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The chapter introduction tells the story of federal investigatorLorena Hickok to make the point that
Most Depression movies, like much of popular culture, tended to
provide dark images of horror or tragedy that played to the emotional despair of a suffering nation.
The dust storms that devastated the plains resulted from all thefollowing EXCEPT
One result of the "Dust Bowl" was that
several million people on the plains abandoned their farms.
During the Depression, the federal government began to deport
The story of the "Scottsboro boys" illustrates the pointthat the Depression
inflamed racial prejudice.
As Herbert Hoover entered the presidency in 1929, all of thefollowing were true of him EXCEPT that he
was a self-preoccupied investment banker.
Herbert Hoover's response to the Great Depression can best besummarized as
Which of the following was NOT a failed measure of Hoover's inattempting to try to alleviate the Depression?
created an agency to provide direct emergency relief to the jobless
Which one of the following best describes President HerbertHoover's initial approach to the Great Depression, as your text portrays it?
efforts to promote the same kind of relationship between government and business that he'd advocated during his term as secretary of commerce
At first, President Hoover tried to stimulate the economy
indirectly, by encouraging cooperative private initiative.
Besides the defeat of the discredited Hoover, what else did theelection of 1932 accomplish?
It solidified the shift to a Democratic party majority.
Which statement about the New Deal is true?
Labor unions, taking advantage of New Deal legislation, secured impressive gains despite Roosevelt's aloof attitude.
During her years as First Lady, Eleanor Roosevelt
was a passionate spokeswoman for the underdog and the disadvantaged.
The New Deal's first step to achieve recovery dealt with
What New Deal agency put young, single men to work planting trees,building parks, and fighting soil erosion?
Civilian Conservation Corps
One of the most important achievements of the New Deal in the areaof banking was included in a 1933 act. This key reform
was the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, so that the government would guarantee bank deposits.
The National Recovery Administration and the AgriculturalAdjustment Administration shared what strategy to stimulate the economy?
a voluntary, private sector-government partnership to limit production and raise prices
Which of the following did the Supreme Court declare wholly orpartly unconstitutional?
National Recovery Act and Agricultural Adjustment Act
In the "Second New Deal," Roosevelt did all of thefollowing EXCEPT
establish full economic recovery.
Which program was enacted during the Second New Deal?
an insurance program for the elderly
With the election of 1936, your text points out,
class replaced region as the dominant element in American politics.
Roosevelt's administration, under the prodding of EleanorRoosevelt and Harold Ickes,
began to support racial integration, and banned discrimination in certain programs.
What best describes the character of the post office muralspainted during the Depression?
They showed common folk from the region doing common, traditional tasks.
The New Deal, according to the assessment in your text, offered alegacy in all the following ways EXCEPT in
bringing recovery from the Great Depression.
The chapter introduction tells the story of Hawaiian pipefitterJohn Garcia to make the point that
the attack on Hawaii and subsequent global war taught Americans that they could not be isolated from the perils of the rest of the world.
What did Hoover allow his secretary of state, Henry Stimson, to doin response to the Japanese takeover of Manchuria?
refuse to recognize the new Japanese territories
What was NOT a principle or strategy that unified the diversegroup known as isolationists?
support for the Lend-Lease Act
The Nye Committee hearings in the 1930s popularized the idea thata key factor leading the United States into World War I had been
the need to protect American bank loans to the Allies (which were used to buy arms from U.S. manufacturers).
The neutrality legislation of the 1930s was based on theassumption that the United States could keep out of war by
banning arms sales to countries at war.
Concerning the background to the Pearl Harbor attack, which of thefollowing statements is true?
Before Pearl Harbor, the U.S. provided substantial military aid to the British and Russians.
During World War II, the United States was part of the "GrandAlliance," which included all of the following EXCEPT
To assist Great Britain after the fall of France in 1940,President Roosevelt
devised ways to provide aid without going to war.
Concerning the aftermath of the Pearl Harbor attack, which of thefollowing statements is NOT true?
Because of American outrage over Pearl Harbor, both Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill agreed that the Pacific war against Japan would be their priority military objective.
Which Soviet city was NOT being threatened by Nazi forces by theend of summer in 1942?
After Allied forces in North Africa were halted at the KasserinePass, which general regrouped them and masterminded an impressive string ofvictories?
Collectively the Allies, despite early defeats, enjoyedsignificant strengths that would bring victory in the long haul, including allEXCEPT
a professed public commitment to Wilsonian ideals that managed to sustain morale.
