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1.A physical injury or wound caused by external force or violence is called __________.
2.__________ is the leading killer of persons under age 44 in the United States.
3.An injury caused by an object breaking the skin and entering the body is called __________ __________.
4.An injury caused by the collision of an object with the body in which the object does not enter the body is called __________ __________.
5.Serious trauma is a(n) __________ disease.
6.A Level __________, or __________ trauma center commits resources to address all types of specialty trauma 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
7.A Level __________, or __________ trauma center commits resources to the most common trauma emergencies with surgical capability available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
8.A Level __________, or __________ trauma center commits to special emergency department training and has some surgical capability.
9.Certain medical facilities such as neurocenters and burn centers may be classified as ______ centers.
10.__________ __________ __________ are the guidelines to aid prehospital personnel in determining which trauma patients require urgent transportation to a trauma center.
10.Trauma triage criteria
11.The force or process that causes trauma is called the __________ __________ __________ .
11.mechanism of injury
12.The __________ __________ __________ is the anticipation of injury to a body region, organ, or structure based on analysis of the mechanism of injury.
12.index of suspicion
13.The 60-minute period after a severe injury is called the __________ Hour.
14.A mechanism of injury indicating the need for immediate transport is a fall greater than __________ feet for an adult, and greater than __________ feet for an infant or child.
15.A physical finding indicating the need for immediate transport is a pulse rate greater than __________ or less than __________.
1.__________ trauma is the most common cause of trauma death and disability.
2.__________ is the branch of physics that deals with motion, taking into consideration mass and force.
3.The tendency of an object to remain at rest or remain in motion unless acted upon by an external force is called __________.
4.__________ is the process of changing place.
5.The capacity to do work in the strict physical sense is called __________.
6.The energy an object has while it is in motion is called __________ energy.
7.__________ is the rate of motion in a particular direction in relation to time.
8.__________ is the rate at which speed increases, and __________ is the rate at which speed decreases.
9.Trauma can be categorized as either __________ or __________.
10.__________ is the draining of blood to the point at which life cannot be sustained.
11.The five types of vehicle impacts are __________, __________, __________, __________-__________, and __________.
11.frontal, lateral, rotational, rear-end, rollover
12.The five events of vehicle collision are __________ collision, __________ collision, __________ collision, __________ collisions, and __________ impacts.
12.vehicle, body, organ, secondary, additional
13.Parents should secure child carriers in the __________ seat when a passenger __________ system is in place.
14.Mechanisms associated with frontal impacts include __________ -and- __________ pathway, __________ -and- __________ pathway, and __________.
14.down, under; up, over; ejection
15.The __________-__________-__________ pathway accounts for over half of the deaths in vehicular crashes.
16.The __________ __________ syndrome results from compression of the chest against the steering column.
17.__________ __________ is the application of the forces of trauma along the axis of the spine.
18.The region of a vehicle designed to absorb the energy of impact is called the __________ __________.
19.Due to the deflection of impact, the occupant’s stopping distance being greater, and the deceleration being more gradual, injuries are generally less serious in __________ impact collisions.
20.__________ and __________ __________ trauma account for 85 percent of deaths in vehicular crashes.
20.Head, body cavity
21.Helmets reduce the incidence and severity of __________ injuries in motorcycle crashes.
22.In pedestrian versus automobile crashes, adults tend to turn __________ from the oncoming vehicle, while children turn __________ it.
23.A(n) __________ is an agent that combines oxygen with a fuel.
24.Breaking glass and parts of collapsing walls propelled outward with the release of the blast energy are called __________.
25.A rapid increase then decrease in atmospheric pressure created by an explosion is called __________.
26.Mechanisms associated with blasts include __________ wave, __________ wind, __________, __________ displacement, __________ spaces and __________ collapses, and __________.
26.pressure, blast, projectiles, personnel, confined, structural, burns
27.The three blast injury phases are __________, __________, and __________.
27.primary, secondary, tertiary
28.__________ injuries are the most common and serious trauma associated with explosions.
29.A(n) __________ is a collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity between the chest wall and lung.
30.A serious fall for an adult is one that is from __________ feet or higher, or __________ times the patient’s own height.
