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Tendency to value tradition simply because it’s tradition; desire for continuity/stagnation in what could be a feeble attempt to revert back to a more peaceful/more prosperous time in the past. Many times, older generations tend to aim to preserve tradition in the face of newer, younger generations, technology, modernity, and progress
A movement that aims to depart from or modify traditional beliefs/forms; it is based on a linear concept of history in which innovation leads to progression; progress is always betterment. Often obsessed with science, symmetry, rationality, individualism, perfection, mind-body dualism, industrialization, technology.
reaction/backlash to modernism, suspicion and critique systems of power (more recent form of romanticism, focused on more than just emotion); product of globalized world and global capital; “no such thing as the truth” attitude is a downfall; idea that cultures/societies won’t always look the same through specific defining filters
A policy of extending a country’s power and influence through colonization, use of military force, or other means; the expansion of an empire using military control.
The policy or practice whereby one country acquires full or partial control over another country, occupies it with settlers, and exploits it economically.
The response of a former colony to colonization after the colonizer no longer exerts direct political, military, and cultural dominance. Neither entirely affirmative or negative; former colonies adapt, hybridize, mock, refigure inheritance from the colonizer. Also, inherent in effects on native, colonized people are effects on colonizers; colonialism always leaves an imprint on both parties, and neither can ever go back to the way they were before. Addresses impact on larger, global-scale.
The use of economic, political, religious, social, and/or cultural pressure and dominance (as opposed to violence or physical dominance) to exert control over another country (especially former dependencies). Involves ‘getting inside the head’ of the (former) colony, as opposed to intimidating or otherwise controlling openly. Addresses impact on specific population or culture. Example: first world multinational corporations dominating third world economies.
A political and economic theory of social organization which advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole or by the government. In Marxist theory, this is a transitional social state between the overthrow of capitalism and the realization of Communism.
Means of persuasion and manipulation using attraction rather than coercion, physical force or bribery (ie: religion/spirituality, food, Bollywood, education, outsourcing, service industries, etc) Soft power is often more powerful than politics and economics, since it is not a violent push or pull to one culture or certain ideals, but rather a suggestion/example.
The word “samurai” comes from an old word meaning “to serve” Samurai began as a sort of police force, keeping the peace and collecting taxes; spent a lot of time in the countryside away from cities, which largely influenced their culture/lifestyle; often called into courts to resolve conflicts between aristocratic families; set up their government in east japan, while the main capital was in west japan. They ruled “at a distance” without actually overthrowing the imperial family
Defined in reading as “man of arms” (ie: “bushidan” means band of military men); rebels against the oppressive “kokushi” leaders in ancient feudal Japan. The first samurais arose from Bushis.
a Japanese syllabary, one basic component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana and kanji
created after it. Hiragana was created in the 8th century as simplistic version for women
Tale of Genji
Considered world’s first novel; written by a woman (Murasaki Shikibu), and gives great insight into the proceedings of the Ancient Japanese court
female Bodhisattva of great influence; called “goddess of mercy”
*both tale of Genji and reverence to Guan Yin reveal influence of women on Japanese/East Asian culture*
The Korean alphabet, also known as Hangul, is the native alphabet of the Korean language.
It was created by King Sejong during the Joseon Dynasty in 1443, and is now the official script of both South Korea and North Korea.
Hangul is a featural alphabet of 24 consonant and vowel letters. Each syllabic block consists of two to five letters, including at least one consonant and one vowel. These blocks are then arranged horizontally from left to right or vertically from top to bottom.
Heroes aren’t always stereotypical: (ie: Gandhi, nonviolent protests)
Often heroism is discrete or atypical, and arises in places one might not expect
Popularization of the promotion of democracy
Encouragement of secularism vs politicized religion
Authority structure compared to larger globalized communityEffect of all previous terms on Propaganda (ie: Gandhi postcards, pictures, cut-outs, etc)
The concept that the world is now connected through air travel, trade, etc. Things are no longer limited based on barriers physical and man made. Primarily people focus on the economic aspect yet it is much more than that but I doubt they will go that in depth.
A term that has become connected to Edward Said’s argument in Orientalism, with the premise that there is no essential distinction between supposedly apolitical cultural representations of Asia/Asians and obvious anti-Asian political practices. Pervasive ‘outsider’ perspective on everything east of Europe. Usually means treating/thinking of non-European humans as human in some fundamentally different way. Has been creeping around European thought for at least 2500 years. Often involves openly looking down on non-European peoples, but also includes ‘idealized’ pictures like ‘the Wise Asian’ or ‘the Noble Savage’. Viewing Asians as the “cultural other”; binary stereotypes that likely cause negative backlashes, and often reinforce themselves unintentionally. Since representations are political, “ism” names like this and the people affected are influenced by political opinions, and in turn justify political action (cyclical)
a principle or system of social organization in which the major political units of society are local self-governing communities which are also separated culturally from each other
deterritorialized nation building:
Essentially the idea of a country reaching out to its emigrants and promoting its culture in foreign territory; building external “nations” based on cultural influence rather than political boundaries (like nationalism in diasporic communities) thanks.still.