Choose the correct sequence of campaigning on the western front inthe European theater of operations: I. Cross-channel invasion; II. Invasion ofItaly; III. North Africa campaign; IV. Invasion of Sicily.
III, IV, II, I
The text makes the point that minorities in the United States
enlisted to become a part of the American mainstream.
What government body was created to help implement Executive Order8802, which forbade discrimination by race in hiring government and defenseindustry workers?
Fair Employment Practices Committee
Which statement regarding the "miracle" of warproduction is most accurate?
U.S. achievements in war production proved as important to the Allied victory as success on the battlefield.
What happened to the New Deal during the war?
An anti-New Deal coalition moved to end many New Deal programs, and the president adapted to the new political environment.
Roosevelt established the ________, similar to the agency Wilsonhad created during World War I, to ease tensions between business and labor andend labor strife.
Most Americans viewed war work for women as
a temporary response to the war emergency.
General MacArthur did in fact make his prophetic return to thePhilippines on October 1944, when he splashed ashore on the island of
With respect to Japan, the Yalta Conference provided for
the return of Russian territories.
The text portrays the key agreements at theRoosevelt-Churchill-Stalin Yalta Conference of 1945 as
a series of compromises and U.S. concessions, relying on Soviet cooperation for fulfillment.
The vast majority of Nazi Germany's war casualties occurred
The first city attacked with atomic weapons was
At the Potsdam summit,
Truman, Churchill, and Stalin agreed on occupying Germany, but had to compromise on reparations.
The chapter introduction recounts the stories of returning GITimuel Black and nurse Betty Basye. The point drawn from these anecdotes is how
different from "normal" life became as the American government met the international and economic challenges of peacetime.
America's basic cold war strategy emerged when the Trumanadministration adopted the recommendations of U.S. diplomat and Sovietspecialist George Kennan. This strategy is known as the
Several factors explain the rise of the cold war. Which of thefollowing does NOT describe these factors?
economic: both the U.S. and USSR were economically devastated after World War II
Four key initiatives in the Truman administration set the basicpattern for implementing the strategy of containment. Which was NOT one ofthese initiatives?
a program of secret spy plane flights over specified potential targets within Russian territory
"The Truman Doctrine marked a new level of American commitmentto a cold war." On what basis does the text make this statement?
Truman's pledge to support free peoples who resisted totalitarian takeover signaled an open-ended intent to oppose the Soviets anywhere in the world.
What did the secretary of state offer in his Marshall Plan?
to provide financial aid to rebuild Europe's war-torn economies
In addition to Communist takeovers in Hungary and Czechoslovakia,what else did the Soviets do to try to cement their hold on Eastern Europe?
In response to the United States' proposal for a U.S.-ledinternational atomic agency to supervise the mining and use of the world'satomic raw materials, the Soviet Union
demanded nuclear disarmament before any agreement would be made.
In the absence of sufficient U.S. troops to confront the Sovietarmy in Eastern Europe, what defense strategy was developed by the late 1940s?
What fueled the postwar economic boom?
both private-sector spending and public-sector spending
During a five-day period, a(n) ________ layer trapped a toxic brewof air pollutants over the town of Donora, Pennsylvania, killing some twentypeople and sending half the town's population to the hospital
Which statement about the postwar world of work is most accurate?
Minority workers lost their jobs through the practice of "last hired, first fired."
All of the following forces stymied Truman's efforts to revive theNew Deal EXCEPT
un-met demands of veterans.
The Taft-Hartley Act of 1947
restricted the power of labor unions.
Truman's postwar New Deal and Fair Deal efforts were largelyfrustrated by conservative opposition. But one unparalleled success was
Which statement about what might be termed the "second Redscare" after World War II is true?
The administration, the House of Representatives, and the Senate all conducted probes of possible subversive activity.
With his "Fair Deal," Truman hoped to keep his workingcoalition of ________ together.
labor and farmers
Who was Alger Hiss?
a high-ranking American government official convicted of lying about his association with a known Communist
Among the "shocks of 1949" was the
fall of China to Mao Zedong's Communists.
McCarthyism primarily and fundamentally reflected
the fears and hatreds of many Americans, who were suspicious of things foreign, liberal, internationalist, European, or intellectual.
Senator Joseph McCarthy's popularity in his crusade againstdomestic Communists finally began to slide after McCarthy
was televised badgering witnesses and mocking Senate procedures during Senate hearings.
NSC-68, a proposal of Truman's National Security Council, calledfor
massive U.S. defense expenditures to counter the worldwide Soviet threat.
