veins inferior to the diaphragm merge to collectively form this which has the LARGEST diameter of any vessel in the body.
inferior vena cava
lies to the right side of the descending abdominal aorta and is responsible for carrying venous blood toward at the heart form the lower limbs, pelvis, perineum, and abdominal structures.
the side pregnant women would lay on to refrain from compressing their inferior vena cava
veins that drain the head, neck and the upper limbs merge to form this which merges to form the superior vena cava.
superior vena cava
the left and right brachiocephalic veins merge to form this which carries deoxygenated blood from the head neck and upper limbs
this lies deep to the sternocleidomastoid muscle and eventually merges with the subclavian vein to form the brachiocephalic vein
vein that travels superficial to the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
-enlargement of this is an early sign of cardiac tamponade
superior and inferior vena cava and coronary sinuses
the 3 veins that enter the right atrium are these
extends through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae and drain into the brachiocephalicveins
most of the venous blood of the cranium drains through this
dural venous sinus
large veins found between the 2 layers of the dura mater and also receives excess CSF.
dural venous sinuses
has no valves in this system so potentially the good can flow in more than just one direction. there are many of these.
receives input from the superior ophthalmic and inferior ophthalmic veins that drain the skin in the region around the nose.
superior and inferior ophthalmic veins
drain the skin in the region around the nose.
internal jugular veins
most of the blood from the dural venous sinuses collects into the internal jugular veins.
vein that is on the posterior body wall just to the right of the vertebral column.
receives venous drainage from the veins of the lumbar region, the sacral region, the intercostal muscles, the bronchi, esophagus and pericardium
-merges with the SUPERIOR VENA CAVA
left and right bronchial veins drain into this
azygous and left gastric vein
esophageal veins drain the esophageal wall and ravel here
superior and inferior phrenic veins
venous drainage from the diaphragm via these
inferior vena cava
venous drainage fromt eh diaphragm is via the superior and inferior phrenic veins that merge with this
where the musculophrenic veins lead to
celiac artery and common hepatic artery
do not have corresponding veins of the same name
hepatic portal system
inferior mesenteric vein, splenic vein, and the superior mesenteric vein al merge into some part of this.
is one in which the veins that drain one group of capillaries deliver blood to another group of capillaries, which then are drained by the usual venues and veins that lead to the vena cava and the rich atrium of the heart
hepatic portal vein
the large vein that receives oxygen poor but nutrient rich blood from the gastrointestinal organs
type of capillaries located in the liver
reduced oxygen levels in the liver tissues make it slightly more susceptible to this type of infection
once absorption has occurred and dangerous chemicals have been detoxified blood leaves the liver through this that merges with the inferno vena cava
receives blood from the adrenal glands.
-Left typically merge and drain into the left renal vein then into the inferior vena cava
carries blood from the kidneys to the inferior vena cava.
left gonadal vein
the left suprarenal vein and this typically merge and drain into the left renal vein.
left renal vein
the left gonadal vein drains into this.
internal iliac vein
organs and structure of the pelvis and perineum are drained by numerous veins that merge to form this.
dorsal venous arch
on the dorsum of the hand. drains into both the basilica vein and the cephalic vein.
runs adjacent to the medial surface of the upper limb and eventually helps form the axillary vein.
runs alongside the lateral aspect of the upper limb and eventually drains into the axillary vein.
typically I.V. lines are inserted here near the base of the thumb.
connects the cephalic and basilica veins.
the medial cubital vein is a common site for this.
medial cubital vein
is a common site for venipuncture, in which vein is punctured to draw blood or inject medication.
dorsal venous arch, basilic vein, cephalic vein and the medial cubital vein, are all these.
palmar venous arch, radial vein, ulnar vein, brachial vein, axillary vein, subclavian vein, and the brachiacephalic vein are all these.
drains into pairs of radial veins and ulnar veins that run parallel to arteries of the same name.
at the level of the cubital fossa, the radial and ulnar veins merge to form a pair of these.
brachial veins and the basilica vein merge to form this.
superior to the lateral border of the first rib, the axillary vein is renamed this.
when the subclavian vein and the internal jugular veins of the neck merge, they form this.
the left and right brachiocephalic veins merge to form this.
dorsal venous arch
on the dorsum of the foot this drains into the great saphenous and small saphenous vein.
great saphenous vein
originates in the medial side of the ankle and extends adjacent to the medial side of the entire lower limb before it drains into the femoral artery
what does the great saphenous vein drain into.