-Term assigned by Peter Vail to people who speak Khmer in Thailand. They are often closely associated with the troubled state of Cambodia, and they make themselves invisible by trying to blend in with Thai society, but also are looked down upon in Thai society
In a way, the people pretend they don’t exist. They are unmentionable, and often ignored purposely.
Official language of Cambodia. People who speak Khmer in Thailand are the largest minority.
Sanskrit is the classical language of Indian and the liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. It is also one of the 22 official languages of India.
Not really spoken anymore. Hindi is derived from Sanskrit, but Sanskrit is linguistically almost extinct. Comparable to Latin and romance languages.
1868 - Period of time when imperial rule was restored to Japan under Emperor Meiji. The tokugawa shogunate was removed, and the samurai became obsolete. The motives for this restoration were to strengthen Japan against stronger colonial powers of the day, demonstrated when Admiral Perry sailed his fleet of large black hulled warships directly into the Tokyo bay. The effects of this restoration lasted until the imperial government was essentially destroyed by American influence.
tea ceremony . popular art form among samurai because it was an opportunity to display the art projects they collected and their patronage of the arts. Throughout the year there were several holidays in which lower class samurai had to give the higher class gifts (pieces of art, etc…) which usually found their way into the tea ceremony; the same is true for higher class to lower class, there just wasn’t as much documentation of the lower class ceremonies. Really came into popularity among elites during the Ashikaga Shogunate by Ashikaga Yoshimasa (Muromachi Period).
Shinto is the ancient “folk belief system” (or religion) of Japan. Native Japanese animistic religion with the belief that there are gods (kami) in natural structures (certain waterfalls, great trees, mountains, etc.) Mt. Fuji is considered a key religious site in Shinto. Worship for these gods occurs in shrines (jinja).
Defined in reading as “Profound reverence for nature and belief in deities; believed to inhabit natural phenomena such as auspicious rivers, mountains, and trees,” Kami are the gods within the spirit world in the Ancient Japanese religion of Shinto that provides immense energy to Shinto followers; this energy is tapped through festivals, and rituals. Shrines (and figurines in the ancient time) can be erected or made to respect Kami.
The movement of a job or industry that could be done in the original place of business but is moved because it is cheaper or more cost effective to do elsewhere. Doesn’t have to be a factory or call center.
Yin and yang – two different types of “energy” (one way out of several to categorize things).
Related to various binaries:
Yang: positive, light, spicy, masculine, strength, warmth, day, active,
Yin: negative, dark, steamed foods, feminine, subtlety, cold, night, passive
Related to both Confucianism and Daoism, but mainly Daoism.
Taijitu – symbol representing yin-yang. Representing unity and wholeness permeating all existence.
All things are made up of two opposite yet complementary forces
Although Chinese history dates back to 5000 years ago, use of Mandarin started in Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). Only after the Republic of China was established in 1912 was there finally great success in promoting the national common language
In mainland China and Taiwan, the use of Mandarin as the medium of instruction in the educational system and in the media
In Hong Kong and Macau, Cantonese has been the primary language spoken by majority of population, but since 1997 and 1999, Mandarin has been used by the government.
Cantonese and other Chinese dialects are seen as “household languages” whereas Mandarin is becoming more and more of a language used in schools and businesses.
The cultural destruction was centered on Confucianist relics and teachings as well as anything from past Chinese cultures. Destruction of the "Four Olds" (old ideas, culture, customs, habits). The 4 isms (Capitalism, revisionism, and Feudalism) were supposed to be destroyed. The mass movement and social experiment partly entailed a movement of university students to work in the countryside. This work was idealized by Mao, but turned out to be challenging and the university students learned of the peasant struggles. Another part of the social experiment was questioning university teachings and the educational system in general. Despite these very harmful effects, there was a creation of technical schools in rural areas and rural doctors came about, thus increasing health care availability.
Hindi (not necessarily Indian) version of Hollywood. Based in Mumbai. One of the highest movie producing industries in the world.
In the context of this course, an imagined community is a group that is connected through a common cultural bond regardless of physical location. Most often these imagined communities arise when surroundings seem foreign: either 1) when emigres reform communities with other emigres who share their culture, or 2) when people inside a country feel threatened by changes their country is undergoing and retract into communities to preserve a small, localized culture.
Partition occurred in 1947. British broke the country into two parts based off of religion (Pakistan: Islam, India: Hinduism and other) after colonial rule. Although the boundaries are there, people can come and go between the countries without a passport.
Caused racial and political tensions between the countries.
Also led to different language scripts (Hindi and Urdu)
started in 1950 when N. Korean forces invaded S. Korea;
Still ongoing today (settled on a temporary armistice that was never fully dropped)
ended in 1953 temporarily but technically, still on-going issue.
Migrated to Japan, China, US, etc.
Government facilitated immigration by sending workers to Germany to bring money back to country. Money used to support family. Diaspora usually return due to economic push-pull theory which include global economic
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