NINETEENTH CENTURY Neoclassicism?characterized by renewed enthusiasm for subjects and motifs from classical antiquity; this style is characterized by clarity, balance, and restraint. Line is more important than color, and the intellect is valued over the emotions (?the head rules the heart?). Romanticism?emotions, drama/imagination, and color play the dominant roles in this style (?the heart rules the head?). Realism?a movement in the 19th C. (especially in ) where artists represented subject matter from everyday life (which had previously been considered an inappropriate subject). It does not refer to a particularly precise handling of the subject matter (there is no uniform style/technique). Salon?an annual juried art exhibition of painting and sculpture in , dating back from the early 17th c. through the 19th c. and characterized by tradition and conformance to rules. It was a giant exhibition that could make or break an artist?s reputation. [David?s Death of Marat is an example of an artwork admired by the Salon.] Salon des Refuses?an alternative Salon of rejected artworks (promoted by Napoleon III); it is often said to herald the beginning of modern art. Impressionism?19th c. French movement that relied heavily on color and the ever-changing effects of light to capture a given moment in time; sought to create the illusion of forms bathed in light and atmosphere. local color?the actual color of an object, which ?appears? to change when the object is seen under different light and atmospheric conditions. instantaneity?a fleeting moment in time (e.g. involving weather conditions or candid, unguarded moments.) This concept arises from the rapidly changing, impermanent quality of modern life?reality at any given moment will be changed in character from the moment that came before. Thus, the Impressionists sought to capture what the eye can register in a single moment?or instant?of seeing. (This is the reason for the sketchy, unfinished look of many Impressionist paintings.) taches?separate patches of color that are visible and often look somewhat sloppy. Post-Impressionism?a movement whose followers rejected the importance given to Naturalism and the depiction of the momentary effects in Impressionism; these artists never rejected the bright color palette of Impressionism, however. divisionism/pointillism?a technique based on the scientific juxtaposition of pure dabs of color; the brain blends these colors together automatically in the involuntary process of optical mixing; technically, pointillism differs in that it is pure dots of color distributed more systematically on a white ground. impasto?thick, heavy application of paint, where the strokes of the brush or palette knife are very pronounced, leaving the paint to stand up in relief. maquette?a small-scale model for a sculpture.
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