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Who- Imposed British Parliament
What- British parliamentary measure to tax the American colonies to help pay for costs resulting from the French and Indian War, the British sought to raise revenue through a stamp tax on printed matter.
When – Mid 1700s
Signif: Colonist refused to use the stamps and mobs started forming to intimidate stamp agents. British merchants had their exports reduced by colonial boycotts. This paved the way for the Declaratory Act.
agreement that officially ended the Revolutionary War and established British recognition of the independance of the United States
- missing the power to tax
- couldn't enfore the laws
- Shay's Rebellion (weak central gov)
- only one branch of government
Problems with the Articles of Confederation (why change necessary)
Because the central government was seen as weak, many said the country needed to improve the Articles of Confederation and strengthen the central government. However, they instead decided to form a new constitution altogether providing for a stronger central government.
The national anthem of the United States of America, written by Francis Scott Key in inspiration of the Battle of Fort McHenry
It was written by Francis Scott Key. He wrote it while watching the British fail to take over Fort McHenry in Baltimore (the flag was still there.) The British burned the white house and many other things in Washington D.C after the war of 1812, but they could not take down Fort McHenry. After all that, the American flag was still standing tall.
1800's belief that Americans had the right to spread across the continent. It was God's plan for the US to occupy western territory. (The belief or doctrine, that it was the destiny of the U.S. to expand its territory over the whole of North America and to extend and enhance its political, social, and economic influences)
The Oregon Trail was much more than a pathway to the state of Oregon; it was the only practical corridor to the entire western United States. It was the only feasible way for settlers to get across the mountains.
Marbury vs. Madison
Marbury was a last minute appointed judge by Adams who was appointed on the last night of Adam's presidency. Supreme Court ruled against Marbury. This set up the precedent of judicial review. Court decided against Marbury. Established the doctrine of judicial review, which recognizes the authority of courts to declare statutes unconstitutional.
An 1807 law that imposed a total ban on foreign trade. Jefferson hoped that an American embargo, or ban on trade, would hurt France and Britain by cutting off needed supplies. He was hoping to avoid war, since he knew the small American fleet was no match for the powerful British navy. The embargo hurt France & Britain but it also hurt Americans too.
National Road was built in 1811 and finished in 1818. Later, the road was extended to Illinois.
He served as the artist and cartographer
Their exploring lasted from 1804-1806, They traveled up the Missouri River, through the Rockies, and to the mouth of the Columbia River. This exploration bolstered America's claim to western lands as well as opening the west to Indian trade and further exploration
(James Madison President). United States vs. Britain. Occurred because of War Hawks view on losing independence. English and Americans lost and won equally in battles. Meanwhile, there was war with Natives (Creek), which was ended in the Treaty of Fort Jackson. Britain overtook Washington DC and later headed towards New Orleans. Showed other nations the Americans were united and believed in themselves as a country. Many thought this war was a mistake, but others said it was good for the U.S.
Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824)
An 1814 case in which the Supreme Court upheld the power of the federal government to regulate commerce. Federal government (not the state governments) had the power to regulate trade between the states.
The power of the Supreme Court to decide whether the acts of a President or laws passed by Congress are constitutional.
Lewis and Clark's main goal was to explore the Louisiana Purchase and find out about the soil, the size, the topography, and the climate they could determine if it was a good place for people to settle. Also, to find new species such as the prairie dog. Also, to find a water route to the Pacific Ocean. This goal, This goal however, they never achieved. Also, we wanted to encounter and befriend some Native American tribes. They were able to accomplish that with the help of Sacagawea.
invented the steamboat by attaching a steam engine to a boat. paddle-wheel steamboat
"nothing was settled, nothing was adjusted"
- John Quincy Adams
Shawnee leader who organized an alliance of native peoples along with the help of his brother Tenskwatawa (the profit) to resist white encroachment on Native American lands.
- cotton gin
Formed a Continental Army. Appointed George Washington commander. purchased military supplies. issued paper money. Assumed powers of a sovereign government. July 2, 1776 voted for independence motion passed 12 states for none against (New York abstaining). Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence. Created the Olive Branch petition- a peace Treaty with Kind George.
Under Chief Justice John Marshall, the SC strengthened the power of the FG to promote Ec growth. States have no right to interfere with federal institutions within their borders. This strengthened Fed power. Also allowed the BOTUS to continue. SC also upheld the power of the FG to regulate trade between states. Only the federal government has the power to regulate interstate commerce or trade between different states. This helped the N Eco by making it easier for the govt to regulate trade.
