructed 650,000 miles of roads, built/repaired 124,000 bridges, & erected 125,000 schools, hospitals, post offices, & public buildings. It assisted writers, performer, & artists.
The Social Security Act was drafted by Frances Perkins. It established a mixed federal/state system of workers’ pensions; unemployment insurance; survivors’ benefits for victims of industrial accidents; & aid for disabled persons & dependent moms w/ kids. It was funded by taxes. At first, this act paid low benefits & bypassed farmers, domestic workers, & self-employed. This would set the groundwork for the huge social welfare system.
Congress (under the Emergency Banking Act) created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to insure all bank deposits up to $5,000. This was supposed to assure people that they could trust banks, again. One of the first measures that FDR took to save the economy.
An early New Deal relief program, the Civilian Conservation Corps, employed jobless youths in such government projects as reforestation, park maintenance, & erosion control. They combined work relief with environmental programs. By 1935: half a million young men were earning $35 a month in CCC camps which helped many families.
This was the principle relief measure of the Hundred Days; the Federal Emergency Relief Act appropriated $500 million for state & local relief agencies that had exhausted their funds. Harry Hopkins was the head of this program.
This was another key recovery measure of the Hundred Days; the National Industrial Recovery Act appropriated $3.3 billion for heavy-duty government public-works programs to provide jobs & stimulate the economy. Harold Ickes headed the agency that ran this program, the Public Works Administration.
The NIRA set up the National Recovery Administration (NRA). The NRA brought together business leaders to draft codes of “fair competition” for their industries. Codes set: production limits, prescribed wages/work conditions, & forbade price cutting/unfair competitive practices. Aim: to promote recovery by breaking the cycle of wage cuts, falling prices, & layoffs. This revived the trade associations. Hugh Johnson was the group leader.
Had business-gov. cooperation. Depended on voluntary support—used parades, billboards, magazine ads, & celebrity events to persuade people to buy only from NRA companies.
Was created under the Federal Securities Act; Congress created the Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC) to enforce the new regulations such as curbing the purchase of stock on credit, making sure corporations informed the Federal Trade Commission fully on stock offerings, & make sure that executives were personally liable for any misrepresentation of securities their companies issued.
Most innovative long-range recovery program of the Hundred Days. Tennessee Valley Authority—originated from WWI when a hydroelectric plant was built in Tenn. River. TVA advanced the economic/social development of the entire Tennessee River valley. A series of TVA dams supplied cheap hydroelectric power, bringing electricity. Also promoted flood control, water recreation, & erosion prevention. Headed by David Lil—the TVA was a popular New Deal measure.
Agricultural Adjustment Act—this law set up a program by which producers of the major agricultural commodities—including hogs, wheat, corn, cotton, & dairy products—received payments, called subsidies, in return for cutting production. A tax on grain mills & other food processors (tax on consumers) financed these subsidies. The Agricultural Adjustment Administration supervised the program.
She was Theodore Roosevelt’s niece who worked in settlement-house work & in the National Consumers’ League. Through her, FDR met reformers, social workers, & advocates of minority rights. Mrs. Roosevelt (Eleanor) traveled a ton & served as an observer for her wheel chair-bound husband.
He ordered all banks to close for four days. At the end of this so-called bank holiday, he proposed an Emergency Banking Act. This law, permitted healthy banks to reopen, set up procedures for managing failed banks, increased gov. oversight of banking, & required banks to separate their savings deposits from their investment funds. Also created the FDIC.
100 days - more than 12 major bills
new agencies to oversee all
J.P. Morgan lent $500 million to Britain & France to give them financial support since bankers were very involved abroad. Eventually the U.S. would give $2.3 billion to the Allies cause by the end of the war.
Military was unprepared. The regular army consisted of 120,000 men, few with combat experience, plus 80,000 National Guard members. An aging officer corps dozed away the years until retirement. Ammunition reserves were small. The War Department was corrupted with jealous bureaucrats.
They didn’t think much about WWI, at first, because the war was so far away that it didn’t really affect the people at home. Most peoples’ initial reaction was to stay neutral and to not take sides.
He urged the nation, America, to be neutral “in thought as well as in action.” He believed that war in Europe would have to come out in favor of the Allied power with U.S. help because Germany could not dominate the world if democracy & capitalism were to survive. He tried to avoid being a part of the war altogether. He tried to keep the trading waters safe & not war zones. He tried to stop submarines from sinking ships & Americans from dying so America could avoid war.
Pro-Germans & German people in the U.S. had to show loyalty by kissing the flag & taking an oath of allegiance or they would be lynched. All things German disappeared like books, names of towns, & music. Could be punished, whipped, fired, branded, shipped away, or harassed.
It was a “bull market” & rising prices typified the stock market. There were rising stock dividends, increases in personal savings, relatively easy money policies, companies invested their over-production profits in new production, lack of stock market regulation, & people were obsessed with consumption—optimistic about gaining riches & prosperity.
Entered the first stages of a Great Depression in the 1930s. Countries began setting up protective tariffs & protectionist policies, like the Smoot-Hawley Tariff of 1930 in the U.S. Global trade collapsed & by 1933, the global economic depression was at its worst. Industrial production, wholesale prices, & foreign trade all decreased while in every country unemployment sky rocketed.
Characterized by the flapper, cars, nightclubs, movies, & jazz. Products were manufactured in mass-produced packages. There were billboards, crossword puzzles, board games, & marathon dancing. There was the radio which connected the nation & announced important events. There was the Harlem Renaissance & homes were transformed by electricity. Literature, art, & architecture became huge.
Electrical use more than tripled in the 1920s. Electricity reduced household labor for women. Electricity allowed for the use of vacuums, refrigerators, washing machines, & irons.
The housework for women in the 1920s greatly decreased in labor & time due to electric & gas appliances. 75% of women reported spending less time on housework than their mothers had. Vacuums, wood-burning kitchen stoves, electric: washers, irons, & refrigerators, & store-bought clothes all replaced other more complicated & time consuming things like brooms, iceboxes, homemade clothes, & dustpans. Housework became easier.
Prosperity of the 1920s came from..
Increases in personal wealth, increased foreign trade due to WWI, high production & demand, easy money & many bank loans available, people were spending money, new inventions, electricity, cheaper work ethics, cars, low unemployment, less taxes & increases in real wages, many invested in the Stock Market & used “credit,” & a laid back gov. OVERALL CONSUMER BOOM AFTER WWI—Confidence of Americans = successful production = large profitable businesses = more spending.
He urged business leader to maintain wages & employment. He advised municipal & state govs. To create public-works projects. He set up the Emergency Committee for Employment to coordinate voluntary relief efforts. He set up the National Credit Corporation to help hard-pressed smaller banks make business loans. He also called for a tax increase—these measures had little relief & effect & they angered Americans. Set up the RFC to make loans to banks & insurance companies.
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