What was the official status of the American force fighting inKorea?
an authorized agent of a United Nations police action
General MacArthur was relieved of his command in Korea because he
publicly opposed Truman's policy of limited war in Korea.
How did the Korean War finally end?
A military deadlock and protracted negotiations finally ended in an armistice that maintained a divided Korea.
The chapter introduction uses the automobile as a symbol for the1950s in order to make the point that
a culture of mobility developed, featuring abundance and a high degree of movement, especially to the suburbs.
All of the following help explain the rise of suburbia EXCEPT
"white flight," which lured rural residents to the glamour and high living standards of metropolitan areas.
Which one of the following was NOT a major social or economictrend of the post-World War II era?
a cultural consensus enthusiastically supported by all segments of society
American life in the 1950s has been described—then and since—as atime of "consensus." What does your text recognize as a dark side tothis consensus?
grew to more than half the population for the first time in the twentieth
Religion in the 1950s was
one way Americans in suburbia maintained a sense of identity and community.
Which stereotype of women was most common in the 1950s?
domestic and motherly
Which of the following was NOT an environmental cost of the 1950ssuburban housing boom?
environmental impact fees
In your text, a comparison is made between Khrushchev, a partystalwart with a formidable intellect and agrarian origins, with anotherfarm-belt politician, ________.
Modern Republicanism in practice meant
The form of corporate growth used to minimize shocks in specificmarkets, used when General Electric entered markets for appliances, X-raymachines, and elevators, is known as
What phrase did President Eisenhower coin to describe thevulnerable neighbors of a country like Vietnam threatened with a Communisttakeover?
For corporations in the 1950s, diversification and conglomerationwere
hedges against major recessions.
Which of the following statements about the domestic policy styleof the Eisenhower era is most accurate?
"Ike's" presidency stressed a pragmatic and moderate approach.
In the final stages of the French-Vietnamese war, the UnitedStates
was subsidizing the costs of the French war effort.
Which of the following was NOT true at the height of the cold warin the 1950s?
The hostility between the U.S. and USSR grew more and more intense and uncompromising.
Which of the following statements about the foreign policies ofthe Eisenhower era is NOT true?
Because of the Berlin blockade, the summit meeting scheduled for 1960 between Dwight Eisenhower and Nikita Khrushchev was never held.
The "New Look" in cold war policy, identified withEisenhower and John Foster Dulles, proclaimed a U.S. commitment to
containing the Soviets through security and trade agreements, covert action, and the threat of a full nuclear response.
Just before leaving office in 1961, President Eisenhower warnedAmericans of the
dangers of the military-industrial complex.
All of the following offered, directly or implicitly, consciousdissent from the consensus-oriented, organizational culture of the 1950s EXCEPT
the TV preachers.
In the election of 1960, which of the following were keycomponents in Kennedy's victory?
All these answers are correct.
The cornerstone of Kennedy's foreign policy in Latin America was aprogram known as
the Alliance for Progress.
In April of 1961, a 1,400-strong army of poorly-equipped Cubanexiles landed at
President Kennedy's economic philosophy was
tilted more toward the success of big business.
What event was Khrushchev speaking of when he said the world hadcome close to "destroying the human race"?
the wrenching changes of the 1960s, which affected most Americans, grew out of the social trends and conditions of the 1950s.
Approximately what percentage of cotton was picked mechanically in 1960?
What finally pushed the Kennedy administration to commit to federal legislation to end segregation and protect voting rights?
The case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka concerned
racial segregation in public schools.
In the 1947 Texas desegregation order there was an exception; the first grade could continue to be segregated. What was the rationale for this exception?
What event, more than any other, catapulted Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. to national prominence?
Martin Luther King, Jr. rose to leadership in the civil rights movement during the 1950s. His strategies, different from those of the recent past, would become the primary techniques of the civil rights movement into the 1960s. What is the most accurate summary of this transition in the movement?
King proposed nonviolent confrontation rather than the NAACP's strategy of legal challenges to segregation in the courts.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964, according to your text, "marked one of the great moments in the history of American reform." It barred discrimination in all of the following EXCEPT
The Civil Rights Act of 1964, according to your text, "marked one of the great moments in the history of American reform." It barred discrimination in all of the following EXCEPT
All of the following were elements of Johnson's "Great Society" programs EXCEPT
a funding program to return tax revenues to states.
The Immigration Act of 1965
abolished the national origins quota system.
Which city was NOT wracked by violence and rioting in the 1960s?