McCulloch vs. Maryland
An 1819 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that states had no right to interfere with federal institutions within their borders. This strengthened federal power. Also allowed the Bank of the United States to continue, which helped the economy to expand. Congress created a national bank. Some states opposed the bank because it competed with state banks. Maryland imposed a tax on the bank. McCulloch refused to pay the tax and was sued by Maryland.
The idea that the U.S should expand its national boundaries to their highest potential. (Not in other continents, just in North America.
Acquisition of Florida (1819)
In 1818, Jackson again headed to Florida with a force of more than 3000 soldiers. Spain protested but did little else. It was busy fighting rebels in Latin America and could not risk war with the U.S. Spain agreed to peace talks. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams worked out a treaty with Spain. Spain agreed to give Florida to U.S. for $5 million. The Adams-Ones Treaty took effect in 1821. Florida became a state in 1819. In 1818, Andrew Jackson was going to raid the Spanish Florida when Spain made a deal with the USA.
Andrew Jackson, Democrat (1829-1837) 7th President
Extended spoils system (patronage) to federal government. Opposed federally funded internal improvements. Prepared to use force during the nullification crisis in South Carolina over tariff policy (1833). Strongly opposed the Second Bank of the U.S. Supported removal of Native Americans west of the Mississippi River. Awarding government jobs to political supporters and friends. Andrew Jackson placed the spoil system because he believed the public offices should be rotated among party supporters. He believed that performance in these positions required no special intelligence or training. "To the victor belong the spoils".
The People's President
Common Man who did not need or want people of higher authority by his side. People loved him because he acted like a normal person. He was for the common people also.
The Spoil's System
Spoils are profits or benefits. The practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs is known as the spoil system. Jackson replaced many bureaucrats in Washington, and paid back his political supporters with government jobs.
Indian Removal Act (1830)
Law passed in 1830 that forced many Native Americans to move west of the Mississippi River. 1830: Ordered the removal of Indian tribes still residing east of the Mississippi to newly established Indian Territory west of AK and MO. Tribes resisting eviction were forcibly removed by Am. forces, often after prolonged legal or military battles.
Worcester vs. Georgia (1832)
Georgia claimed the right to make laws for the Cherokee nation in 1828. Cherokee case went to the Supreme Court and won. Decision from Supreme Court said that Native Americans were protected by the US Constitution. 1832 Indian Sovereignty is being undercut in practice. The Supreme Court under Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the nation was a distinct political community under which "the laws of Georgia have no force". White settlers surround the Cherokee continue to see them as savages no matter where they lived or what they wore. Andrew Jackson would not back the Supreme Court's decision.
Nullification Crisis (1832)
1828. Congress passed the highest tariff in h/o nation. New tariff passed that lowered the rated. Nullification Act was passed by South Carolina declaring the new tariff illegal. S.C. also threatened to secede if challenged. S.C. was not supported by other states so it repealed the Nullification Act, and the Nullification Crisis passed. A sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by South Carolina's 1832 Ordinance of Nullification. This ordinance declared by the power of the State that the federal Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and therefore null and void within the sovereign boundaries of South Carolina.
Economic Depression: a period when business declines and many people lose their job. Lasted 3 years.
Death of the Bank of the United States (B.O.T.U.S.)
National bank that would be funded by both federal government and wealthy investors. The BUS would issue paper money and handle tax receipts and other government funds
*Washington believed that it was a government supported monopoly.* 1836: Bank closed. Jackson believed that only states, not the federal government had the right to charter banks. Jackson also felt that this Bank helped the wealthy at the expense of the common people. Its closing contributed to an economic crisis.
The order of the star spangled banner founded in NY in 1849
Grew into third party known as American Party. AKA known as know-nothing party. Demanded exclusion if immigrants and Catholics from public office and extension of naturalization
Indian Resistance to Westward Migration – Examples
Louisiana Purchase (1803), Allowed Alien & Sedition Acts to expire, ended taxes (whiskey tax), Reduced number of Federal employees, Reduced the size of military, Embargo Act of 1807, Marbury v. Madiso
A business founded and run by a group of investors that colonized land in hopes of creating a profit by trading cash crops.