1.List the five events of vehicle collision and give a brief definition of each.
1.Vehicle collision—auto strikes an object; Body collision—vehicle occupant strikes the vehicle’s interior; Organ collision—tissues behind contacting surface collide as the body halts; Secondary collisions—vehicle occupant impacted by objects within auto; Additional impacts—vehicle receives a second impact
2.List the five types of vehicle impact and give a brief definition of each.
2.frontal, lateral, rotational, rear-end, rollover
3.List the three mechanisms associated with frontal impacts.
3.down-and-under pathway; up-and-over pathway; ejection
4.List the six mechanisms associated with blasts.
4.pressure wave, blast wind, projectiles, personnel displacement, confined spaces and structural collapses, burns
5.List the three blast injury phases.
5.primary, secondary, tertiary
1.Wounds from __________ bullets are from two to four times more lethal than wounds from __________ bullets.
2.__________ is the study of projectile motion and its interactions with the gun, the air, and the object it contacts.
3.The path a projectile follows is its __________.
4.__________ is the forces acting on a projectile in motion to slow its progress.
5.Factors affecting energy exchange between a projectile and body tissue are __________, __________, __________, expansion and __________, __________ impacts, and __________.
5.velocity, profile, stability, fragmentation, secondary, shape
6.The formation of a partial vacuum and subsequent cavity within a semifluid medium is called ___________.
7.The size and shape of a projectile as it contacts a target is called its __________.
8.The __________ of a bullet is its diameter expressed in hundredths of an inch.
9.__________ is the swing or wobble around the axis of a projectile’s travel.
10.The location of a bullet’s center of mass affects its __________.
11.Some bullets are designed to mushroom on impact, thus increasing their __________, __________ exchange rate, and __________ potential.
11.profile, energy, damage
12.The handgun is a(n) __________ velocity weapon, while the rifle is a(n) ___________ velocity weapon.
13.The damage pathway that a high-velocity projectile inflicts results from three specific factors: __________ injury, the __________ __________ wave, and __________.
13.direct, pressure shock, cavitation
14.The connective strength and elasticity of an object or material is called its __________.
15.__________ organs have the density but not the resiliency of muscle.
16.The filling of the pericardial sac with fluid is called pericardial __________.
17.The __________ is the largest body cavity and contains most of the internal organs.
18.Monitor the __________ closely of any patient with a penetrating wound to the neck.
19.A(n) __________ wound may more accurately reflect the potential damage caused by a bullet’s pathway through the body than a(n) __________ wound.
20.If a call involves a knifing injury, attempt to determine the __________ and approximate ___________ of the attacker and the __________ of the blade.
20.gender, weight, length
21.__________ is the surgical incision to provide an emergency airway.
22.__________ is the introduction of a needle to provide an emergency airway.
23.The anticipated outcome of a disease or injury is the __________.
24.Seal open chest wounds with a(n) __________ dressing.
25.Unless the impaled object is in the cheek and interfering with the patient’s airway, you should ___________ impaled objects in place.
______1.Wounds from handguns are just as lethal as those from rifles.
______2.Bullets follow a curved path once fired from a gun.
______3.To prevent tumbling, bullets are sent spinning through the air by the gun barrel’s rifling.
______4.When bullets mushroom, their profile, energy exchange rate, and damage potential increase.
______5.Handguns and rifles are considered medium-velocity weapons.
______6.The damage caused by high-energy bullets rarely extends beyond the actual track of the projectile.
______7.Low-velocity projectiles do not produce either a pressure shock wave or cavitation.
______8.The pressure shock wave is the damage done as the projectile strikes tissue, contuses and tears that tissue, and pushes the tissue out of its way.
______9.Damage caused by low-velocity wounds is limited to the object’s path of travel.
______10.Muscles, the skin, and other connective tissues are dense, elastic, and very well held together.
______11.Solid organs have the same density and resiliency as muscle.
______12.If a high-velocity bullet impacts the heart immediately after a cardiac contraction, rupture and exsanguination may occur.
