restoring the former Confederate states to a normal relationship with the Union.
braham Lincoln's plan of Reconstruction
required 10 percent of a state's voters to take a loyalty oath.
The 1864 Congressional plan for Reconstruction differed from Lincoln's plan in that
1.voters would have to swear that they had never borne arms against the United States 2.state governments would have to repudiate Confederate war debts. 3.a majority of white males would have to pledge allegiance to the Union
The political faction that was the driving force behind Reconstruction was called the
The black codes were
enacted by southern states reconstructed by the president.
The Fourteenth Amendment
provided that states treat all citizens equally.
Ultimately, the election of 1876 was
won by Rutherford B. Hayes.
Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction program was rooted in his belief that
the southern states had never left the Union, because the Constitution did not allow for secession.
All of the following were functions of the Freedmen's Bureau except
the allotment of 40 acres and a mule to each former slave family.
For most southern whites the greatest objection to Reconstruction was that it
allowed blacks to participate in government.
was personally honest but loyal to corrupt subordinates.
The Liberal Republican movement
1.lost the presidential race to Grant. 2.persuaded the Democrats to accept their presidential candidate. 3.indicated disillusionment with Radical Reconstruction in the North. 4.was based on disgust with the scandal of the Grant administration.
The Compromise of 1877 resulted in
the election of Rutherford B. Hayes.
All of the following were "swing states" except
All of the following were factions of the Republican party except the
In part, big-city machines were so successful because
the machines informally provided some social services.
National party conventions were more important in the late nineteenth century than today because
they provided a rare opportunity for state and municipal politicians to meet.
Before 1883, party activists whose party won an election could expect all of the following except
permanent possession of a government job.
Republicans attempted to secure the votes of Civil War veterans by the following actions except
recognizing the special problems of the South.
Post-Civil War monetary policy
was largely in the hands of financial conservatives.
Indians of the Plains
The Cattle Kingdom of the West depended on all of the following factors except
U.S. Army protection.
All of the following helped romanticize the West by appearing in touring Wild West shows except
"Billy the Kid."
All of the following were geographical features of the American West of the late nineteenth century except the
All of the following were true of the Plains Indians except
their culture had not changed for a millennium before 1850.
The chief reason buffalo were slaughtered almost to extinction was
for their hides.
The Plains Indians' way of life was doomed by
the construction of the transcontinental railroad.
The 1887 law that tried to force Indians to assimilate into white society by ending tribal ownership of land and distributing it to individual tribe members was the
Dawes Severalty Act.
The Ghost Dance
was the central ritual in a religious revival among the Plains Indians.
The portrayal of the cowboy as a heroic, romantic figure
owed much to E. Z. C. Judson, otherwise known as Ned Buntline.
The mining frontier
was an important part of the national economy.
All of the following posed serious problems for the farmers of the Great Plains except
the high cost of barbed wire.
both gold and silver were money, their values pegged to one another by law.
The Omaha Platform of the Populists included all of the following proposals except
federal support for national banks
All of the following contributed to a spectacular rise in agricultural production except
rising agricultural prices.
American farmers were hindered by
During the late nineteenth century
1.foreclosures on farm mortgages increased. 2.the number of tenant farmers rose. 3.crop production increased. 4.real farm income declined.
All of the following contributed to the rise of sharecropping in the South except
repeated cotton crop failures.
If a southern tenant farmer or sharecropper was unable to pay the season's bills with the price he realized from his crop
1.he would go deeper into debt. 2.the landlord placed a lien against the next year's crop.0% 3.he and his family could be thrown off the land. 4.he could be jailed until the money was paid.
The Panic of 1893 resulted in all the following except
higher wages in northern factories.
The Oregon system included all of the following reforms except
city manager government.
The progressive measure that gave voters the right to remove a public official from office through special election was
Progressives feared all of the following except
a government active in the economic, social, and cultural spheres.
Progressives evinced a firm belief in
1.the malleability of human nature. 2.efficiency. 4.democracy. 5.the use of government as a tool.
On the race question, progressivism
1.was not of a single mind. 2.sometimes supported Jim Crow. 3.gave birth to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. 4.included racists among its prominent adherents
A.were members of a radical labor union believed to practice sabotage and other forms of violence. B.merged with the AFL in 1912. C.all of these choices. D.were led by Victor Berger. E.were active in the carpenters' union.
President Roosevelt's conservation policy showed his desire to
put the government in charge of natural resource management.
The prohibition movement won progressive support by
2.virtue of its social and moral arguments. 3.arguing that drinking contributed to poverty among working people. 4.linking the saloon to political corruption. 5.appealing to the Christianity of some Americans.
Theodore Roosevelt's suit against the Northern Securities Company earned him the nickname
The United States suggested the Open Door policy for China in order to
1.allow U.S. merchants to trade in China without the interference of foreign governments 2.achieve a foreign policy victory without using military force. 3.maintain the territorial integrity of China. 5.keep the great powers from completely destroying China by dividing it among themselves
Roosevelt's Democratic party opponent in the election of 1904 was
the judge, Alton B. Parker.