John Rolfe(d. 1622)-brings tobacco to Jamestown, saves colony, marries Pocahontas+has Thomas Rolfe(son).Tobacco=popular in England, grows well in Virginia and becomes cash crop/ means of Virginia survival and income
1630 Puritans from England set up the Massachusetts Bay Colony. introduce similar forms fo worship. Puritans were Protestants that had broken away from and wanted to reform the Anglican Church. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was. A colony based on
the Bible. John Winthrop was the founder of it in 1630 in Boston.
The Paradox of Religious Freedom in Massachusetts
Roger WIlliams- He left the Massachusetts colony and purchased the land from a neighboring Indian tribe to found the colony of Rhode Island
Anne Hutchinson- she preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders
Thomas Hooker- Clergyman, one of the founders of Hartford. Called "the father of American democracy" because he said that people have a right to choose their magistrates
As more colonists settled in New England, they began to take over more Native American lands. By 1670, nearly 45,000 English settlers were living in the towns in New England. war broke out.
largest conflict-1675. Metacom also known by his English name, King Philip, was chief of the Wampanoag Indians. The pattern of English expansion followed by war was repeated between colonies and Indians throughout the colonies. It would continue for many years to come.
Emergence of the Middle Colonies (NY, NJ, PA, DE)
NY= After won from the Dutch New Netherland is given to Duke of York
NJ=given as a proprietary colony because NY was too big to govern
PA=William Penn sought to create a colony of equal fairness and such.(all religions, races, etc) Penn was a Quaker
DE-lower PA's lower counties that would create DE because it was too far to send delegates,
·Persecuted for being Quaker > hoped to found place of refuge for Quakers > 1681 granted area called Pennsylvania, already populated by squatters, by the king (named after his deceased father) > Penn bought land from Indians & treated them fairly. Came from wealthy English family and was a friend of King Charles the 2nd. At age 22, he joined the Quakers. Quakers were Protestant reformers. They believed that all people were equal in God's eye. They were against all war and refused to serve in the army.
Emergence of Southern Colonies- Maryland
A colony founded by Gen. James Oglethorpe, a member of Parliament, because of military and philanthrophic motives; they wanted to erect a military barrier against the Spanish to their south and to provide a refuge for the impoverished. Founded in the early 1700s. Because of the vital military purposes of the colony, their were mant restrictive laws, causing newcomers to prefer to settle in S. Carolina and residents to demand social and political reform.
Significance of Triangular Trade
Colonial Merchants developed many Trade routes. One route was known as the triangular trade because the three legs of the route formed a triangle. On the first leg, ships from new England carried fish, lumber, and other goods to the West Indies. On the second leg, ships carried rum, guns, gun powder, clothes, and tools From New England to West Africa. On the third leg, Ships carried enslaved Africans to the West Indies.
Exports- Trade product sent to Markets outside a country.
Imports- Trade product brought into a country.
Part of the Compromise of 1850. Allowed slave owners to come to the North to claim runaway slaves. Fleeing slaves couldn't testify on their own behalf of the federal commissioner who handled the case got $5 if the slave was free and $10 if not, and people who were ordered to help catch slaves had to do so, even if they didn't want to. Law passed in 1850 that required all citizens to aid in the capture of runaway slaves.
Between the slave, Dred Scott, and his master’s wife, Eliza Irene Sanford. This case ruled that people brought to the United States as slaves from Africa were not protected by the Constitution and could never become citizens. This decision was extremely controversial and increased the problem of sectionalism.
Abraham Lincoln won (reelection). He did not appear on the ballot in nine southern states, but he won 40% of the popular vote as a majority of northern voters voted for him. South Carolina seceded soon after the election as they claimed that Lincoln was the representative of a purely section party
Union general. Burned Atlanta and other cities who resisted in a campaign of total war. Atlanta and Savannah Campaigns (March to the Sea) (both in 1864) in Georgia split the CSA again (after the Union controlled the Mississippi River). Goal was to demoralize the Confederacy and reduce southern support for the war. Grant's best fiend Took over
West when grant went to The Potomac. Led Sherman's March to the sea. 1st modern general, burned everything in his way(Atlanta to the sea).
The bloodiest singe day of the war. This Maryland battle produced more than 11,000 casualties on each side. Fought in 1862 giving the union another win. The Battle of Antietam was on Sept. 17th 1862 and gave Lincoln the propitious moment that he awaited for revisiting and acting on the idea of emancipation.
Union Strengths: larger population of 22 million. money and credit- ECONOMY. factories for manufacturing war goods. food production . navy/trade with Europe. strong central government. mineral resources. established railroad system to transport material resources. appealed to slaves.