______13.Penetrating injury to lung tissue is generally less extensive than can be expected with any other body tissue.
______14.The passage of a projectile through the abdominal cavity does not produce a significant cavitational wave.
______15.Impaled objects in the chest should be removed and an occlusive dressing applied.
______16.Entrance wounds will often have a “blown-out” appearance.
______17.If you arrive at the scene of a shooting or stabbing before law enforcement, make every effort to secure the scene.
______18.The presence of frothy blood from a gunshot wound to the chest may indicate a developing tension pneumothorax.
______19.Seal open chest wounds with a moist, sterile dressing.
______20.An impaled object may obstruct blood vessels, thereby restricting blood loss.
1.Abnormal internal or external discharge of blood is called __________.
2.__________ means inadequate tissue perfusion.
3.The three phases of the clotting process are the __________ phase, the __________ phase, and __________.
3.vascular, platelet, coagulation
4.__________ acid is a byproduct of anaerobic metabolism.
5.Bleeding from the nose is called __________.
6.The difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressures is the __________ __________.
7.A drop in systolic blood pressure of 20 mmHg or an increase in pulse rate of 20 beats per minute when a patient is moved from a supine to a sitting position is called a positive __________ __________.
8.A decrease in blood pressure that occurs when a person moves from a supine or sitting position to an upright position is called __________ hypotension.
9.__________ __________ controls all but the most persistent hemorrhage.
10.The second stage of metabolism, requiring the presence of oxygen, is called __________ metabolism.
11.The blood flow in the arterioles, capillaries, and venules is called the __________.
12.__________ shock is the stage of shock in which we see increased pulse rate, cool clammy skin, and anxiety and restlessness.
13.Cells die, tissues dysfunction, organs dysfunction, and the patient dies in the __________ stage of shock.
14.__________ __________ solution is the most practical choice for prehospital fluid resuscitation.
15.__________ __________ __________, __________ __________, and __________ __________ are contraindications to PASG application and inflation.
15.Penetrating chest trauma, pulmonary edema, cardiogenic shock
______5.continuing hemodynamic insult to the body in which the compensatory mechanisms break down. The signs and symptoms become very pronounced, and the patient moves rapidly toward death.
______8.second step in the clotting process in which platelets adhere to blood vessel walls and to each other.
______14.difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressures.
______6.compound produced from pyruvic acid during anaerobic glycolyis.
______18.the third step in the clotting process, which involves the formation of a protein called fibrin that forms a network around a wound to stop bleeding, ward off infection, and lay a foundation for healing and repair of the wound.
______11.hemodynamic insult to the body in which the body responds effectively. Signs and symptoms are limited, and the human system functions normally.
______19.the body’s three-step response to stop the loss of blood.
______2.method of hemorrhage control that relies on the application of pressure to the actual site of the bleeding.
______16.a reduction in the hemoglobin content in the blood to a point below that required to meet the oxygen requirements of the body.
______20.protein fibers that trap red blood cells as part of the clotting process.
______4.passage of stools containing red blood.
______10.bleeding from the nose resulting from injury, disease, or environmental factors; a nosebleed.
______13.the natural tendency of the body to maintain a steady and normal internal environment.
______7.a state of inadequate tissue perfusion.
______15.step in the clotting process in which smooth blood vessel muscle contracts, reducing the vessel lumen and the flow of blood through it.
______1.final stage of shock in which organs and cells are so damaged that recovery is impossible.
______12.a decrease in blood pressure that occurs when a person moves from a supine or sitting to an upright position.
______9.group of red blood cells that are stuck together.
______17.positive pressure ventilation supplied to a breathing patient.
______3.an abnormal internal or external discharge of blood.
1.The three layers of the skin, beginning with the outermost, are the ____________, the ____________, and the ____________ layers.
1.epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous
2.Collectively, the skin is known as the ____________ system.
3.The fatty secretion that helps keep the skin pliable and waterproof is called ____________.
4.A(n) ____________ is a white blood cell that specializes in humoral immunity and antibody formation.
5.The natural patterns in the surface of the skin are called ____________ lines.
6.General reddening of the skin due to dilation of the superficial capillaries is called ____________.
7.Blue-black discoloration of the skin due to leakage of blood into the tissues is called ____________.
8.A(n) ____________ is a closed wound in which the skin is unbroken, although damage has occurred to the tissue immediately beneath.