What geographic reorientation of popular culture had occurred by the later 1960s?
the rise of the West Coast as trend-setter
In the election of 1964, President Johnson was opposed by the ruggedly handsome and refreshingly candid
Which of the following musicians transformed himself from the quintessential folk protest artist into a major force in American rock music?
In which place, in 1969, did all the positive forces of the counterculture come together to celebrate peace, love, and freedom?
Which of the following civil rights organizations effectively used the nation's judicial system to implement lasting change in America?
Which of the following presented the most divisive issue the Kennedy administration had to face?
Which of the following groups represented the most radical and violent choice available to black Americans in the 1960s?
Supreme Court decisions designed to protect the rights of citizens who had been accused but not yet convicted of a crime were intended to benefit which group in society?
Pope John instructed the Vatican II council to examine which of the following issues?
Harvard professor ________ began experimenting with hallucinogenic mushrooms in Mexico and soon moved on to LSD. He was eventually fired by the university.
The chapter introduction juxtaposes the stories of Marines in Vietnam and National Guardsmen at Kent State to make what point?
America divided over the fundamental question of who was a true friend and who the real enemy.
In a war with uncertain goals—to escalate until the other side negotiated a settlement—what became the measure of U.S. military success?
Why couldn't America's superior technology prevail in Vietnam?
Technology did not distinguish friend from foe.
The Czechoslovakian student movement that launched into a full-scale rebellion was known as
For America, the ________ was a great failure of foreign intelligence, a great tactical military success, and a great political defeat.
The Nixon-Kissinger team
shared a global vision of U.S. foreign policy, and tended to pursue their ends secretly.
The term "Vietnamization" refers to the policy of
shifting the burden of actual combat to the South Vietnamese.
The Nixon Doctrine proclaimed
that the U.S. would expect its allies to share the burden of preserving world peace and order.
Richard Nixon is best described as a(n)
pragmatist, who deviated from his own earlier positions in both foreign and domestic policy.
Who in the 1950s did NOT support helping Indians to end their confinement on reservations and move into the urban mainstream?
full-blood Indians seeking to preserve tribal culture
What tactic, eventually ruled illegal by the courts, did President Nixon use to battle Democratic programs that he opposed?
How did U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War finally end?
with the negotiated withdrawal of U.S. troops according to a treaty with North Vietnam
Which of the following Supreme Court decisions struck down 46 state laws that restricted a woman's access to abortion?
The large majority of Asian Americans lived in just three states. Which of the following is NOT one of these three states?
Gays achieved a major symbolic victory in 1974 when the ________ removed homosexuality from its list of mental disorders.
American Psychiatric Association
What percentage of women were employed outside the home in 1970?
Which river running through industrial Cleveland, Ohio, was so polluted it caught fire in 1969?
In 1970, Nixon established the ________, whose first major act recognized Rachel Carson's campaign by banning most domestic uses of DDT.
The presidential elections of 1968 and 1972 revealed a shift in political power toward
the southern and western states.
A ________ is a type of grant that is not earmarked for a specific purpose. With such grants, localities could decide which problems needed attention and how best to attack them.
The Supreme Court during the Nixon administration placed ________ ahead of ________.
rights and liberties; traditional values and law enforcement
President Nixon refused to turn over secretly-recorded Oval Office conversations to the special prosecutor,
claiming executive privilege and matters of national security.
Which of the following was NOT one of the three articles of impeachment adopted by the House Judiciary Committee regarding Nixon?
Which of the following was NOT a congressional response to the 1973 oil embargo?
setting higher automobile fuel efficiency standards
"The enemy must fight his battles far from his home base for a long time. We must further weaken him by drawing him into protracted campaigns. Once his initial dash is broken, it will be easier to destroy him." What enemy does this quotation speak of?
The chapter introduction tells the story of San Diego's Horton Plaza to make the point that
malls, as centers of consumer culture, symbolized the private quest for personal fulfillment typical of the 1980s.
The word that describes a diverse group of conservative Protestant Christians, who in the late 1970s became noticeably influential as political and social activists, is
Conservatives in the late 1970s and 1980s criticized many trends in American culture. Ironically, one of their targets was also a key to their success. This was
affected Catholics as well as Protestants.
Retired Californian ________ formed the United Organizations of Taxpayers, which worked to place on the 1978 state ballot an initiative known as Proposition 13. The measure cut property taxes statewide by 57 percent.
Which of the following did Jimmy Carter NOT bring to the Oval Office?
a set of priorities
In March 1979, a plume of radioactive steam spewed from an overheated nuclear reactor at ________ in Pennsylvania.
