Wayfinding, Navigation and Cognitive Mapping Part 2 Social Factors March 29, 2010 We are looking at 3 parts 1) How we construct images in our minds 3) Why is it important for establishing place Stephen Wiltshire- The Human Camera- drew Rome exactly Eidetic Memory- ability to store and recall an image with precise detail Neuro Knowledge: Seeking Higher Ground- Neuron and Arch- new collaboration New science field Basic Science- Dendrite, Cell Body, Axon Synapse- Synapse formation and survival are use-dependent and influenced by external stimuli where the neurons are transferred. Chemical at the Synapse OUR EXTERNAL CONTROLS OUR BRAIN Hippocampus- learning and memory (short term to long term) Also contains Wayfinding Cognitive Mapping: 1) Head Direction cells- the internal compass, influence these cells by influencing visual 2) Place Cells- fire when we move to certain field- ?you are here? signal. Place- social science- a spatial setting that has been given meaning based on human experience, social relationships, emotions, and thoughts. Place- neuroscience- 1) movement and usage patterns throught a space. 2) Place: Tested this with electrons ejected in rats brains and they found that rats have different places in area based on the structured path Well Structured, Contiguous Paths- How connected are the spaces versus metric distance= how many separate memories, separate place cells. When it is not connected- the rat is stationary When it is separate, there is a sense of flow Route angularity effect- When place is broken up the memory is broken up Hall ways- our brain is not engaged so memory is not functional. 3) Grid Cells- info about distance travelled, our brain does this automatically, Tessellation (to fit together without leaving any spaces) of a coordinate system is in effect. So there is a grid system in out brain with our cells and the brain is always charting where I am Where I am moving and navigate appropriately, Neurogenesis- a newborn neuron, takes place in the Hippocampus when learning a new thing or memory William Whyte- The Social life of small urban spaces- What Makes a Great Place?- he identified how and why people gather in a place Sociability Uses and activities Comfort and Image Access and linkages Lynch and Whyte are similar in topics of moving in space. Case Study: The London Taxi Driver: The size of the hippocampus correlates with the time spend taxi driving, It got larger when diver navigates longer, they grow on the job This is an example of brain plasticity as a function of increasing exposure to environmental stimuli. Spatial Knowledge- we acquire spatial knowledge using two processes: Survey Knowledge- spatial Layout of environmental features defined in a common regerence system. ?The big picture?. Route Knowledge- ordered sequence of locations landmarks and actions to be taken at each landmark. Series of connected episodes/memories Debate between who uses what method is obvious, some say it is gender specific Frank Gehry- Disney Concert Hall- Neuroscience key note speaker- weird why?- well his creations are able to generate a cognitive map and relaxation Why- Singularity and the ability to find yourself using his landmarks Memories are triggered by: Active/physical exploration- Smells and something you do or others do that trigger a memory route: places where you do something are more memorable than nothing and memory is increased in cells that are dedicated to place. NEURONS THAT FIRE TOGETHER, WIRE TOGETHER-: the more often or more powerful a pattern is fired, the more firm the nerve assembly becomes and the more salient or powerful the memory Verses Passive/visual exploration- You see something or think of something that triggers, no action no engagement, memory is weaker Evironmental Features that deter Navigability- No external reference Double loaded corridors Multiple choice points Novel Environments No Local cuing Poor lighting (edges are difficult to discern) Example- Abbey Memory System Images- to be used in this system- Monastery had images that were used to place find and was engaging in the search for your destination.
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