a team based approach to helping an individual identify and pursue his or her life goals
research validated recommendations for educational strategies, instruction and policy
Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)
A process that evaluates problem behavior in its setting by identifying events occurring before and after that may explain its repeated occurrence
Response to Intervention (RTI)
the concept that quality instructional support be in place for all students before students can be judged to have special problems, it is a three tiered approach
Tier I (RTI)
universal interventions designed for all students
Tier II (RTI)
Secondary supports are evidence based interventions delivered in small groups for students needing extra help in meeting expectations
Tier III (RTI)
tertiary interventions that are more intensive and based on thorough assessments at Tiers I & II
Positive Behavior Support (PBS)
an approach that allows personnel and teachers to A) define and systemize structured routines and procedures B) build and maintain a positive climate where appropriate behavioral choices are taught, encouraged, and valued, C) provide a safe effective and orderly learning environment
demonstration of a desired behavior
standardization of commonly occurring classroom activities
follows initial presentation of material, the teacher actively participates in learning with the student; prompted practice
a process where by all material is recalled to aid in learning
organizational methods of helping students learn social responsibility through instruction based on caring and respect
in terms of teacher behavior, the setting of clear behavioral student limits, providing consistent follow-through, and rewarding students for appropriate actions
Normalization/ Inclusion movement
the placement of students with special needs in general education classrooms for instruction
a multi-agency plan of care designed to meet the individual requirements of students with special needs
Emotional or Behavioral Disorders (ED/BD)
a label for students with extreme problem behaviors
A stimulus that decreases the rate or probability of a behavior when presented as a consequence.
teacher - constructed systems for the purpose of clear and on-going contact with parents
the application (positive reinforcement) or removal (negative reinforcement) of a stimulus contingent upon a behavior that increases the future rate and/or probability of that behavior
Applied Behavior Analaysis
Systematic application of behavioral principles to change socially significant behavior to a meaningful degree. Research tools enable users of these principles to verify a functional relation between a behavior and an intervention.
The contingent presentation of a stimulus immediately following a response, which increases the future rate or probability of the response.
The contingent removal of an aversive stimulus immediately following a response, which increases the future rate or probability of the response.
The contingent presentation of a stimulus immediately following a response, which decreases the future rate or probability of the response. This only occurs when the response decreases.
Withholding reinforcement for a previously reinforced behavior to reduce the occurrence of the behavior
The relation in which an antecedent causes behavior to occur. Repeated occurrences of the behavior depend on it being reinforced. An antecedent that serves as an appropriate cue for occasioning a response and therefore does not result in reinforcement is known as a discriminative stimulus. An antecedent that does not serve as an appropriate cue for occasioning a response and therefore does not result in reinforcement.
Circumstances in an individual's life, ranging form cultural influences to an uncomfortable environment, that temporarily alter the power of reinforcers.
The theory that teachers cannot provide knowledge to students, they must construct their own knowledge in their own minds.
Cognitive Modeling (Think-Alouds) (SIT)
Thinking out loud to demonstrate a thought process as a person approaches a task or solves a problem
Self-Instructional Training (SIT)
A strategy for teaching complex skills hat incorporates a series of steps, defining with teacher modeling and ending with the student modeling using covert speech.
Being aware of one's thought process. i.e. thinking about one's thinking
The thoughts and images that occur in a person's consciousness, the "what" of thinking, it cannot be be manipulated or controlled.
The ways we appraise and transform these cognitive events and any external or internal stimulus, the "way" of thinking, these thoughts can be manipulated and/or controlled.
The beliefs and attitudes an individual possesses that influences cognitive processes or "inner-speech".
Self-talk that is covert and can be used to instruct one's self to do something
Applying a series of cognitive steps to solve a problem, including generating and evaluating a variety of potential solutions.
The systematic involvement in a students behavior to improve performance socially, emotionally or academically
A form of information gathering for a functional assessment using direct observation of three sources. Antecedent, Behavior and Consequence.
A way of modifying behavior through first modifying cognition. It incorporates modeling, feedback, and reinforcement, and emphasizes instruction in how to think rather than what to think.
Social Skills Training
Teaching discrete, observable social behaviors that result in successful social interaction.
Expressing emotion (e.g. to analyze feelings that accompany a specific behavior).
The process of focusing on and adjusting conditions such as beliefs, attitudes, and thought processes in order to modify behavior.
Covert Self-Instruction (SIT)
Student use inner speech to instruct self while performing a task.
Faded Overt Self-Guidance (SIT)
Student instructs self in a whisper while performing a task.
Overt Self-Guidance (SIT)
Student instructs self out loud while performing a task.
Overt External Guidance (SIT)
Adult instructs (out loud) while student performs a task.
A term that includes all social responses that produce, maintain, or enhance positive social interaction.
A set of procedures related to meeting a social demand and consist of guidelines and rules for making decisions about its use.
Instructional lessons designed to reorient students to information they previously learned and to provide additional practice in skill development.
The reliable demonstration of a learned behavior or appropriate variations in new or novel, and/or with a variety of people, and situations.
A type of graph used to determine the relationship between two variables, usually time of day and behavior.
Assertive Command (Assertive Discipline)
Meet Child eye to eye
Say child's name
Tell child what to do, not what not to do
A system of procedures designed to promote precise and measurable changes in behavior.
Any event, circumstance, stetting or instructional demand present in the environment that can affect a student's behavior.
