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a. clear, calm nights.
b. cloudy, calm nights.
c. clear, windy nights.
d. cloudy, windy nights. e. rainy nights.
b. black frost.
d. white frost.
e. frozen dew.
objects on the ground cool below the dew point temperature.
the dew point is 32°F or below.
water vapor changes into ice without first becoming a liquid.
all of the above
particles of dust.
nitric acid particles.
smoke from forest fires.
salt from the ocean.
all of these
they provide most of the minerals found in water.
they make it easier for condensation to occur in the atmosphere.
they are the sole producers of smog.
they filter out sunlight.
they provide the only means we have of tracking wind motions.
On a cold winter morning, the air near the surface is full of smoke particles. If fog should form in this air, it will probably be ____ fog that forms in cleaner air.
practically the same as
a different color than
from the bottom up.
from the top down.
starting at the middle, and working both upward and downward.
clear winter night with a slight breeze.
cloudy winter night with a strong breeze.
clear summer night with a strong breeze.
cloudy summer night with a slight breeze.
cloudy winter night with a slight breeze.
must be above freezing.
must be below freezing.
can be above or below freezing.
must be equal to the relative humidity.
On a cold, calm autumn morning, the formation of fog above a relatively warm lake would most likely be:
evaporation (mixing) fog
c. method of formation
d. all of these
e. altitude and method of formation
cumulus congestus - anvil top
cumulus - fair weather cumulus
altocumulus castellanus - resemble "little castles" stratus fractus - scud
cumulonimbus - thunderstorm clouds
The name given to ragged-looking clouds that rapidly drift with the wind beneath a rain-producing cloud is:
b. lenticular clouds.
appear closer together than is actually the case.
appear farther apart than is actually the case.
appear lighter in color than is actually the case.
appear to have more vertical development than is actually the case.
reflected visible light.
reflected infrared light.
emitted infrared light.
remain above a fixed point over the North or South Pole.
pass directly over the same place on each orbit.
on each successive orbit view an area to the west of the previous orbit.
follow a line of constant latitude around the earth.
Suppose two ocean currents with different temperatures are flowing next to one another. If the wind blows perpendicular to the currents, we would expect to find:
a. a thermometer.
b. a psychrometer.
c. a radiosonde.
d. a barograph.
e. cumulus humilis
a. increases at a slower rate than the parcel temperature.
b. decreases at the same rate as the parcel temperature.
c. decreases at a slower rate than the parcel temperature.
d. increases at a faster rate than the parcel temperature.
a. Convection can occur over the ocean.
b. Air motions are usually downward around a cumulus cloud.
c. The temperature of the rising air at a given level inside a cumulus cloud is normally
warmer that the air around the cloud.
d. All of these
b. orographic lifting.
a station model.
the wind speed.
the lifting condensation level.
on top of a developing cumulus cloud.
in the middle of a cumulonimbus.
beneath a lenticular cloud.
in absolutely unstable air.
in the middle of a subsidence inversion.
cooling the surface
heat the top of the layer
Refer to Exhibit 6-1. Temperatures in a rising parcel of air are shown at various altitudes above. The data indicate that a cloud must have formed at ____.
Large cloud droplets fall faster than small droplets.
Small droplets evaporate more quickly than large droplets.
Small droplets collide and coalesce more easily than larger droplets.
It explains the six-sided shape of ice crystals.
electrical charge on these nuclei.
crystalline structure of these nuclei.
Large raindrops fall ____ than smaller raindrops, and have a ____ terminal velocity than small raindrops.
dry air and temperatures well below freezing.
moist air and temperatures well below freezing.
dry air and temperatures near freezing.
moist air and temperatures near freezing.
Which type of precipitation would most likely form when the surface air temperature is slightly below freezing and the air temperature increases as you move upward away from the ground?
After a snowstorm, the newspaper reports that Buffalo, New York, received 1.50 inches of precipitation. If we assume an average water equivalent ratio for this snowstorm, then Buffalo received about ____ inches of snow.