9.____________ is a collection of blood beneath the skin or trapped within a body compartment.
10.A(n) ____________ ____________ is a mechanism of injury in which tissue is locally compressed by high-pressure forces.
11.____________ ____________ is the systemic disorder of severe metabolic disturbances resulting from the crushing of a limb or other body part.
12.The natural tendency of the body to maintain its normal functions is called ____________.
13.____________ is tough, strong protein that comprises most of the body’s connective tissue.
14.____________ is the most common complication of open wounds.
15.____________ are the visible red streaks extending from a wound and are an indication of infection.
16.The new growth of capillaries in response to healing is called ____________.
17.Some medications, like aspirin, warfarin, and heparin, can interfere with the ____________ process.
18.Muscle ischemia caused by rising pressures within an anatomic fascial space is called ____________ syndrome.
19.Perform a(n) ____________ ____________ assessment on patients with a significant mechanism of injury.
20.Perform a(n) ____________ ____________ assessment on patients who have no significant mechanism of injury.
21.Three assessment techniques used during the assessment of a trauma patient are ____________, ____________, and ____________.
21.inquiry, inspection, palpation
22.The three objectives of dressing and bandaging wounds are ____________ ____________, ____________, and ____________.
22.hemorrhage control, sterility, immobilization
23.A(n) ____________ is used to control hemorrhage as a last resort.
24.Current recommendations for managing amputated body parts include dry ____________ and ____________ transport.
25.Do not remove ____________ objects because of the risk of serious, uncontrollable bleeding.
______1.Outermost layer of the skin.
______2.Layer of adipose and connective tissue.
______3.Layer of tissue producing the epidermis and consisting of blood vessels, nerves, and glands.
______4.A collection of blood trapped within a body compartment.
______5.Open wound, normally with jagged borders.
______6.Smooth, surgical-type open wound.
______7.Blue-black discoloration of the skin due to leakage of blood into the tissues.
______8.The most common and, next to hemorrhage, the most serious complication of open wounds.
______9.Wound in which the skin is torn off the underlying muscle, blood vessels, and bone.
______10.The primary, and most effective method, of controlling hemorrhage.
______11.Process of local cellular and biochemical changes as a consequence of injury or infection.
______12.Muscle ischemia that is caused by rising pressures within an anatomic fascia space.
1.The four types of burns are __________, __________, __________, and __________.
1.thermal, electrical, chemical, radiation
2.As molecular speed increases from a burn injury, the cell components begin to break down, or__________.
3.The area of a burn most damaged and nearest the heat source is called the zone of __________.
4.The area of a burn adjacent to the most-damaged region, where you will see inflammation and a decrease in blood flow, is called the zone of __________.
5.The first stage of the burn process, characterized by a catecholamine and pain-mediated reaction, is the __________ phase.
6.The stage of the burn process in which there is increased body metabolism in an attempt by the body to heal the burn is called the __________ phase.
7.__________ usually continue to destroy cell membranes through liquefaction necrosis, allowing them to penetrate underlying tissue and causing deeper burns.
8.X-rays are __________ radiation.
9.__________ radiation is uncommon outside of nuclear reactors and bombs.
10.Suspect __________ __________ poisoning in any patient who was in an enclosed space during combustion.
11.__________ __________ has greater heat content than hot, dry air.
12.Burns involving only the epidermis are called __________ burns.
13.Burns involving the epidermis and the dermis are called __________ - __________ burns.
14.Burns that damage all the layers of the skin are called __________ - __________ burns.
15.Use the rule of __________ when estimating the size of a large burn.
16.Use the rule of __________ when estimating the size of a small burn.
17.Dead and denatured skin resulting from a full-thickness burn is called __________.
18.When considering rapid sequence intubation, use succinylcholine cautiously as it may worsen the __________ sometimes associated with severe burns.
19.Full-thickness burns greater than 10 percent BSA are considered __________ burns.
20.A full-thickness burn covering less than 2 percent BSA is considered a(n) __________ burn.
21.Separate burned __________ and __________ with dry, sterile gauze.
22.__________ __________ may induce dysrhythmias such as bradycardias, tachycardias, v-fib, and asystole.