Jimmy Carter faced a host of economic problems when he became president: stagnating wages, rising unemployment, inflation, and falling industrial productivity. From which previous president(s) did he inherit a large federal budget deficit?
Carter negotiated a treaty that gave control of the Canal Zone to
Which of the following describes the limited compromise struck by Sadat and Begin at the summit President Carter hosted at Camp David in 1978?
Sadat would recognize Israel; Israel would return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.
Demonstrating a desire to curb the power of organized labor, the Reagan administration took a hard line against an illegal strike by
All the following groups voiced criticism of television programming EXCEPT
In the 1980 election, a three-way race, the candidate who had been governor of California was
Republican Ronald Reagan, who won.
The Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982
included a $98 billion tax increase.
Ronald Reagan came into office in 1981 with a threefold agenda, including all of the following EXCEPT
reduction in the power and activism of the presidency.
Who was the first woman nominated for vice president by either major party?
Which of the following is NOT an effect resulting from the boom in computer use in business offices and on factory floors?
increased demand for low-skilled workers
Why did National Security Adviser Robert McFarlane, Admiral John Poindexter, and their aides assume they had the power to act on their own when dealing with Iranian moderates and Nicaraguan rebels?
a secret intelligence "finding" signed by the president
The Reagan administration focused on three priorities in foreign policy. Which of the following accurately states an initiative in one of the three areas?
Soviet Union: both a sharp military build-up and a new arms control treaty
How was the scandal known as "Irangate" different from the "Watergate" scandal of the Nixon administration?
In the 1980s, with health care costs skyrocketing, a deadly new disease threatened to take on epidemic proportions. In this disease,
a virus broke down the human immune system.
An agreement at a 1987 summit in Moscow
provided for destruction of certain nuclear missiles, with on-site inspection.
Who established a "Council on Competitiveness," whose mission was to rewrite regulations that corporations found burdensome?
In the 1988 presidential election, George H. W. Bush benefited from all of the following EXCEPT
support from remnants of the Old Left in Washington.
Which statement best explains Bill Clinton's victory in 1992?
Middle-of-the-road voters turned to Clinton, who painted himself as a moderate.
In the introduction to the chapter, the story of Juan Chanax illustrates what about American immigration history?
His story mirrors the classic tale of immigrants to America, achieving the American dream.
In 1995, Israeli Prime Minister Itzak Rabin was assassinated by a(n)
While Latino immigrants to the U.S. reflected various streams, they all tended to settle in which of the following areas?
The text alludes to the fact that in the 1990s, one of the most important commodities that flowed from the U.S. to immigrants' countries of origin was
When William Jefferson Clinton took office in 1993, he imagined himself to be a(n)
In which two sub-Saharan African countries did brutal civil wars break out in the early 1990s?
In 1995 and 1999, President Clinton authorized the use of American military force to aid which two countries in Europe?
Which of the following was NOT a part of Newt Gingrich's "Contract with America"?
elimination of congressional term limits
The scandal that led to President Clinton's eventual impeachment was ________ in nature.
Despite the president's eventual admission that he had lied about the Lewinsky affair, in the end a majority of the American people
did not support Republican calls for impeachment.
President Clinton's impeachment crisis left the president
Advocates for a "Web" that was open and free to all were expressing the concept of
Many feminists hailed the UAW v. Johnson Controls decision as a step toward workplace equality. Why did feminist scholar Cynthia Daniels question it?
It would risk placing women in workplaces designed by and for men.
In 1973-1996, the earnings of the average white male worker
Which of the following was a crucial factor in determining winners in the computer-based economy?
The economic prosperity of the late 1990s produced which of the following social consequences?
In 1996, California voters passed a controversial ballot initiative known as Proposition 209, which
eliminated racial and gender preferences in hiring and college admissions.
A 1998 ballot initiative in California that mandated schools phase out all bilingual education programs was proposed by
a group of Spanish-speaking parents who wanted their children taught to read and write in English.
The tax cuts proposed by President Bush and passed by Congress in 2001 and 2002
After the 2004 election, President Bush appointed two new Supreme Court justices,
John Roberts and Samuel Alito.
Your text suggests the greatest blow to President Bush's popularity, reminding Americans of the importance of effective government, was
Which of the following policy changes was NOT directly implemented by President Obama?
"Cap and trade" legislation rewards corporations who help the environment by allowing them to
earn credits by cutting emissions below defined levels, and trading these credits for payments from companies who are not meeting those levels.
The USA Patriot Act, passed so quickly by Congress that some members did not even read the bill before voting for it, broadly expanded government powers to
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