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How do sociologists view deviance?
Sociologistsare interested in what types of behavior are defined by societies as “deviant”,who does that defining, how individuals become deviant, and how thoseindividuals are dealt with by society.
What are the main functionalists theories for explainingdeviance?
Functionalistperspectives on deviance include strain theory and opportunity theory. Straintheory focuses on the idea that when people are denied legitimate access tocultural goals, such as a good job or a nice home, they may engage in illegalbehavior to obtain them. Opportunity theory suggests that for deviance tooccur, people must have access to illegitimate means to acquire what they wantbut cannot obtain through legitimate means.
How do conflict and feminist perspectives explain deviance?
Conflictperspectives on deviance focus on inequalities in society. Marxist conflicttheorists link deviance and crime to the capitalist society, which dividespeople into haves and have-nots, leaving crime as the only source of supportfor those at the bottom of the economic ladder. Feminist approaches to deviancefocus on the relationship between gender and deviance.
What is the postmodernist view on deviance?
Postmodernistviews on deviance focus on how the powerful control others through disciplineand surveillance. This control may be maintained through largely invisibleforces such as the Panoptican, as described by Michael Foucault, or by newertechnologies that place everyone- not just “deviants”- under constantsurveillance by authorities who use their knowledge as power over others.
How do sociologists classify crime?
Sociologistsidentify six main categories of crime” violent crime (murder, forcible rape,robbery, and aggravated assault), property crime (burglary, motor vehicletheft, larceny-theft, and arson), public order crimes (sometimes referred to as“morals” crimes), occupational (white-collar) crime, organized crime, andpolitical crime.
What are the main sources of crimes statistics?
Officialcrime statistics are taken from the Uniform Crime Report, which lists crimesreported to the police, and the National Crime Victimization Survey, whichinterviews households to determine the incident of crimes, including those notreported to police. Studies show that many more crimes are committed than areofficially reported.
How are age and class related to crime statistics?
Ageis the key factor in crime statistics. In 2007, persons under age 25 accountedfor more than 44 percent of all arrects for violent crime and almost 54 percentof all arrests for property crime. Persons from lower socioeconomic backgroundsare more likely to be arrested for violent and property crimes; white-collarcrime is more likely to occur among the upper socioeconomic classes.
Who are the most frequent victims of crime?
Youngmales of color between the ages of 12 and 24 have the highest criminalvictimization rates. The elderly tend to be fearful of crime but are the leastlikely to be victimized.
How is discretion used in the criminal justice system?
Thecriminal justice system, including the police, the courts, the prisons, oftenhas considerable discretion in dealing with offenders. The police often usediscretion in deciding whether to act on a situation. Prosecutors and judgesuse discretion in deciding which cases to pursue and how to handle them.
What is social stratification, and how does it affect ourdaily life?
Socialstratification is the hierarchical arrangement of a large social groups basedon their control over basic resources. People are treated differently based onwhere they are positioned within the social hierarchies of class, race, gender,and age.
What are the major systems of stratification?
Stratificationsystems include slavery, caste, and class. Slavery, extreme forms ofstratification in which people are owned by others, is a closed system. Thecaste system is also a closed one in which people’s status is determined atbirth based on their parents’ position in society. The class system, whichexists in the United States, is a type of stratification based on ownership ofresources and on the type of work people do.
How did classical sociologists such as Karl Marx and MaxWeber view social class?
Bothacknowledged social class as a key determinant of social inequality and socialchange. For Marx, people’s relationship to the means of production determinestheir social position. Weber developed a multidimensional concept ofstratification that focuses on the interplay of wealth, power, and prestige.
What are some of the consequences of inequality in theUnited States?
Stratificationof society into different social groups results in wide discrepancies in incomeand wealth and in variable access to available goods and services. People withhigh income or wealth have greater opportunity to control their own lives.People with less income have fewer life chances and must spend their limitedresources to acquire basic necessities.
How do sociologists view poverty?
Sociologistsdistinguish between absolute poverty and relative poverty. Absolute povertyexists when people do not have the means to secure the basic necessities oflife. Relative poverty exists when people may be able to afford basicnecessities but still are unable to maintain an average standard of living.
Who are the poor?