23.Irrigate chemical splashes to the eye with large volumes of __________.
24.__________ (Do/Do not) attempt to neutralize chemicals splashed on the skin.
25.__________ __________, and __________ are important factors in determining dose of radiation exposure.
25.Duration, distance, shielding
______1.Burn injuries carry an increased danger of infection.
______2.A burn is a progressive process.
______3.Thermal and chemical burns are the only types of burns known to cause soft-tissue injury.
______4.Electrical injury usually does very little damage to muscle tissue.
______5.Respiratory arrest from an electrical burn is due to the immobilization of the muscles from prolonged exposure to an electrical current.
______6.The human body offers little resistance to the flow of electricity.
______7.A superficial, or first-degree burn, involves only the upper layers of the epidermis and dermis.
______8.The presence of blisters is one way to differentiate between a superficial and partial-thickness burn.
______9.Full-thickness burns involve injury to blood vessels, nerves, muscle tissue, bone, and sometimes internal organs.
______10.A sunburn, resulting in red, painful skin, is an example of a partial-thickness burn.
______11.A partial-thickness burn to the entire right leg of an infant represents approximately 9 percent of the child’s total BSA.
______12.A partial-thickness burn to an adult’s upper and lower back represents approximately 18 percent total BSA.
______13.During a burn, loss of plasma protein will reduce the body’s ability to draw fluids from uninjured tissues.
______14.Hypovolemia is an early sign of a partial-thickness burn.
______15.A dry lime burn should first be flushed with water and then dried off.
1.About __________ percent of patients who suffer multisystem trauma experience significant musculoskeletal injuries.
2.The types of muscular injuries are contusion, __________ syndrome, __________ injury, muscle __________, muscle __________, muscle __________, and muscle__________.
2.compartment, penetrating, fatigue, cramp, spasm, strain
3.Muscle __________ occurs as the muscles reach their limit of performance.
4.A minor and incomplete capsule tear is called a Grade __________ sprain; significant but incomplete tear is a Grade __________; complete tear is a Grade __________.
4.I, II, III
5.The complete displacement of a bone end from its position in a joint capsule is called a(n) __________.
6.A broken bone in which the bone ends or the forces that caused the fracture do not penetrate the skin is called a(n) __________ fracture. A broken bone in which the bone ends or the forces that caused it penetrate the surrounding skin is called a(n) __________ fracture.
7.A fracture in which the bone is broken into several pieces is a(n) __________ fracture.
8.Softening of bone tissue due to loss of essential minerals, especially calcium, is known as __________.
9.A partial fracture of a child’s bone is known as a(n) __________ fracture.
10.A pelvic fracture may account for hemorrhage of more than __________ liters.
11.A femoral fracture may account for as much as __________ mL of blood loss.
12.The six “Ps” in evaluating limb injury are __________, ___________, __________, __________, __________, and __________.
12.pain, pallor, paralysis, paresthesia, pressure, pulses
13.Evaluate the distal extremity for __________, __________, __________, __________, and __________ refill.
13.pulse, temperature, color, sensation, capillary
14.__________ syndrome results from bleeding into, or edema within, a muscle mass surrounded by fasciae that do not stretch.
15.The basics of musculoskeletal injury care include protecting __________ wounds, proper __________, __________, and monitoring of __________ function.
15.open, positioning, immobilization, neurovascular
16.Do not attempt alignment of dislocations and serious injuries within __________ inches of a joint.
17.The traction splint is used for care of the isolated traumatic __________ fracture.
18.When splinting a fracture, immobilize the joint __________ and __________ the injury site.
19.Begin fracture care by assuring distal __________, __________, and __________ function.
19.pulses, sensation, motor
20.The PASG is an effective splint for traumatic __________ fractures and helps control internal __________.
21.The most effective splinting technique for a humeral fracture is to apply a(n) __________ and a(n) __________ to immobilize the bent limb.
22.A(n) __________ splint can be used with injuries to the ankles and feet.
23.__________ __________ is an analgesic used in a gaseous state.
24.__________ is an opiate narcotic, chemically unrelated to morphine, that provides immediate and effective pain control.
25.Recent studies have questioned the effectiveness of __________ as a prehospital analgesic, and it has fallen into relative disuse.
