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Name the 4 countries that explored the current day U.S. as they searched for trade routes to Asia and competed globally for territory.
Many explorers claimed land in North America while looking for the _______ _________, a water route through North America to Asia.
The ________ ________ was the transfer of various plants, animals and diseases between the Western and Eastern Hemispheres.
Name 4 different motivations for the founding of the English colonies in America.
Religious leaders of the _______ _________ were George Whitefield and Jonathon Edwards.
THIS was the first English attempt at settlement in America that mysteriously disappeared.
Founded in 1607, _______ was the first successful English settlement in America.
THIS DOCUMENT - made up by the Pilgrim Separatists - set up the basis for self-government and majority rule in Massachusetts.
Most of the English colonies were founded by groups seeking religious freedom - such as the Pilgrims & Puritans who founded WHAT COLONY?
The first form of representative (or legislative) government in the colonies was Virginia's _______ established in 1619.
House of Burgesses
After being banished from Massachusetts, Roger Williams founded WHAT COLONY based on the principals of religious freedom, equality for all, and separation of church and state.
William Penn founded ______ as a refuge for Quakers.
James Oglethorpe founded ________ as a refuge for debtors.
Give the 3 reasons that European colonists in America turned to Africans (instead of Native Americans) for slave labor.
They were immune to most diseases
They didn't know the land
They were a souce of contant cheap labor
The 4 cultural regions of the colonies were:
1. New England
Name the 4 New England Colonies.
The ________ colonies were characterized by Puritan religious values, fishing, shipping & commerce (trade), and subsistence farming.
Name the 4 Middle colonies.
The ________ colonies (aka the Breadbasket colonies) were characterized by diverse ethnic groups, commerce & trade, and cash crops of grain.
Name the 5 Southern colonies.
The ______ colonies were characterized by large planations with slave labor and cash crops of tobacco, indigo & rice.
The ________ was the region in the colonies that ran along the Appalachian Mountains.
_________ were men and women who sold their labor (typically 5-7 years) to the person who paid their passage to America.
In order to _______ in many of the colonies, one had to be white, male, over 21, a property owner and (in some colonies) a church-member.
European colonization negatively impacted WHAT PEOPLE through disease, displacement, technology, and assimilation?
The ________ __________ was the name given to a trading route in the Atlantic Ocean that involved the exhange of rum, sugar and enslaved Africans.
The _________ ___________ was the route of the triangular trade involved in the shipping of captured African men, woman and children to work as slaves in the Americas.
WHAT COLONY established the first public (or universal) schools in the colonies because of Puritan beliefs that everyone should know how to read the Bible.
The _________ was an intellectual movement that emphasized science and reason as ways to gain knowledge and discover truth. It brought about new ideas regarding man's natural rights.
Of all the items that were exchanged between hemispheres in the Columbian Exhange, which had the greatest overall impact?
The ________ was a religious movement during the mid 1700's that encouraged ideas of equality and the right to challenge authority.
The colonies modeled their represenative government after ________, Britains's legislative body.
Britain's policy of ________ _________ towards its colonies helped the American colonists to have an autonomous (independent) nature.
________, which means exporting more than you import in order to create a favorable balance of trade, was the economic system used by Britain and her colonies.
The rivalry between France and England over the Ohio River Valley led to WHAT war?
THIS was proposed by Benjamin Franklin after he observed the League of the Iroquois, and was the first attempt at uniting the colonies.
Albany Plan of Union
WHO was a popular American Enlightenment figure who contributed to American society in numerous ways as an inventor, printer and statesman?
Treaty of Paris
The ________ of 1763 banned English settlers from mvoing west of the Appalachian Mountains in order to prevent conflict with the Native Americans.
THIS WAR doubled Britain's debt and led to direct taxes in the colonies.
The American colonists believed that it was wrong for Britain to ________ them when they had no _______ from the colonies in Parliament.
Tax - Representatives
("no taxation without representation")
The __________ Act was a law passed by Parliament that taxed all sorts fo documents including wills, newspapers, contracts, and even dice!
THIS was a secret society that formed in protest to the Stamp Act & other British policies.
The _________ were created by Samuel Adams and kept information flowing between the colonies about what was happening in the days leading up to Revolutionary War.
Committees of Correspondence
The _________ Act required the colonists to quarter, or house, and feed British soldiers stationed in America.
WHO was a free African American and the first killed at the Boston Massacre?