Age, gender,and race tend to be factors in poverty. Children have a greater risk of beingpoor than do the elderly, while women have a higher rate of poverty than domen. Although whites account for approximately two-thirds of those below thepoverty line, people of color account for a disproportionate share of theimpoverished in the United States.
What is the functionalist view on class?
Theyview classes as broad groupings of people who share similar levels of privilegeon the basis of their roles in the occupational structure. According to theDavis-Moore thesis, stratification exists in all societies, and some inequalityis not only inevitable but also necessary for the ongoing functioning ofsociety. The positions that are most important within society and that requirethe most training must be highly rewarded.
What is the conflict view on class?
Conflictperspectives on class are based on the assumption that social stratification iscreated and maintained by one group (typically the capitalist class) in orderto enhance and protect its own economic interests. Conflict theorists measureclass according to people’s relationships with others in the productionprocess.
What is the symbolic interactionist view on class?
Unlikefunctionalist and conflict perspectives that focus on macrolevel inequalitiesin societies, symbolic interactionist views focus on microlevel inequalitiessuch as how class location may positively or negatively influence one’sidentity and everyday social interactions. Symbolic interactionists use termssuch as social cohesion and deference to explain how class binds someindividuals together while categorically separating out others.
What is global stratification, and how does it contribute toeconomic inequality?
How are global poverty and human development related?
Income disparities are not the only factor that definespoverty and its effect on people. The United Nations’ Human Development Index measuresthe level of development in a country through indicators such as lifeexpectancy, infant mortality rate, proportion of underweight children under agefive (a measure of nourishment and health), and adult literary rate forlow-income, middle-income, and high-income countries.
What is modernization theory?
It’sa perspective that links global inequality to different levels of economicdevelopment and suggests that low-income economies can move to middle- andhigh-income economies by achieving self-sustained economic growth.
How does dependency theory differ from modernization theory?
Dependencytheory states that global poverty can at least partially be attributed to thefact that the high-income countries have exploited the low-income countries. Whereasmodernization theory focuses on how societies can reduce inequality throughindustrialization and economic development, dependency theorists see the greedof the rich countries as a source of increasing impoverishment of the poornations and their people.
What is world systems theory, and how does it view globaleconomy?
What is the new international division of labor theory?
How do race and ethnicity differ?
Arace is a category of people who have been singles out as inferior or superior,often on the basis of physical characteristics such as skin color, hairtexture, or eye shape. An ethnic group is a collection of people distinguishedprimarily by culture or national characteristics, including unique culturaltraits, a sense of community, a feeling of ethnocentrism, ascribed membership,and territoriality.
What are dominant and subordinate groups?
Adominant group is an advantaged group that has superior resources and rights insociety. A subordinate group is a disadvantaged group whose members aresubjected to unequal treatment by the majority group. Use of the terms dominant and subordinate reflects the importance of power in relationships.
How is prejudice related to discrimination?
Prejudiceis a negative attitude often based on stereotypes, which areovergeneralizations about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics ofall member of a group. Discrimination involves actions or practices ofdominant-groups member that have a harmful impact on members of a subordinategroup.
What are the major psychological explanations of prejudice?
Accordingto the frustration-aggression hypothesis of prejudice, people frustrated intheir efforts to achieve a highly desired goal may respond with aggressiontoward others, who then become scapegoats. Another theory of prejudice focuseson the authoritarian personality, marked by excessive conformity,submissiveness to authority, intolerance, insecurity, superstition, and rigidthinking.
How do individual discrimination and institutionaldiscrimination differ?
Individualdiscrimination involves actions by individual members of a dominant group thatharm members of subordinate groups of their property. Institutionaldiscrimination involves day-to-day practices of organizations and institutionsthat have a harmful impact on members of subordinate groups.
How do sex and gender differ?
Sexrefers to the biological categories and manifestation of femaleness andmaleness; gender refers to the socially constructed differences between femalesand males. In short, sex is what we (generally) are born with; gender is whatwe acquire through socialization.
How do gender roles and gender identity differ from genderedinstitutions?
Gender role encompasses the attitudes, behaviors, andactivities that are socially assigned to each sex and that are learn throughsocialization. Gender identity is an individual’s perception of self as eitherfemale or male. By contrast, gendered institutions are those structuralfeatures that perpetuate gender inequalities.
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