prohibits employment discrimination on basis of:
*Est. the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to enforce its provisions
Under Civil Rights--minority race, color, national origin, sex, religion
Other groups--age, disabled, pregnant women, etc.
a. All private employers in interstate commerce who employ 15+ employees for 20+ weeks/yr
b. State and local governments.
c. Private and public employment agencies
d. Joint labor-management committees that govern apprenticeship or training programs
e. Labor unions have 15+ members or employees
f. Public and private educational institutions
g. Foreign subsidiaries of US organizations employing US citizens
prohibits discrimination in employment decisions against person 40+
a. Industrial Revolution/Depression (context)
b. Set a minimum wage
c. Requires overtime pay (1.5 time) for hours worked over 40hrs/wk
d. Established child labor provisions
e. Jobs covered by the act are called non-exempt and include most hourly non-supervisory employees.
provides job protection--up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave
- unwelcome advances, requests for sexual favors, other verbal of physical conduct of a sexual nature in working environment
- employer considered guilty if:
Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures definition:
Four-Fifths Rule (Adverse Rejection Rate)
Followed by EEOC:
I.R. = ___S.R of group w/ lower S.R.____
S.R. of group w/ higher S. R.
either party can terminate employment relationship at any time, regardless of cause
locating & encouraging potential applicants
*labor mkt. = area from which applicants are to be recruited
constraints/influences of recruiting
Word of mouth
Advertisements in newspapers andperiodicals
Colleges and Universities
Public and private employment agencies
choosing indiv.'s w/ relevant qualifications
extent to which a selection tool predicts, or significantly correlates w/ imp. elements of work behavior
pattern basic assumptions that are valid & taught to new members as way to perceive, think, & feel
1) Organizational identity
2) Interpret meaning of events
3) Reinforces values
4) Control mechanism
consensus on values that drive co. & w/ an intensity that's recognizable to outsiders
good only if fits industry or firm's strategy
good if allows org. to adapt to environment
i. Encourages confidence and risk taking
ii. Has leadership that produces change
iii. Focuses on the changing needs of customer iv. Facilitates change to meet the needs of stockholders, customers, and employees
process newcomers transformed from outsiders into participating, effective members
Outcomes: performance, satisfaction, mutual influence, low distress, intent to remain
effort initiated by org. to foster learning among members
skills valuable only in that particular org.
skills employees possess that could be used in multiple organizations
Relevant issues in Training Program Design:
Choice of Instructional Method is Based On:
designed to help employees understand roles, obj.'s, expectations, & performance success
managers meet to discuss the performance of individual employees to ensure their employee appraisals are in line with one another.
Est. an Appraisal Plan
Improving performance appraisals: Rater Error Training & Feedback
1) Strategic Relevance
2) Criterion Deficiency
3) Criterion Contamination
4) Reliability (Consistency)
-train new people=$
-different performance level of new and old employee
functional: get rid of those who are bad for the organization
dysfunctional: a good employee leaves the company
-not getting the pay you think you should
-not happy or committed
-get better pay somewhere else
1. job redesign (job more motivating)
2. let employees have a voice
3. give them advancement opportunities
4. pay better wages or benefits
-provide better training
-invest in better recruitment and selection devices
-jobs that are underground
-cannot measure if people are actively looking
the decrease of demand in certain jobs due to the change of the season
when people leave or lose a job to look for another job that is more suitable for them
no because it is short term
-the industry changes, so the workers no longer have the skills necessary for the job
- people are left without a job and it is long lasting
unemployment due to movements in the business cycle
-it is normal
the increase in pay makes those wanting to work increase (supply increase) and the companies need less workers (demand decrease) making unemployment rise
motivate individuals to perform well
1. gives individual sense of ownership
2. motivate higher levels of effort
3.support the organizations strategy goals by attracting best employees
1. incentives are lower than employee expectations
2. if the manager doesn't know how to payout incentives correctly
3. if the employee cannot control their performance level, effort decreases
4. the organization does not support the plan
1. give employees a say so they see the plan as fair
2. identify what would encourage good employee behavior
3.find the right level of payout and make sure management understands how to calculate the rewards
4.link between performance and payout
1. sales person stresses higher priced items
2. bad customer service after sale
3.employee doesn't have a clear financial plan
4. salesman is tempted to make small price adjustment
1.flexability in design
2. motivates employees to sell based on objectives of company
higher or equal output with less input
MRP = MPL * P
MP = MRP – MRC - OR - MP = MRP – W
This occurs through modeling. We watch others, observe their attitudes/behaviors, then model those attitudes/behaviors.
distinguish leaders by their traits—those who were born with certain traits were good leaders. Those who did not possess these traits were not good leaders. Ex:
· Physical attributes
· Personality characteristics
· Social skills
· Speech fluency
· Intelligence and scholarship
focus on a match between the leader and the situation, suggesting that the most effective leaders are those who exhibit the appropriate behaviors in the appropriate situations.
i. The Leadership Grid
ii. Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
iii. Path-Goal Theory
iv. Situational Leadership Model
o Concern for People
o Concern for Results
**Does suggest a “best” leadership style
The leader’s job is to clarify the best path for goal attainment
Leaders should choose from 4 different types of leader behavior:
· Directive (tell exactly what to do)
· Supportive (support followers psychological health)
· Participative (incorporate follower feedback)
· Achievement-Oriented (set challenging goals)
**SAYS THAT LEADER CAN CHANGE THEIR BEHAVIOR TO FIT THE SITUATION
o Leader uses the force of personal abilities and talents to have profound and extraordinary effects on followers
o Attractiveness, star quality
o Referent power
o Can make good and bad things happen
o Individualized Consideration
o Inspirational Motivation
o Intellectual Stimulation
o Big social movements
a. Individuals of a minority race, color, gender, religion, age, national origin, those with disabilities, pregnant women, etc.… who are covered by federal laws on equal employment opportunity.
b. It is difficult to compose a true, definitive list of protected classes. Typically, if individuals receive legal protection because of their membership in a particular group, we can broadly define the group as a protected class.
c. Sexual orientation is not a protected class.
Suitable defense against a discrimination charge only where membership in a protected class is an actual qualification for performing the job.
Work-related practice that is necessary to the safe and efficient operation of an organization.
Ex: FedEx/UPS must be able to lift 50 or 60 lbs all day long.
The use of any selection procedure which has an adverse impact on the hiring, promotion, or other employment or membership opportunities of members of any protected group will be considered to be discriminatory and inconsistent with these guidelines, unless the procedure has been validated in accordance with these guidelines.
1) Calculate the selection rates of the two groups.
2) Compare the selection rates by calculating the “impact ratio.”
S.R. of group with lower S.R.
I.R. = ------------------------------------------
S.R. of group with higher S. R.
3) Determine if S.R.’s are substantially different
1. Employees or applicants may file a discrimination complaint, or charge form.
2. If case is found, generally settled out of court. If not, EEOC can take to court.
3. If no case, EEOC may dismiss charge and claimant is issued a right-to-sue letter.
1. Check state laws to see if credit reports can legally be used.
2. Advise and receive written consent from applicants if a report will be requested.
3. Provide a written certification to the consumer reporting agency as to the purpose of the report.
4. Provide applicants a copy of the consumer report as well as a summary of their rights under the CCRRA.
5. Must provide an adverse-action notice to a person if that person is not hired and contact information related to the reporting agency.
a. Takes place prior to the first day of work.
b. Newcomers bring prior learning and expectations
c. Realism and congruence
a. newcomers learn the tasks associated with the job, roles, and establish new relationships.
b. Task, role, and interpersonal demands
c. Gaining clarity