______1.A dislocation is a displacement of bones from a joint.
______2.The chance of blood vessel damage is much greater with long bone fractures than with injuries to the joint.
______3.Pelvic fractures, though painful, seldom result in loss of circulation to the lower extremities.
______4.A hip fracture will sometimes present with a lateral rotation of the foot and knee.
______5.Fractures of the humerus, pelvis, and femur seldom contribute to hypovolemia.
______6.Dislocations of the knee are only rarely accompanied by fractures at the same injury site.
______7.Treat any fracture within 3 inches of the knee as you would a dislocation.
______8.The fibula is more likely to fracture than the tibia in cases of lower-leg fracture.
______9.With an unstable trauma patient, all fractures should be splinted prior to transport.
______10.If distal pulses are absent due to a fractured elbow, gently manipulate the limb until a pulse returns.
______11.Compartment syndrome occurs most often in hip dislocations.
______12.You should immobilize a hand injury in the position of comfort.
______13.A greenstick fracture disrupts only one side of a long bone.
______14.Knee dislocations normally present with the knee at an angle and firmly fixed in place.
______15.An anterior shoulder displacement presents with a prominent shoulder and with the arm close to the chest.
3.Describe how you would manage a hemodynamically stable patient with an open femoral fracture and exposed bone ends.
3.Administer oxygen; apply distal traction; irrigate exposed bone ends with normal saline; cover injury with a moist dressing; apply traction splint; place patient on a long spine board and start two large-bore IVs en route. Give pain medications according to local protocols (Nitronox, MS, and so on).
4.Your patient has a dislocated elbow with absent distal pulses. Describe how you would immobilize the patient.
4.Gently move the limb while palpating for the return of a distal pulse. Then apply a vacuum, air, or padded board splint.
5.Describe how you would manage the patient with a knee dislocation in which you are not able to regain a distal pulse.
5.If you cannot regain a distal pulse after gentle movement of the extremity, then splint and transport without delay.
2.The pressure exerted on the brain by the blood and cerebrospinal fluid is known as __________ pressure.
3.The __________ __________ is the critical conduit for nervous signals between the brain and the body.
4.The __________ bone is one of the thinnest and most frequently fractured cranial bones.
5.The “__________ sign” is most reliable when associated with fluid leaking from the ear.
6.A(n) __________ injury is an injury to the brain occurring on the same side as the site of impact. A(n) __________ injury is one occurring on the opposite side of the impact.
7.An accumulation of blood between the dura mater and the cranium is called a(n) __________ __________ and causes ICP to build rapidly.
8.A(n) __________ is a transient period of unconsciousness, usually followed by a complete return of function.
9.The inability to remember events that occurred before the trauma that caused the condition is called __________ amnesia. The inability to remember events that occurred after the trauma that caused the condition is called __________ amnesia.
10.__________ reflex is a response due to cerebral ischemia that causes an increase in systemic blood pressure, which maintains cerebral perfusion during increased intracranial pressure.
11.__________ drugs or __________ hypoxia will reduce pupillary responsiveness.
12.Fractures involving the maxilla are classified using the __________ __________ criteria.
13.__________ or __________ draining from a patient’s ear suggests basilar skull fracture.
14.If spinal injury is suspected, immediately __________ the head and neck.
15.__________ Volume = Tidal Volume × Respiratory Rate.
16.A slow, strong pulse may be an early sign of building __________ __________.
17.Raccoon eyes and Battle’s sign are very __________ indications of basilar skull fracture.
18.Dull, lackluster eyes are a sign of __________ hypoxia.
19.Position the patient with potential brain injury by __________ the head of the spine board.
20.Any patient who has sustained a significant head injury or who displays any indication of lowered level of consciousness, orientation, or arousal is a candidate for __________ - __________, __________ - __________ oxygen.
21.__________ is the primary first-line drug used in the care of the patient with suspected head injury.
22.Diuretics used in the management of the head/brain injury patient are __________ and __________. Paralytics include __________ chloride. __________ sulfate is used as a sedative/amnestic.
22.mannitol, furosemide, succinylcholine, Morphine
23.__________ __________ is an anticholinergic agent sometimes used during rapid-sequence intubation.