WHO was a silversmith and a leader of the Sons of Liberty in Boston? His engraving of the Boston Massacre was used as propaganda against the British.
WHO was a lawyer and statesman who defended the soldiers after the Boston Massacre and was a central figure in both Continental Congresses.
As a protest against the Tea Act, some colonists dressed as Indians and dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor. This event later became famously known as WHAT?
Boston Tea Party
In response to the Boston Tea Party, Parliament passed the Coercive, or ______ Acts. These harsh laws eventually led to the First Continental Congress.
The ________ ________ Congress was a meeting of representatives from each of the colonies. It met in response to the Coercive (Intoleralbe) Acts and united the colonies in promoting their rights.
HE was a Virginia lawyer whose words, like "Give me liberty or give me death!", called for independence from Great Britain.
Thomas Paine's pamphlet ________ _________ convinced many colonists that a complete break from England was necessary.
The __________ _________ __________ created the Declaration of Independence, put into action an interim government, and created the Continental army with Washington as its general.
2nd Continental Congress
The English philosopher ________ _________ argued that all men had natural rights of life, liberty and property. his ideas became the foundation for the Declaration of Independence.
WHAT document written by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 that detailed the natural rights of man and the reasons why the US was breaking away from England?
Declaration of Independence
_________ was the president of the Continental Congress and thus the first to sign the Declaration of Independence.
_________ was an early advocate for women's rights and is best known for reminding her husband to "remember the ladies" when forming a new government.
The __________ ________ was the colonial fight for independence from Great Britain.
The first shots of the American Revolution (the "shot heard 'round the world") were fired at __________ and _________ in Massachusetts.
Lexington and Concord
________ advantages going into the Revolutionary War included having the mightiest army and navy and huge supplies of money and resources.
The __________ advantages going in the Revolutionary War included fighting for and on their home ground and strong military leadership.
Colonists and citizens of Britain were divided for the colonial drive for independence in three ways:
_________ were colonists who sided with England in the American Revolution.
________ were colonists who wanted to break away from England.
_________ included colonists who were neither Patriots nor Loyalists. Many were religious pacifists.
________ was the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution.
THIS leader of the Green Mountain Boys successfully captured Fort Ticonderoga early on in the Revolutionary War.
THIS first major battle of the American Revolution was a moral victory for the Patriots despite the obvious loss militarily.
Battle of Bunker Hill
General Washington's surprise attack on the Hessians at THIS battle on Christmas Day boosted the morale of the weary Continental forces.
The battle at __________ was the turning point of the Revolution. The colonial victory gave foreign nations (mainly France) confidence to join the colonial drive for independence.
This young man came from France to volunteer in Washington's army.
Marquis de Lafayette
The great hardships during the winters at Morriston and _______ _________ and the influence of foreign officers such as Baron von Steuben united the Continental troops into a more effective & disciplined fighting force.
____________ __________ were women who followed their husbands into the Revolutionary War army camps where they cooked, did laundry and took care of the sick or wounded soldiers.
THIS naval officer inspired Americans with his thrilling successes against the best navy in the world.
John Paul Jones
(Jones - Davey Jones - Sea = navy)
HE was a Continental officer and hero at Saratoga who became a traitor when he turned over an American fort to the British.
(Benedict - Eggs - you flip eggs - he "flipped" on America)
HE was a private who eventually became General of the Continental Army in the South. He effectively used the strategy of dividing his forces and eluding the enemy to help the Americans win the war.
Colonists, like __________ "The Swamp Fox", often used unconventional (guerilla) military tactics to neutralize the highly trained British regulars.
HE was a frontier fighter whose successful defense of the Western frontier gave the U.S. claim to these western lands after the Revolution.
George Rogers Clark
(Roy Rogers = Western)
In 1783, THIS DOCUMENT forced Britain to recognize the independence of the colonies and granted the new nation land from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River.
Treaty of Paris
Better leadership, French assistance, knowledge of the land, and the motivation of liberty helped _________ to win the Revolutionary War.
Americans or Patriots
After the Revolution, Americans liked the idea of ________ - that instead of a king, the people should rule.
The American Revolution brought an end to mercantilism. ________ ___________ is when business can be conducted freely by individuals, not because of government controls.
THIS was our first national Government. It was characterized by a weak central goverment that caused commerical and political problems within the country.
Articles of Confederation
One of the biggest issues facing our new government after the Revolution were the immense_______ from the war.