The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine stated that
the United States could intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American nations to preserve stability.
Woodrow Wilson and Teddy Roosevelt differed fundamentally on the issue of
The Hepburn Act
gave the Interstate Commerce Commission greater powers with which to regulate the railroads.
During Roosevelt's presidency
1. he was friends with John Muir. 2.lumbermen and cattlemen who misused public lands were more vigorously prosecuted than they had been. 3.Congress froze the size of forest reserves in six western states. 5.the forest reserves tripled in size.
All of the following are true of Gifford Pinchot except that
he wished to preserve forests so that Americans would have recreational facilities outdoors.
All of the following cost Taft the support of progressives except
his tax policies.
In 1912, William Howard Taft
made effective use of the patronage to ensure his renomination.
Wilson won the election of 1912 because
.Roosevelt and Taft split the Republican vote.
All of the following are true of Woodrow Wilson as president except
he became more conservative as his first term progressed.
The First World War was triggered by
the assassination of an Austrian archduke by a Serbian nationalist.
All of the following were Allied Powers except
All of the following were Central Powers except
Germany's primary tool for choking England's import economy was
The basis of the British blockade of Germany was
In 1916, the German Navy temporarily suspended submarine warfare against U.S. ships because of
the fear that it would lead to intervention by the United States
The first American intervention in Mexican affairs under Wilson
was triggered by the arrest of American sailors in Tampico.
Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare in 1917 in the belief
Britain would be knocked out of the war before the United States could have any effect on the outcome.
Propagandists inspired anti-German feelings by playing upon all of the following except
outrage at Germany's savage treatment of the Jews.
The United States thwarted Germany's submarine blockade of Great Britain
by employing convoys escorted by destroyers to transport men and materiel to Europe.
The Zimmermann telegram stirred up anti-German sentiment in the United States because it revealed German plans to
return to Mexico her provinces lost to the United States in exchange for a Mexican declaration of war on the United States
During the war, the American Federation of Labor
1. issued a no-strike pledge. 2. achieved a new level of respectability. 3.was included in the administrative structure supervising the war effort. 4.supported the war effort.
All of the following causes were furthered by the war except
civil rights for blacks.
All of the following were targets of wartime violence or government repression except
the American Federation of Labor
President Wilson's Fourteen Points included all of the following except
reparations from Germany.
Senate opposition to the Versailles Treaty
1.was organized by Henry Cabot Lodge. 2.concentrated especially on Article Ten of the League Covenant. 3.came primarily from Republicans. 4.came because of the fear that American sovereignty would be compromised.
In his role as food administrator, Herbert Hoover promoted all of the following except
Under the Espionage and Sedition Acts, many civil liberties were suspended, and
number people were tried and convicted of criticizing the government
At the Versailles Conference
President Wilson was forced to compromise on other issues in order to save the League of Nations.
As time passed during the Senate debate on the Treaty,
popular enthusiasm for the League of Nations diminished.
The Bonus Expeditionary Force wanted
Congress to vote them a cash bonus for their wartime service earlier than scheduled.
According to a crude estimate, the unemployment rate in 1932, at the height of the Depression, was
During the Depression, social and political violence
was isolated and exceptional.
The majority of Americans blamed the Depression on all of the following except
President Hoover's response to the Depression was hindered by all of the following assumptions except
government should never intervene in the economy.
During the Great Depression, charitable organizations
were inadequate because of the large number of people needing help.
The sense of personal failure that accompanied the Depression
1.reflected the value Americans placed on individualism and self-reliance. 2.probably deflected anger away from the capitalist system. 3.was exploited by advertisers. 4.caused hitchhikers to apologize for their appearance.
Americans expressed their rejection of the leaders of the 1920s in all of the following ways except
voting for Socialist and Communist candidates in large numbers.
The day after his inauguration, President Roosevelt won popular sympathy when he
declared a bank holiday.
All of the following were implemented during the Hundred Days except the
National Labor Relations Act.
All of the following provided relief through jobs rather than handouts except the
.Federal Emergency Relief Administration.
The National Recovery Administration
2.recognized the right of labor unions to represent workers. 3.established codes that governed virtually every aspect of production in an industry. 4.was popular at first. 5.was criticized for carrying regulation to excessive levels.
Pressing problems facing his administration when Roosevelt took office included all of the following excep
demands by African Americans for full civil rights.
The primary intent of the National Industrial Recovery Act was to
increase prices on industrial goods
The NRA died because
the Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional.
All of the following are true of the Agricultural Adjustment Act except
it rejected the concept of parity.
All of the following were true of the Tennessee Valley Authority except
it was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
The Social Security Act
represented a revolutionary assumption of responsibility for personal welfare by the federal government.
Roosevelt faced the issue of race in America by
1.not interfering with southern segregationist Democrats. 3.ignoring the issue. 4.avoiding it as much as possible. 5.allowing his wife to keep channels open to African-American leaders.
The New Deal accomplished all of the following except
it ended the Great Depression.
