Granted loans to companies to help them cover the cost of converting to war production.
What did the war production board do?
The war production board had the authority to set priorities and production goals and to control the distribution of raw materials and supplies.
In terms of segregation, how was the military at the start of the war?
African americans had separate barracks, latrines, mess halls, and recreational facilities. African Americans were organized into their own military units, but white officers were generally in charge of them. Most military leaders also wanted to keep african american soldiers out of combat and assigned them to construction and supply units.
What was the Double V?
The Double V (Double Victory) would be a victory over both racism in Nazi germany and Racism towards blacks in the US.
Who was Benjamin Davis?
An African american whom FDR promoted to the rank of Brigadier general.
Which African American Military Unit played an important role in the battle of Anzio?
The Tuskeegee Airmen
When was the military fully integrated?
The Military was fully integrated by 1948.
(Women Join the Armed Forces) What happened in 1942?
In 1942, the Women's Army Auxilary Corps was started.
Who set up Women's units?
The coast guard, navy, and marines all quickly set up their own women's units following the army's example.
What Happened on December 7th, 1941?
On December 7th, 1941, American Airbases in the Philippines were attacked.
Where did the Bataan death march take place?
The Bataan Death march took place on the Bataan Peninsula.
What was the Bataan Death March?
78,000 Allied prisoners of war were captured and marched to a japanese prison camp. Thousands died on the march.
When did the Philippines fall?
The Philippines fell in May 1942.
Why did Yamamoto decide to attack Midway Island?
To protect Japan form American Bombings. Midway island was close enough to Japan that the Americans would be able to bomb Japan if they were to capture it.
Why did the US need to win the battle of the Coral Sea?
The US needed to win in order to ensure that the US Australian supply line stayed open.
What did the Battle of Midway do to Japan?
It sunk 3 of their Aircraft carriers, dismantled 38 of their planes, and caused them to retreat. Was considered the turning point of the war in the pacific.
Why was Egypt Important?
Egypt was Important because it contained the Suez Canal, which most of the British EMpire used to send supplies to Britain.
Who was Irwin Rommel?
He was the german general in charge of Egypt. He was nicknamed the "Desert Fox". He lead the German Africa Korps.
What was Hitler convinced of?
That the only way to defeat the Soviet union was to destroy its economy.
Why did hitler want Stalingrad?
because Stalingrad controlled the volga river and it had a major railroad junction.
What did the Battle of Stalingrad do to germany?
The battle of Stalingrad put germany on the offensive.
What did the Fair Employment practices commission do?
It enforced Order #8802 which disallowed discrimination in defense industries or government.
In L.A., what became tied together because of the Zoot suit?
Mexican American Racism and fear of Juvenile crime became tied together because of the zoot suit.
Why did the Zoot suit anger so many americans?
Because the Zoot suit required a lot of cloth to make, and that cloth could otherwise be contributed to the war effort.
What happened in June 1943? (Zoot Suit Riots)
2,500 sailors and soldiers began beating up Mexican American teens, while police did nothing. This resulted in the zoot suit being banned.
In 1942, FDR signed an order allowing what?
The order let the war department declare any part of the US a military zone and remove whoever they wanted.
What did Fred Korematsu argue and before whom?
He argued that his right shad been violated (before the supreme court)
What was the result of Fred Kormatsu's argument and why?
The SC said that the interment was constitutional because it was based on military urgency.
No japanese person was ever tried for __________
Espionage or sabotage.
What makes the all Japanese 100th Battalion special?
It was the most highly decorated unit of WWII.
Why were the OPA and OES created? What did they regulate?
They were created to stabilize wages and prices during WWII. The OES regulated wages and the price of farm products. The OPA regulated everything else.
What 4 thinks were rationed during WWII?
processed foods, meats, fats, and oils.
What did you have to do when you bought food? (Rations during WWII)
Use ration coupons. Blue coupons controlled processed foods, red coupons controlled meats, fats, and oils.
Why did the Government Organize Scrap Drives?
To collect rubber, tin, aluminum and steel. Various metal objects, bacon grease, and meat drippings were also collected. Oils and fats were collected for food for the army.
What got you extra ration coupons?
Collecting fats and meat drippings and donating them to the war effort.
Who led the invasion on Sicily?
Dwight D. Eisenhower
By the end of July what had King Victor Emmanuel and some generals done?
Put Mussolini under arrest because the allies were invading.
What happened on Sept. 8th 1943?
Italy announced its surrender to the Allies.
(Roosevelt meets Stalin at Tehran) What were the 4 major consensuses reached?
-Stalin Promises a full scale offensive against germany when the allies invaded france.
-Stalin and Roosevelt agreed to split up germany after the war so it would never again threaten world peace.
-Stalin Accepted Roosevelt's proposal to create an international organization to help keep peace after the war. -Stalin Promised the US aid with fighting Japan after Germany was defeated.
Who did FDR choose for operation overlord?
FDR chose Eisenhower to lead the operation into france.
What 5 conditions had to be et for operation overlord?
-Invasion had to start at night to hide ships
-Ships had to arrive at low tide so that they could see beach obstacles
-Low tide had to come at dawn so gunners could see the german defenses.
-Invasion had to begin on a moonlit night so that paratroopers could see where they were landing.
-Weather had to be good enough for ship landings and paratrooper drops.
When did D-Day begin?
June 6th, 1944
Who launched the Pacific Island hopping campaign?
Leyte Gulf was the largest? What happened in March 1945?
Leyte gulf was the largest naval battle of the pacific island campaign. In march 1945, Manila was capture and the Japanese surrendered soon after.
The Battle of the Bulge was Hitler's _____________
V-E Day: April 21st?
USSR Arrive at Berlin
V-E Day: April 30th?
Hitler kills himself
May 7th 1945?
Who was Karl Doenitz?
April 12th 1945?
FDR Dies of a stroke
Why did the US want Iwo Jima?
TO gain a better point from which to bomb japan.
What were the bombs filled with that were used on Japan?
Who led the team for the Manhattan project?
Scientist Robert Oppenheimer
What did the Manhattan project team do?
They developed and detonated the first atomic bomb at a secret lab in Los Alamos, New Mexico.
4 opinions on dropping the bomb?
Admiral William Leahy = No bomb. Econ blockade and conventional bombing instead.
SoW Henry Stimson = Warn the Japs about the Bomb. Tell them they could keep the emperor if they surrendered.
SoS James Byrnes = Drop bomb w/o warning and shock Japs into surrendering. -Truman himself believed that he had to use any military weapon he could to save american lives, and he had been warned that invading japan would bring mass amounts of US casualties.
What did the Allies threaten the Japs with?
Prompt and utter destruction
Japs: Aug. 6th 1945
Enola Gay dropped the little boy on hiroshima, killing 120k people. Later on the same day, Fat man is also dropped on nagasaki, killing between 35,000 and 74,000 people.
August 9th 1945? (Japs)
Soviets declare war on japan.
August 15th 1945? (Japs)
VJ Day. Japan Surrendered.
What did Executive Order 8802 state?
E.O. #8802 disallowed discrimination in defense industries or government.
How much did the US spend on the war?
Over $300 billion.
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