(we owed $27 million)
The _________ _________ of 1785 called for surveyors to measure and divide the Northwest Territory into townships.
The ______ _________ determined how the Northwest Territory was to be governed and described how territories could become states.
________ ________, an armed revolt of Massachusetts farmers, helped America's leaders realize that a change in the national government was needed.
The __________ _________ in Philadelphia was originally convened to revise the Articles of Confederation. Eventually, the Articles were abolished altogether and a new Constitution was written.
Why was the current day U.S. explored?
...because the Spanish, British, French and Dutch were searching for trade routes to Asia
Describe the Northwest Passage.
The water route many explorers were searching for through North American to Asia
What was the Columbian Exchange?
...the transfer of various plants, animals and diseases between the Western and Eastern hemispheres
Name 5 reasons that motivated the founding of the English colonies.
To get out of debt
Under the Articles of Confederation, what government was weak and what government was strong?
Weak: Federal (big)
Strong: States (small)
What is the historical importance of Roanoke?
Roanoke was the first English settlement - it mysteriously disappeared.
It was the first successful English settlement in America (founded in 1607)
Why is the Mayflower Compact important?
It set up the basis for self-government and majority rule in Massachusetts (& in America)
Religious freedom for the Puritans & Pilgrims
What is the importance of the House of Burgesses founded in Virginia in 1619?
It was the first form of represenative or legislative government in the colonies
What 3 principles did Roger Williams found Rhode Island upon?
Equality for All
Seperation of Church and State
Who did William Penn found Pennsylvania for and why?
As a refuge for Quakers who were being persecuted for their religious beliefs
Who did James Oglethorpe found Georgia for?
a refuge for debtors
Where was the Backcountry located?
Along the Appalachian mountains
How did indentured servants impact the colonies?
They brought more people to America who otherwise could not afford it. It gave America the ideal of working for your position in life.
Who could NOT vote in the American colonies (5 groups)?
Certain Religious Groups
What 4 factors of European colonization negatively influenced the Native Americans?
What products did the triangular trade include?
How did the Middle Passage of the triangular trade impact America?
It brought African slavery to America
Why was Massachusetts the first to have public schools?
The Puritan beliefs that everyone should know how to read the Bible
What was Enlightenment?
An intellectual movement emphasized science and reason as ways to gain knowledge and discover truth and brought about new ideas regarding man's natural rights.
What was the Great Awakening?
A religious movement during the mid 1700s that encouraged ideas of equality and the right to challenge authority.
Who were the major religious leaders of the Great Awakening?
George Whitfield and Jonathon Edwards
What did the colonies model their representative government after?
Britain's legislative Parliament
What was the result of Britain's policy of salutary neglect towards to colonists?
It caused an independent nature within the colonies
What is mercantilism?
Exporting more than you import in order to create a favorable balance of trade
What was the major conflict that caused the French & Indian War?
Land claims in the Ohio River Valley
What was Ben Franklin attempting with his Albany Plan of Union?
Unity among the colonies
What was the importance of Benjamin Franklin?
A popular American Enlightenment figure who contributed to American society in numerous ways as an inventor, printer and stateman
What ended the French power in North America?
The Treaty of Paris of 1763 at the conclusion of the French & Indian War
What was the Proclamation of 1763?
A document banning English settlers from moving west of the Appalachian Mountains in order to prevent conflict with the Native Americans
What impact did the French & Indian War have on American colonists?
British began taxing the colonists
Why did American colonists believe it was unfair that they were being taxed by British Parliament?
They were being taxed without having American representatives in Parliament.
("no taxation withouth representation")
What did the Stamp Act tax?
What was the Sons of Liberty?
a secret society formed in protest of the Stamp Act
What were the Committees of Correspondence?
a communication system to promote colonial resistance formed by Samuel Adams
What were the Quartering Acts?
British law requiring the colonists to quarter, or house, and feed British soldiers stationed in America
Who was Crispus Attucks?
He was a free African American and was the first to be killed at the Boston Massacre
Who was Paul Revere?
A silversmith and a leader of the Sons of Liberty in Boston. His engraving of the Boston Massacre was used as propaganda against the British.
Who was John Adams?
A lawyer and statesman who defended the soldiers after the Boston Massacre and was a central figure in both Continental Congresses.
What was the Boston Tea Party?
As a protest against the Tea Act, some colonists dressed as Indians and dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor
What was Britain's response to the Boston Tea Party?