The falling ice crystal below is colliding with supercooled water droplets which stick and freeze. This process is called:
The water droplet and the ice crystal in the figure below have the same temperature. The saturation vapor pressure surrounding the water droplet will be ____ the saturation vapor pressure surrounding the ice crystal.
the same as
the ratio of the drop's surface area to its weight is larger.
the ratio of the drop's surface area to its weight is smaller.
gravity acts more strongly on larger droplets.
the speed of the falling drop increases until the air resistance equals the pull of gravity.
The surface pressures at the bases of warm and cold columns of air are equal. Air pressure in the warm column of air will ____ with increasing height ____ than in the cold column.
decrease; more rapidly
b. decrease; more slowly
c. increase; more rapidly
d. increase; more slowly
If two air parcels at sea level have the same size but different temperatures, the colder parcel of air will have:
a. a higher pressure but the same density as the warm parcel.
b. the same pressure but lower density than the warm parcel.
c. the same pressure but higher density than the warm parcel.
d. a lower pressure but the same density as the warm parcel.
a. inches of mercury.
b. millibars or hectopascals.
c. pounds per square inch.
a coordinate grid.
more rapidly in the horizontal direction than in the vertical.
more rapidly in the vertical direction than in the horizontal.
at the same rate in the horizontal and vertical directions.
more rapidly in the vertical over land than over the ocean.
On a 500 millibar chart, ____ are drawn to represent horizontal changes in altitude which correspond to horizontal changes in pressure.
Warm air aloft is associated with constant pressure surfaces that are found at ____ altitude than normal and ____ than normal atmospheric pressure aloft.
a. higher; higher
b. higher; lower
c. lower; higher
d. lower; lower
a. higher-than-average heights.
b. lower-than-average heights.
c. average heights.
d. a region with calm winds.
equals its mass times the acceleration produced
will remain at rest
can exert no force
Given the equation for geostrophic wind, Vg =
increase the wind speed.
1 Δp , increasing the pressure gradient ( Δp ) will 2 Ω s i n o/ ρ d d
As pressure decreases, gravity increases.
As pressure decreases, density increases.
As pressure decreases, height increases.
As pressure decreases, height decreases.
pressure gradient force
a. pressure tendency.
b. Coriolis parameter.
c. pressure gradient.
d. potential gradient.
a. only at the equator.
b. at all places on earth except for the equator.
c. only in the Northern Hemisphere.
d. only in the Southern Hemisphere.
e. at all places on earth.
Which of the following produces the strongest Coriolis force?
fast winds, low latitude
fast winds, high latitude
slow winds, low latitude
slow winds, high latitude
a. It causes the winds to deflect to the right in the Northern Hemisphere.
b. It is strongest at the equator.
c. It can cause winds to change direction, but not to increase or decrease in speed.
d. It deflects winds in opposite directions in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.
a. in the direction of wind motion.
b. to the right of the wind's motion in the Northern Hemisphere.
d. in a direction opposite the wind's motion.
If in the Northern Hemisphere the upper level winds above you are blowing from the south, then it is a good bet that a trough of low pressure is to the ____ of you.
meridional flow. geostrophic flow.
from west to east.
from east to west.
from north to south.
from south to north.
a. counterclockwise and outward from the center.
b. counterclockwise and inward toward the center.
c. clockwise and outward from the center.
d. clockwise and inward toward the center.
We can generally expect the air to be ____ above areas of surface low pressure and ____ above areas of surface high pressure.
When the upward-directed pressure gradient force is in balance with the downward pull of gravity, the atmosphere is in:
towering cumulus clouds
mountain wave clouds
a. radiation fog and ice fog
b. steam fog and ground fog
c. advection fog and upslope fog
d. London Fog at Burlington Coat Factory
cumulus clouds with below freezing temperatures
rain induced fog
If a pilot changes the altimeter setting from 30.11 to 29.96, what is the approximate change in indicated altitude
a. altimeter will indicate .15 in Hg higher
b. altimeter will indicate 150’ higher
c. altimeter will indicate 150’ lower
d. altimeter will indicate true elevation regardless of temperature, it is correctly adjusted.
If a flight is made from an area of low pressure to an area of high pressure without the altimeter setting being adjusted, the altimeter will indicate:
higher than actual elevation
lower than actual elevation
the density altitude
the actual elevation above sea level
colder than standard air temperatures
warmer than standard air temperatures
higher than standard surface pressure and an altimeter setting of 29.92” Hg.
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