The distant past, when ancestral beings emerged from the earth. Their actions shaped the landscape & gave rise to all forms of life w/in it, including humans.
Also exists in present, & each individual is connected to it. W/ age a person draws closer to the realm of ancestors, & at death the spirit is reabsorbed into the Dreaming
Who made the Djalambu?
member of Yolngu, Aboriginal people who live in Eastern Arnhem Land, in northern Australia
What is the Djalambu?
"The journey back to the Dreaming"
Often, soul is said to be carried by current of water & must avoid being eaten by diver birds
What is the Djalambu made of & how is it decorated?
earth pigment catfish & diver birds are painted on Yolngu hollow-log coffins made of bark
central form = log coffin
represents catfish in river
diver bird & long-neck tortoise appear near base of coffin-catfish, & seven bullroarers accompany it
hatching & cross-hatching linear patterns are characteristics of much Aboriginal art
Monumental stone figures
Erected on Easter Island, the most remote & isolated island of Polynesia, in the 10th c.
Almost 1,000 of the monolithic statues have been found
Mot likely memorials to dead rulers or deceased rulers
A lot of effort was required to build them
Each weighs tens of tons, yet they were dragged for mls across the island & set upright on elevated stone platforms that probably served as alters
Region that extends from north of the Valley of Mexico (present-day Mexico City) through the western portion of modern Honduras
These civilizations cultivated corn, built pyramids, had a 260-day ritual calender, similar deities, an impt. ritual ball game, & a belief in the role of human blood in sustaining the gods & the universe
What was the most powerful culture in Mesoamerica during the Spanish conquests of the early 16th c.?
Aztecs collected & admired _____ ______ by the _______ civilization.
Pyramid of the Sun
AZTECS arrived to it after Teotihuacan abandoned it
stone & brick
heart of city, its ceremonial center, a complex of pyramids & temples lining 3 mile thoroughfare "the Avenue of the Dead"
sacred site where gods created the universe
temple orig. stood @ its summit
Mesoamerican pyramids were symbolically understood as mts.
What did excarations discover about the Pyramid of the Sun?
A tunnel leading to a natural cave containing a spring directly beneath the center of the pyramid of the sun. Perhaps it was this womblike source o water & life that was considered sacred by the city's orig. inhabitants
Palace & Temple of the Inscriptions
many centers, each ruled by hereditary lord & anelite class of nobles
warfare b/w centers was common, purpose was not conquest but capture
prisoners of war for human sacrifices were thought necessary to sustain gods & maintain universe
impressive official & ceremonial architecture
palace prob served as administrative & ceremonial center
set on raised terrace, constructed on 2 levels around 3 courtyards
buildings=long, many chambered galleries
the square pillars of the Palace & Temple of Inscriptions' open porches support
massive stone ceilings w/ corbelled vaulting.
Earthenware w/ cream slip
Inca city of Machu Picchu in Peru
one of the most spectacular archaeological sites in the world
Pendant depicting a Ruler
copper & gold alloy called TUMBAGA
ambitious communal dwelling site in Colorado
Hopi & Zuni Indians make doll-size versions of kachina as educational playthings so children learn to identify & understand the numerous spirits
Kachina themselves often presented dolls to young members of community
dolls contain some of spirit they represent
TAMTAM KUSHOKTA wears white Hopi blanket around waist & coyote mask. R hand vigorously shook tortoise-shell rattle while dancing L hand held bundle of prayer sticks tied up in corn husk
letting out of comm.=crop failure/other disast
lands of the Pacific include Australia & the thouands of islands grouped together, "lands of the ocean."
First islands to be settled were those to the east of New Guinea & New Guinea
The last islands to be settled were the widely scattered islands of PolynesiaThe easternmost cultural region of Oceania (Hawaii & New Zealand)
mother culture of ancient mexico
southeastern portion of Mesoamerica, primarily in Yucatan Peninsula & present-day Guatemala