Poorly trained. no military leadership. they were not dedicated. forced to attempt to conquer huge chunks of land.
Slave states that remained in the Union during the civil war. Late 1800'sstates that had not seceded from the Union it split the North and South and discredit the claim that the Union would emancipate all slaves. They were Maryland, Deleware, Kentucky, and Missouri.
For- Southern economy depended on slavery because slaves harvested the crops which were sold to the North.
Against- Many had come to believe that slavery violated the basic principles of both the U.S. and the Christian religion. People believed that all humans, free or enslaved, had the right to choose their own destiny and to follow God's laws.
An abolitionist born on July 14, 1811. She was a writer mostly known for her book Uncle Tom's Cabin written in 1851. Uncle Tom's Cabin was about how slavery was wrong. Uncle Tom's Cabin succeeded in bringing the message of abolitionism to an enormous new audience and it caused major increase in sectional tensions.
The southerners would fight a defensive war until the Union got tired of fighting because they has no wepons so they said they will let them come to them. Told france and Britain if they want cotton, they have to help them fight. They said no eventually.
The terms of the Union:
They had to turn in weapons. The commanding officers could keep their revolers and swords. The commanding officers and enlisted men could keep their horses for farming, but the confederate men had to take an oath of loyalty to the union. April 1865.
Assassinated Lincoln--April 14 1865-- back of the head point blank shot. Booth was a confederate spy and part of a large plot. There was later a 12 day manhunt with $100,000 (more than 1 million dollars back then) reward for finding Booth. Lincoln was assassinated in a theater with his wife Mary next to him.
(horizontal) monopolizing by buying out other companies with the same business. Famous with the railroad system(steel, coal, and lumber companies)
(Vertical)-Carnegie-different businesses make different products to make a larger one together
2. New inventions and technology.
3. New advertising and marketing techniques.
4. Plentiful natural resources.
5. Plentiful labor.
6. Government support
1. as populations grows space becomes more expensive
2. Environmental issues: air quality and water supply, toxic waste
3. skyrises and selling of airrights because there is nowhere to go but up
4. Healthcare is not always available or affordible
5. Transportation systems
6. Natural Hazards and disasters (flooding and infrastructure damage)
At the end of the 1800s, the United States became a world power, acquiring new territories in the pacific ocean and the Caribbean. The expansion of the navy was a sign that the United states was becoming a world power.
"Remember the Maine, and To Hell with Spain!" A national catch phrase following the mysterious 1898 explosion of the us battleship maine in havana harbor that inflamed public opinion leading to the spanish american war.
George Washington and other presidents after him continued the policy of isolationism or the belief that Americans should have little to do with political affairs with other nations.
One leading supporter of American imperialism was Naval Captain Alfred Mahan. In an influential 1890 book, "The influence of Sea power upon history" Mahan argued that the prosperity of United States depended on foreign trade. America's new navy powered ships were called the great white fleet because their steel hulls were all painted white.
Yellow journalism was reporting that relied on sensational stories and headlines. Often, these reports were biased or untrue. Yellow journalism was in newspaper publishing that reached a peak in the circulation war between Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal in the 1890s; the papers' accounts of events in Havana Harbor in 1898 led directly to the Spanish-American War.
(DP)- Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Basically it was exchanging money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.
(MP)- Policy adopted by President Woodrow Wilson that rejected the approach of "dollar diplomacy". Rather than focusing mainly on economic ties with other nations, Wilson's policy was designed to bring right principles to the world, preserve peace, and extend to other peoples the blessings of democracy.
1. Rise of Intense Nationalism ( Patriotism, thought own government was superior, ethnic groups banned together demanding independent nation). 2. Growth of Imperialism (Helped to start Nationalism, hoped to increase prestige Germany and Japan, thought only way to be world power was to claim land- many countries raced to get colonies).
Many Americans favored central powers over allied powers (France, Britain, and Russia) because they were from Austrian or German descent. Irish Americans favored central powers because they hated Britain, who ruled over them for centuries. American Jews also favored central powers because they preferred Germany over Russia, in which they had been held for persecution a few years before.
Most Americans favored the allies because of the tie to language, history, and culture through Britain. Also, because most of the United States favored Allied Powers, trade with them increased greatly in 1917. The United States and France were also allies in the American Revolution and it seemed selfish to turn on them now.
Propaganda is he spending of ideas that help a cause or hurt an opposing cause. There were two sides in the United States during the war. There were the people who favored the Allied Powers, and those who favored the Central Powers. Both sides waged a propaganda war in the United States.
