New individuals arise from outgrowths of existing ones. Example: Hydra
Asexual reproduction in which an egg develops without being fertilized. Often done by insects. Example: Arizona whiptail-no males
External (risky females just drop eggs they have to produce a lot)
Internal: Reptiles were the first to do this
Menstrual cycle averages about 28 days. The petuitary gland secretes FSH which starts a cell to do the final stages of miosis in the ovary. This secretes estrogen which helps to rebuild tissue in the uteris. At 14 days LH surge causes ovulation and the egg is released into falopian tubes allowing it to be capable of fertilization. Corpus luteum starts to producce massive amounts of estrogen and progesterone to help build up lining. If not prego LH goes down causing corpus luteum to break down.
Behavior of animals
Karl von Frisch
Observed bees and deciphered a "dance language" that returning foragers use to inform other bees about the distance and direction of travel to food sources. Nobel peace prize
Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen
Scientific method applied to animal behavior. Nobel peace prizes. Genes control behaviors. Lorenz 1930 graylag geese. First saw him when born.
Behavior that is developmentally fixed. Fixed action pattern. A sequence of unlearned acts directly linked to a simple stimulus. Unchanging behavioral sequence which must be done in its entirety. Graylag goose mom retrieving the egg over and over.
Social paracite. FAP: Birds are quiet until they hear mom coming with food. Sign stimulus: Cuckoo pushes out all competitors in the nest. FAPs enable offspring to ensure their survival
Change in behavior resulting from experience.
Limited to a specific time frame in an animals life. You cannot undo what has already been learned. Critical period, or sensitive period, with baby goose.
Loss of response to a stimulus after repeated exposure. Example: Scarecrow eventually the birds will learn it is not real
George S Buffon
1778 collected fossils and tried to compare them with living things but there were many that didn't match living things. Proposed that things change with common ancestors
Developed paleontology. Examined fossils in Germany in molten rocks. Opposed the idea of evolution but noticed new species down deeper
Organisms change over time. Use vs. Disuse. Compared living species with fossil forms. Giraffe stretching its neck to reach leaves which is "inheritance of acquired characteristics"
British voyage of discovery. Galapogus Islands. Descent with modification: Things change over time. Natural selection: Process in which indiv that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates.
Read Charles Lyells book "principles of geology"
Wrote his own book "On the origin of species by means of natural selection"
Alfred Russel Wallace
Mid 1850's. Came up with the exact same data as Darwin. He would disappear for months at a time.
More offspring produced than can ever survive. Individuals in a pop show variatio in geno and pheno. Some traits are more adaptive than others. Survival of the fittest.
Natural selection affected peppered moth population. Vefore and after industrial revolution. Before no coal mostly light form. After polution killed tree leaves leaving the bark for moths to hide so they were mostly dark. After changed back.
Change in genetic composition gene pool by random chance. The key is a small population.
Members of a population go somewhere new.
Disaster that drastically affect pop. Earthquake.
Ex: Cheetahs very little genetic variation they don't want to breed
Gain or loss of genes occurs between 2 populations. Ex: Bald eagles are everywhere but look different. Transfer of alleles into or out of a population due to the movement of fertile individuals or their gametes.
Change in DNA sequence
The one that leaves the most offspring behind, the ones that have best phenotype because those are the most desired mates
Favor average trait it is bad to be extreme.
Example: Birth weights. Too high and too low have higher mortality rates.
Occurs when conditions favor individuals exhibiting one extreme of a phenotypic range thereby shifting the population curve in one direction. Common when the environment changes or when population migrates.
When conditions favor individuals at the extremes.
Example: Bright birds
Carolus Linnaes devised the method for naming every living thing. Still in use and unchanged. Everything has 2 latin names: genus species
Called bryophytes: Mosses, liverworts and hornworts.
Animals that lack a backbone
Sponges. Filter feeders, no tissue
Corals, jellies and hydras. Radial symmetry
Flatworms. Bilateral symmetry. Cephalization: You can start to notice a head
round worms. First to have a primitive type of body cavity, which holds the organs. Hook worms and pinworms (inside guts of children)
Soft bodied animal. Have mantle: secretes shell. True body cavity, first to have a true open circulatory system. 2nd largest animal group. Make their own shells and have great fossils. Gastropods (snails and slugs) Bivalve (Scallops, mussels, oysters 2 shells that open and close) Cephalopod (octopod, squids,gentle)
Segmented worms. Move differently. Earthworms
Joint footed (paired appendages) Chitin exoskeleton. Over 1 million species. Arachnids (spiders, scorpions, tics suck body fluid from prey) Crustacea (lobsters, crabs, shrimp crayfish, landwelling pill bugs) Millipedes and centipedes (have legs on each segment.
Sea stars. Most advanced beginning of internal
All have notochord (provides skeletal support) dorsal, hallow nerve chord, pharyngeal slits or clefts, muscular post-anal tail.
Hog fish complete internal structure made of cartiledge they are paracites.
Cartilidge fish: sharks, rays, skates, true fish gills. Have bone teeth
Bone fish. replace cartlage with bone they have scales
Still tied to water because they have to lay their eggs there. Very slow that is why they often jump
Have scales which help to prevent the animal from drying out. no longer have to stay near water. invented the amniotic egg (shelled egg) internal fertilization
Cold blooded the can't regulate their own body temperature.
Birds basically advanced reptiles, they still have scales. They are endoderms so they make their own heat. True muscle power flight. Came up with feathers which aid in flights. Had the first hard shelled amniotic egg. First to have full 4 chambered heart. hallow bones to be lighter to fly. Don't have teeth.
Very efficient appendages. Hair evolved from scales. can produce milk to feed their own. Complete internal reproduction. Monotemes (duck billed platypus, spiny anteater lay eggs but still have milk and hair), Marsupials (give birth 11-12 weeks wombats possums crawl out and stay near milk for months) Placental mammals (much more efficient at reproducing)
Interbreeding individuals of the same species occupying a given area at a given time. Population of grey squirrels in MO
All species in a given place
The community and the non living environment
Number of individuals per unit area or volume. Can do this by counting, indirect indicators, or mark-recapture.
Way individuals are spaced among boundaries of the population. Clumped (unequal distribution of resources), uniform (cactus, colonial bird nesting) random (trees seeds carried by animals)
1. Exponential: unregulated. Happens under ideal environment. bacteria. J curve
2. Logistic: Growth will be cut off when population gets big enough. Limiting factors kick in such as not enough food.
Carry capacity (K) amt of indiv that can survive in an area
Population limiting factors
1. Density dependent: Depends on amt of organisms. LImited food supply disease (dingos)
2. Density independent: NOt caused by size. climate
Lynx and snowshoe hare.
Life History Strategies
1. Opportunistic: reproduce when young short life span produce a lot of offspring lives in unpredictable environment. bugs
2. Equilibrial: Life is predictable. large animals. mature later. protect nurture young because there are fewer
1. type 1: Flat at start, then drops steeply among old age. large mammals humans
2. type 2: Intermediate. constant death rate over life span. ground squirrels. rodents. annual plants.
3. type 3: Drops sharp at start high death rates for young flattens. offspring is provided with little or no care. Fish and marine invertebrates.
The process of knowing that involved awareness, reasoning, recollection and judgement
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