24.When transporting head-injury patients, limit __________ stimulation such as the use of lights and siren.
25.Rinse dislodged teeth in __________ __________ and wrap them in __________ -soaked gauze for transport to the emergency department.
25.normal saline, saline
______1.Severe head trauma is the most frequent cause of trauma death.
______2.Any expanding lesion within the cranium results in a decrease in intracranial pressure.
______3.Penetrating objects into the skull should be immediately removed and a pressure dressing placed on the wound.
______4.Because of the rich circulation to the area, scalp wounds tend to heal well.
______5.Sutures are small cracks in the cranium and represent about 80 percent of all skull fractures.
______6.The temporal bone is one of the thickest cranial bones.
______7.The “halo sign” is most reliable when associated with fluid leaking from the ear.
______8.A coup injury is a brain injury occurring on the same side as the site of impact.
______9.An epidural hematoma is a collection of blood directly beneath the dura mater.
______10.A transient period of unconsciousness followed by a complete return to function is known as a concussion.
______11.Hypertension, in the brain-injured patient with increasing ICP, may contribute to poor perfusion pressure.
______12.The response to cerebral ischemia that causes an increase in systemic blood pressure, a decrease in pulse rate, and erratic respirations is known as Cushing’s response.
______13.Stimulant drugs or extreme cerebral hypoxia will cause the pupils to dilate and fix.
______14.Blood or fluid draining from a patient’s ear suggests basilar skull fracture.
______15.Head-injury patients may need oxygen to overcome the effects of hypoxia and CO2 retention, and hyperventilation of the patient is vital.
______16.Raccoon eyes and Battle’s sign are early indications of basilar skull fracture.
______17.A Glasgow Coma Scale score of 12 or less indicates a severe head injury.
______18.One hazard of nasal airway use is the possible insertion of the tube directly into the cranium through a fracture of the posterior nasal border.
______19.Narcan is used to reverse the effects of diazepam, which is used during rapid-sequence intubation.
______20.Patients who have received a needle cricothyrotomy require less time to exhale.
______21.The drug mannitol is especially effective in drawing fluid from the brain.
______22.Atropine sulfate is sometimes used during rapid-sequence intubation to reduce oral and airway secretions and limit the fasciculations associated with the administration of succinylcholine.
______23.Xylocaine or benzocaine will anesthetize the oral and pharyngeal mucosa, making endotracheal intubation easier.
______24.With a tearing or avulsion to the pinna, bandage the damaged tissue in the position found.
______25.Rinse dislodged teeth in milk and wrap in sterile gauze.
1.Because of the structure of the spine, the forces necessary to induce injury from __________ __________ are generally less that those needed to cause __________/__________ injury.
1.lateral bending, flexion/extension
2.A temporary and transient disruption of cord function is called a(n) __________.
3.A bruising of the cord is called a(n) __________.
4.A cutting across a long axis is called a(n) __________.
5.__________ - __________ syndrome is a condition caused by partial cutting of one side of the spinal cord, resulting in sensory and motor loss to that side of the body.
6.The condition usually related to hyperflexion of the cervical spine that results in motor weakness is called __________ __________ syndrome.
7.Put special emphasis on your analysis of the __________ __________ __________ with a potential spinal injury patient.
7.mechanism of injury
8.Provide any patient sustaining a serious injury with immediate __________ __________ __________.
8.manual spinal immobilization
9.Be very watchful of patients with __________ heart rates, especially when it is likely that they may be experiencing hypovolemia and shock.
10.Stroking the lateral aspect of the bottom of the foot and watching for movement of the toes is called testing for __________ sign.
11.__________ and __________ are the most commonly used steroids in the prehospital setting for spinally injured patients.
12.Consider using __________ or __________ to calm a patient.
13.A specialized piece of EMS equipment that may be used with some patients is the __________ - __________ __________ __________.
13.vest-type immobilization device
14.__________ __________ __________ is a condition caused by bony fragments or pressure compressing the arteries of the anterior spinal cord and resulting in loss of motor function and sensation to pain, light touch, and temperature below the injury site.