A strategy that involves identifying predictable behavior patterns and modifying antecedents to prevent problem behavior and encourage appropriate behavior.
A set of rules for managing daily activities in the classroom.
An intended punishment technique involving verbal scolding or correction that is designed to discourage inappropriate behavior.
Classroom procedures designed by the teacher often in collaboration with students and/or other personnel, that are to be followed habitually.
Surface Management Techniques
A set of simple techniques, such as hurdle help, support from routine, and removing seductive object, designed to keep undesirable behaviors from escalating by implementing proactive strategies.
Based on the work of B.F. Skinner, the systematic control of environmental events, especially though reinforcement and punishment, to produce change in observable behaviors.
systematic use of antecedents and consequences to maintain or change behavior
Specific activities such as listening to music or eating lunch with the teacher that are used as rewards for appropriate behavior
Continuous Schedule of Reinforcement
Recommended when teaching students new behaviors or attempting to replace behaviors that are particularly strong or inadvertently reinforced. It involves a one to one correspondence, such that every time the new or replacement behavior occurs, it is immediately reinforced.
Behaviors that meet a certain standard are reinforced, while others not meeting the standard are ignored. The objective is to reduce a less desirable behavior by reinforcing more acceptable behaviors rather than using punishment.
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA)
Reinforcement applied to strengthen a specific behavior that competes with or is incompatible with a less desirable behavior.
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates (DRL)
Reinforcement applied when the occurrance of a behavior is less frequent than some specified level within a given time period.
Approval or attention that increases the likelihood of a response, can take the form of verbal and/or nonverbal reinforcement
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)
Reinforcement for engaging in any response other than the undesirable behavior for a specified interval of time. The student is only rewarded for zero occurrences of the undesired behavior.
the paring of two incompatible behaviors, such and walking around/staying in seat, as the desirable behavior increases, the undesirable behavior automatically decreases
Fixed Schedule Reinforcement
Reinforcement that is applied after a set number of responses
Fixed Ratio Schedule
A schedule in which the number of appropriate responses for reinforcement to occur is held constant
An arrangement of environmental variables to establish a functional relationship between voluntary behavior and its consequences, such as providing tangible reinforcement for in-seat behavior
When a student disrupts with maladaptive behavior, the teacher has students restore the environment to a condition even better than it was before the behavior occurred. Also applies to positive practice, in which a student practices an acceptable replacement response.
Points, check marks, stars on a chart, or chips that are exchangeable for some object or activity hat is valuable to the student
removal of a positive consequence that is contingent upon a response, such as taking away extra points earned toward extra recess time following the occurrence of a disruptive behavior
Occurs when a reinforcer is overused and the student becomes uninterested in using it
Variable Schedule of Reinforcement
reinforcement applied after a variable number of responses have occurred
a method for increasing student engaged learning time by having students teach other students
through the process of pairing a primary reinforcer with a secondary reinforcer, the person becomes reinforced (or motivated) by the secondary reinforcer
the planned, systematic relationship between a behavior and a consequence
the systematic use of reinforcement and punishment to develop, maintain, or change behavior
a method of structuring small groups of non-disabled and disabled students so that all the individuals achieve a learning goal through mutual planning
Life Space Interview
A here and now behavioral intervention built around a child's life experience that is applied in an effort toward increasing conscious awareness of distorted perceptions
A behavioral intervention that focuses on present behavior and uses confrontational questioning to assist an individual in taking responsibility for his or her beliefs.
A behavioral intervention that uses drama and role playing to help clarify feelings and emotions as they relate to existing reality.
A technique where the teacher simply ignores the disruptive behavior, it is generally true that when attention seeking behaviors are ignored, they become nonfunctional and decrease in frequency.
An antecedent event or change in the environment that alters the effectiveness of a behavioral reinforcer.
Crisis Management Plan
Well-defined, step-by-step procedures, consistently applied and designed to allow teachers and other school professionals to coordinate efforts to effectively and safely respond to crisis situations.
A tentative, yet unproven explanation of unexplained behavior: a testable explanation.
Constructive activities (sch as simple games, handouts, puzzles) designed to fill time between event, before and after major transitions, or after unexpected interruptions in the classroom.
Behavior Change Strategy
A procedure deliberately initiated to increase or decrease a particular behavior
Events that have a definite, observable beginning and end and can be distinguished reliably from other behaviors
How the classroom or other setting in the school are structured, including the arrangement of desks and tables, open spaces, art and other decorative display, space for group activities, traffic patterns etc...
Duration Per Occurrence
A recording of the total amount of time per occurrence that a particular behavior lasts during a specified observation period.
A recording of the total amount of time a particular behavior lasts during a specified observation period.
A tally of the number of occurrences of an observed behavior within a specified observation period.
A tally of the presence or absence of a specified behavior within a specified time interval
Any of a variety of direct or indirect methods such a anecdotal recording or event recording used (a) the occurrence of behavior or (b changes in behavior over time
Occurs when an observer changes the way he/she applies a behavioral definition when recording categories of observed behavior
Basic Steps of a Functional Behavior Analysis
1- Indirect Assessment 2-IEP Team adds information 3-Analyze, Four Factors: Setting Events/Establishing Operations, Antecedent Events, Function, and Consequence 4-Form hypothesis: Escape/Avoidance. Attention, Acquirer Tangible 5-Test Hypothesis