A stalemate is a deadlock in which neither side is strong enough to defeat the other. In November 1914, a German advance followed by an allied counter attack caused deadly stalemate. In the period of three years , two armies fought huge battles only resulting in stalemate. Soon, to get rid of the stalemate, trench warfare was created. Trench warfare only made battles longer and bloodier, but still did not extinguish the problem of stalemate.
The Lusitania was a German sub. who torpedoed a British passenger ship off the coast of Ireland on May 17, 1915. The caused the death of about 1,200 people and 128 Americans. This incident also greatly angered President Wilson. This caused Wilson to threaten to break off official ties with Germany. To prevent war with the U.S for a little longer, the Sussex treaty was signed. This restricted U-boats like the Lusitania from attacking any ship without prior warning.
1.)President W tried to bring both the sides that wanted war and the side that did not want war to peace talks. Believed as a neutral nation, the U.S could lead fighting nations to peace without a victory. Failed. W. knew that the U.S might be dragged into war so he prepared a stronger army and navy. Still, Wilson kept trying to make piece. A “peace without victory”, he called it. 2.) Try not to let international problems cause wars. allowing free trade. no secret alliances. the league of nations.
5.) End the war with a peace treaty. 6.) Created by allies to prevent germany from returning to power and recreating another world war. German army limited to 100,000 men and army not allowed to draft members. Must relinquish control of submarines and submarine salvage vessels and docks to allied governments. Germany must pay for all reparations and damages of the war. Ended WWI.
In a speech to Congress, Wilson summed up U.S. war aims in 14 points. The first 8 dealt with territorial settlements in postwar Euro. The 9th said colonial disputes should take the colonized peoples wants into account. The remaining 5 points offered Wilson’s larger postwar vision: a world of free navigation, free trade, reduced armaments, openly negotiated treaties, & general association of nations to resolve conflicts peacefully. Helped American support for war.
P failed because many Americans found ways to get around the law. Began manufacturing their own alcohol in homemade stills. Smugglers, or people who smuggled liquor from Canada and the Caribbean. Bootleggers, or people who would hide liquor bottles in their boot. Many illegal bars that made drinking more popular known as speak-easies were also created. G-men were sent by the government stop the law violations, but the act was soon repealed at the end of the 20s.
The automobile greatly affected the economy. By 1929, four million Americans made a living based on the automobile. This also caused states and small towns or hamlets to build more streets and create highways. This also spurred the production of gas stations, garages, motels, car dealers, roadside restaurants, etc… All, these changed affected the economy and created many new jobs for Americans. Growth of suburbs and new type of dating. New jobs selling cars etc...
1920- women gained the right to vote. Women voted for the first time on November, 1920. Women surprised many people by voting for different parties rather than in a group. In 1920, Carrie Chapman Catt set up the League of Women Voters. This educated voters and gave women rights to serve in juries. After the Ninetieth Amendment, women’s lives were changed forever.
The Radio and movie created new forms of entertainment in the 1920s. The radio became very popular with is first station, KDKA. Every night after dinner, families would gather around the radio to listen to shows and music. Movies also became very popular. Most families would go to the movies at least once a week, every week. At first all movies had no sound, but in 1927, Hollywood produced the first “talkie”, or movie with a soundtrack. Soon radios were heard every night and talkie's were play. everywhere.
Gathering of black artists & musicians, which was a rebirth of African-American culture. NAACP founded in Harlem. Duke Ellington, Marcus Garvey, Langston Hughes - all powerful African American writers, musicians, etc. Expatriates were people who leave their on county to live in a foreign land. Many African Americans lived this way after horrifying experiences in World War 1. (Hemmingway, Fitzgerald).
Louis Armstrong was an African American who helped create jazz. He learned how to play the trumpet in a New Orleans orphanage growing up. He had the ability to take a simple melody and create different versions of the basic tune. Babe Ruth was the most popular baseball player of the 1920s. He was the star of the New York Yankees. He set many records including his lifetime record of 714 homeruns which was not broken till 1974.
signs- Real estate busts. Bank failures. unequal distribution of income. farming depression. bloated stock market. Many investors bought their stock on the margin which meant they only paid part of the cost when first they first purchased the stock, and paid the rest after. These investors borrowed the rest from their stockbrokers. As the prices fell, investors were being demanded to pay what they owed. Desperate people began trying to open shares in order to pay their stockbrokers.