When the Soviet Union shot down a U-2 aircraft over its country, the incident
gave Nikita Khrushchev the pretext he needed to break off the Paris summit discussions concerning Berlin
Eisenhower called his compromise between New Deal reforms and conservative Republicanism
The shakeout in the Soviet Union after Stalin's death left as strongman, a Ukrainian,
In 1954, American operatives helped overthrow the reform government of Mohammed Mossadegh in
Martin Luther King, Jr., headed
the Southern Christian Leadership Council.
Eisenhower's eight years in office were marked by
no armed conflicts of note.
Eisenhower's secretary of state, John Foster Dulles,
1.announced a new policy of "massive retaliation," threatening the use of nuclear weapons to counter communist aggression.
Martin Luther King's strategy for combating racism was
nonviolent civil disobedience.
"Jim Crow" segregation was outlawed by
the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
The "Freedom Summer" of 1964
1.was disillusioning to civil rights workers who had idealized southern blacks. 2.helped pass the Voting Rights Act of 1965. 3.saw idealistic university students trying to register blacks to vote in Mississippi. 4.was marked by violence, including several murders.
"Black Power" meant
different things to different people.
Malcolm X was all of the following except
a long-time civil rights worker.
George Wallace's intentions in 1968 were
1.to frighten both parties. 3.to win enough electoral votes to deny a majority to both Nixon and Humphrey. 4.to become the broker in an election decided in the House of Representatives. 5.to form a political alliance between southern segregationists and northern working people who believed the Democrats had abandoned them.
Martin Luther King, Jr.'s March on Washington in 1963
forced Kennedy to choose between southern segregationists and the support of African Americans.
Martin Luther King, Jr.'s strategy for combating racism was
nonviolent civil disobedience.
The most significant accomplishment of the Montgomery boycott was that it led to
the elevation of Martin Luther King, Jr., to prominence as a civil rights leader
The "sit_in" movement of racial protest in the early 1960s resulted in
the integration of some public eating facilities.
"Freedom riders" in the early 1960s aimed at
the desegregation of bus stations
Following the racial violence in Alabama and Mississippi in 1962 and 1963, President Kennedy
introduced legislation to end segregation in public accommodations.
"Affirmative action" is best defined as the legal requirement that
employers take positive measures to recruit minorities in order to compensate for past injustices
Johnson's domestic program centered upon the issues of
social welfare and eeconomic strength.
French power in Vietnam came to an end
when the French lost the war.
French power in Vietnam came to an end
when the French lost the war.
Ngo Dinh Diem was
an anti-Communist; first supported, then abandoned by the United States.
The American commitment in Vietnam increased substantially when
President Johnson asked for and Congress approved the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
All of the following were true of Ho Chi Minh except
he had opposed friendship with the United States since his youth.
Lyndon Johnson expanded the American military commitment in Vietnam because
he believed that if South Vietnam fell to Communism, other nations in Southeast Asia would follow.
The Tet Offensive
2.was a military defeat for the Viet Cong. 3.was sufficiently shocking in the United States to increase disapproval of the war. 4.was technically an American victory. 5.was followed by North Vietnam's agreement to begin peace talks.
People opposing the war in Vietnam included
1.people who believed America was morally wrong to be there. 2.religious pacifists. 3.romantics enamored of the underdog NLF. 4.pro-Communists hoping for a North Vietnamese victory.
One of the primary reasons that the United States could not fully win the Vietnam War was
they employed conventional warfare techniques in an unconventional war
Nixon's second vice president was Gerald Ford, previously
congressman from Michigan.
Pol Pot's reign of terror in Cambodia was brought to an end by
an invasion by the North Vietnamese.
The Supreme Court decision in the 1973 case of Roe v. Wade stated that
under the constitutionally guaranteed "right to privacy," all state laws prohibiting abortion during the "first trimester" of pregnancy were invalid
The man who succeeded Mao Zedong as the leader of China was
Nixon's Vietnam policy included
1.a slow but steady withdrawal of American troops. 2.Vietnamization. 3.expansion of the war into Cambodia. 4.improvement of the army of South Vietnam.
One result of sending American ground troops into Cambodia in 1970 was
1.the deaths of students at Kent State University and Jackson State College. 3.an increase in the power of the Khmer Rouge, the Cambodian Communists. 4.a brief escalation of protest in the United States. 5.the repeal of the Tonkin Gulf Resolution.
When faced with the Southeast Asian refugee problem, the United States
admitted some 600,000 displaced people to the United States.
Nixon's openness toward China
1.was urged on him by Henry A. Kissinger. 2.was a surprise because he had been a staunch anticommunist. 3.should have been expected, given his previous statements. 5.reflected his belief that the great powers all had to get along.
The dramatic improvement in American relations with China under Nixon
encouraged the Soviet Union to cooperate with the United States.
The evidence in the Watergate case, based on testimony and on the White House tapes, indicated that Nixon
was guilty of a major crime: obstructing justice by covering up evidence of the crimes of others.
The vice president who was forced to resign was
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