The Coercive or Intolerable Acts (Boston was "grounded")
What was the 1st Continental Congress?
a meeting of representatives from each of the colonies that met in response to the Coercive (Intolerable) Acts and united the colonies in promoting their rights
Who was Patrick Henry?
a Virginia lawyer whose speeches in the House of Burgesses called for independence from Great Britain
What was the impact of Thomas Paine's pamphlet, Common Sense?
It convinced many colonists that a complete break from Great Britain was necessary
What important actions were done by the 2nd Continental Congress?
created the Declaration of Independence, put into action an interim government and created the Continental army
What was the importance of John Locke?
He created the basis for the Declaration of Independence under the natural rights philosophy of Life, Liberty and Property
What was the Declaration of Independence?
A document written by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 that detailed reasons why the U.S. was breaking away from England
Who was John Hancock?
The president of the Continental Congress and the first to sign the Declaration of Indpendence
Why was Abigail Adams important?
She was an early advocate for women's rights when she told her husband to "remember the ladies" when forming the new government
What was the Revolutionary War?
What is the significance of Lexington and Concord?
The first shots of the American Revolution (the "shot heard 'round the world") were fired here in Massechusetts
What were the advantages of the British going into the Revolutionary War?
The mightiest army and navy
Huge supplies of money and resources
What were the advantages of the colonists going into the Revolutionary War?
Fighting for and on their home ground
Strong military leadership
Loyalists, Patriots and Neutrals were the divisions of people during what conflict?
The Revolutionary War
Who were the Loyalists?
The people during the Revolutionary War that sided with Britain
Who were the Patriots?
The people during the Revolutionary War that broke away from England and fought for the American cause
Who was neutral in the American Revolution?
What as George Washington's importance in the Revolutionary War?
Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army
Who captured Fort Ticonderoga early on in the Revolutionary War?
Ethan Allen & the Green Mountain Boys
What was the importance of the Battle of Bunker Hill?
the first MAJOR battle of the Revolutionary War
What was the colonial impact of Washington's surprise attack on the Hessians at Christmas?
It boosted the morale of the weary Continental forces
WHY is Saratoga considered the turning point in the American Revolution?
The colonial victory gave foreign nations (mainly France) confidence to join the colonial drive for independence
Who was Marquis de Lafayette?
Who united the Continental troops into a more effective and disciplined fighting force at Valley Forge?
Baron von Steuben
What did camp followers do in the army camps?
Took care of the wounded and sick soldiers
Who was John Paul Jones?
a naval officer that inspired Americans with his thrilling successes against the best navy in the world
What is republicanism?
The idea that the Americans liked after the Revolution that instead of a king, the people should rule
What was Shay's Rebellion?
an armed revolt of Pennsylvania farmers that helped America's leaders realize that a change in national government was needed
Who was Benedict Arnold?
a Continental officer and hero at Saratoga who became a traitor when he turned over an American for to the British
Who was Nathaniel Greene?
a private who eventually became a commander of the Continental Army in the South and effectively used the strategy of dividing his forces and eluding the enemy to help the Americans win the war
Who was Francis Marion?
"The Swamp Fox", who like many colonists often used unconventional (guerilla) military tactics to neutralize the highly trained British regulars
Who was George Rogers Clark?
a brawny frontiersman whose successful defense of the Western frontier gave the U.S. claim to these western lands after the Revolution
What is the significance of the Battle of Yorktown?
the last major battle of the Revolution (Cornwallis surrendered his entire army)
What was the Treaty of Paris of 1783?
The document in 1783 forced Britain to recognize the Independence of the colonies and granted the new nation land from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River
Why did the Americans win the Revolutionary War?
Knowledge of the land
Motivation of liberty
What is free enterprise?
an economy where business can be conducted freely by individuals, not because of government controls
What were the Ariticles of Confederation?
our first national government that was characterized by a weak central government that caused commercial and political problems within the country
What was one of the biggest issues facing our new government after the Revolution?
War debts ($27 million)
What was the Land Ordiance of 1785?
It called for surveyors to measure and divide the Northwest Territory into townships
What was the Northwest Ordinance?
It was an ordinance that determined how the Northwest Territory was to be governed and outlined how they could become statesAt the Constiutional Convention, the Founders ended up creating an entirely new Constitution.
What was our 1st constitution that they had initially planned on revising at this meeting?
Articles of Confederation
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