longest vein int eh body and sometimes removed for use as vascular graft material elsewhere in the body.
small saphenous vein
extends adjacent to the lateral side of the ankle and then travels along the posterior calf before draining in tot eh popliteal vein
the small saphenous vein drains into this.
if the valves of the superficial veins of the legs become incompetent, these develop.
the dorsal venous arch, great saphenous vein and the small saphenous vein are these
the anterior tibial vein, posterior tibial vein, fibular vein, popliteal vein, femoral vein external iliac vein an the common iliac vein are these.
this vein curves otot eh anterior portion of the thigh and is renamed the femoral artery
the popliteal vein becomes this.
once this vein passes deep tot eh inguinal ligament it is renamed once again as the external iliac vein.
common iliac vein
the external vein and internal iliac vein merge in the plevis forming this.
blood low in oxygen concentration is pumped out of the right ventricle into this.
the pulmonary trunk travels superiorly and slightly to the left before it branches into these.
great saphenous vein
this saphenous vein is located medially
small saphenous vein
this saphenous vein is located laterally
other vessels will puck up the slack and veins will end up doing a sufficient job if another vein is damaged.
have less elastic tissues and wider lumen
blood pressure is lower in the ________.
pressure is lower on the _______of the heart in adults.
where gas exchange occurs in the lungs.
part of the arterial wall thins and balloons out. this wall is more prone to rupture which can case massive bleeding and may lead to death
connects the placenta tot he fetus.
2 umbilical arteries.
the umbilical cord contains this many umbilical arteries.
1 umbilical vein
the umbilical cord contains this many veins
the blood from the umbilical vein is mostly shunted away from the liver with most of the blood traveling to the inferior van a cava through this.
a branch of the umbilical vein connects with the hepatic portal vein via this.
umbilical vein, the ductus venous, and the portal sinus
the only fully oxygenated vessels in the featl circulation
right side of the heart
pressure is greater on the _______ side of the heart in a fetus.
most of the blood is shunted from the right atrium to the left atrium via this.
a small amount of blood that enters the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk is shunted from the pulmonary trunk through a vessel detour called this.
blood travels tot eh rest of the body and deoxygenated blood returns to the placenta through a pair of these
internal iliac arteries
the umbilical arteries arise from these.
nutrient and gas exchange occurs at the _______ in fetus.
another name for the round ligament of the liver
the umbilical vein turned into this.
medial umbilical ligament
the umbilical arteries turn into this.
another name for the septum primum.
the only remnant of the foramen oval is this thin, oval depression in the wall of the septum is....
patent foramen ovale/perforated fossa ovalis
if the septum premium doe not close off the foramen oval properly and the individual is said to have this.
-blood flows in both directions between the right and left atria
constricts within 10 to 15 hours after birth and gradual atrophies. becomes nonfunctional ligamentum arteriosum
the ductus arterioles becomes this within 10-15 hours after birth.
progressive disease of the elastic and muscular arteries
leads to thickening of the tunica intima and narrowing o the arterial lumen.
increased amount of cholesterol int eh blood.
balloon tip catheter into an artery and positions at the site where lumen is narrowed. . ballon is inflated forcibly expanding narrowed area. stent is inserted to keep it open
coronary bypass surgery
a vein is detached from it's original location and grafted from the aorta to the coronary artery system, thus bypassing the areas of atherosclerotic narrowing.
a localized, abnormal dilation o a blood vessel. particularly common in arteries, especially the aorta.
abdominal aortic aneurysm
a relatively common problem and is most often a consequence of atherosclerosis. most of these develop between the level of the renal arteries and the point near where the aorta bifurcates into the common iliac arteries.
a berry (cerebral or saccular) aneurysm
a weak area in the cerebral blood vessel that balloons out and fills with blood. sack like out pocket of blood looks like a berry.
-usually where blood vessel bifurcates because blood vessels here are weaker.
when one of these rupture, patients say its the worst headache of their lives. double vision, nausea, vomiting, stiff neck and loss or consciousness.
patent ductus arteriosus
in some infants, the ductus arterioles fails to constrict and close after birth. if left unrelated, whis will result in high blood pressure win the pulmonary circuit. leads to failure of the right ventricle.
help keep the ductus arterioles open during fetal life.
patent foramen ovale
may cause migraines in patients. sealing of heart defects reduces headaches and strokes.
throbbing headaches that focus on one side of the head and often involve sensitivity to light, sound and motion.
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