14.Anterior cord syndrome
15.__________ __________ __________ is a condition usually related to hyperflexion of the cervical spine that results in motor weakness, usually in the upper extremities, and possible bladder dysfunction.
15.Central cord syndrome
1.The __________ of the blunt trauma victim may affect the trauma received and its seriousness.
2.__________ __________ injuries are by far the most common injuries encountered in blunt chest trauma.
3.Paradoxical chest wall motion seen in a chest injury patient indicates a(n) __________ chest.
4.__________ - __________ ventilation of the patient with flail chest reverses the mechanism that causes the paradoxical chest wall movement.
5.The buildup of air under pressure within the thorax is called a(n) __________ __________.
6.Signs and symptoms of a tension pneumothorax include __________ / __________ mismatch, jugular vein __________, __________-tension and __________-volemia.
6.ventilation/perfusion, distention, hypo-, hypo-
7.Blood within the pleural space is called a(n) __________.
8.A sign of a hemothorax is __________ percussive sounds over the injury site.
9.__________ is the coughing up of blood that has its origin in the respiratory tract.
10.When the heart impacts the inside of the anterior chest wall and is then compressed between the sternum and the thoracic spine, the condition is known as __________ __________.
11.The restriction to cardiac filling caused by blood or other fluid within the pericardial sac is known as __________ __________.
12.A condition associated with pericardial tamponade, a drop greater than 10 mmHg in the systolic blood pressure during inspiration, is known as __________ __________.
13.__________ __________ occurs when severe compressive force is applied to the thorax and leads to backwards flow of blood from the right heart into the superior vena cava and into the venous vessels of the upper extremities.
14.During the rapid trauma assessment you will examine the patient’s chest in detail, carefully __________, __________ about, __________, and auscultating the region.
14.observing, questioning, palpating
15.Auscultate __________ lung lobes, both __________ and __________.
15.all, anteriorly, posteriorly
16.Penetrating trauma to the heart is likely to cause pericardial __________ and present with jugular vein __________, __________ heart sounds, and systemic __________.
16.Penetrating trauma to the heart is likely to cause pericardial __________ and present with jugular vein __________, __________ heart sounds, and systemic __________.
16.tamponade, distention, distant, hypotension
17.The findings in question 16 are known as __________ triad.
18.Rapid fluid administration in the chest injury patient may increase the rate of __________ and dilute the __________ factors.
19.__________ __________ for pain control is contraindicated in chest trauma.
20.A sucking chest wound should be sealed with a(n) __________ dressing, taped on __________ sides to prevent tension pneumothorax.
1.The abdomen is bound by __________ rather than __________ structures.
2.Forty percent of penetrating abdominal trauma affects the __________.
3.__________ trauma to the abdomen produces the least visible signs of injury.
4.Blunt trauma causes trauma through three mechanisms: __________, __________, and __________.
4.deceleration, compression, shear
5.With trauma to the abdomen, the discoloration of __________ and noticeable __________ require several hours to develop.
6.The liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys are considered __________ organs, while the stomach and bowels are considered __________ organs.
7.Liver injury often presents with pain in the upper right __________ as blood accumulates against the diaphragm.
8.Inflammation of the peritoneum is called __________.
9.__________ is the protective tensing of the abdominal muscles due to pain.
10.Trauma is the number one killer of __________ females.
11.Premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall is known as __________ __________.
12.Children compensate well for blood loss and may not show any signs or symptoms until they have lost over __________ of their blood volume.
13.For the patient who has sustained abdominal injury, the analysis of the __________ __________ __________ is the most important element of the scene size-up.
13.mechanism of injury
14.With a patient who has experienced penetrating trauma you should __________ (remove/not remove) the impaled object.
15.Abnormal __________ in the abdomen suggest arterial injury.
16.The major emphasis of the management of the abdominal injury patient is bringing the patient to __________ as quickly as possible.
17.The use of the PASG is contraindicated for __________ __________ __________ females.
17.late term pregnant
18.Titrate your administration rate of IV fluids to maintain a systolic blood pressure of __________.
19.Assure that you do not exceed __________ of fluid during field care and transport.
20.Place the late-term mother, when possible, in the __________ __________ __________ position.
20.left lateral recumbent
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