Chapter 11 Gender Differences in Communication Men - Conversations = Status and power (giving advice to others) - Use of combative language - Dominate talk time with women - Interrupt more - Less speaking style adjustment than women - Engage in more ?report talk?(impersonal and efficient information exchange) Women - Engage in more ?rapport talk?(relationship building) than ?report talk? - Use of indirect requests - Apologize more often - Seek advice from others more quickly than men - Sensitive to nonverbal cues in face-to-face meetings Occasional irritants between men and women - Competitive debating style (men) vs Meaningful dialogue (women) - Women seek empathy but get male dominance in response Chapter 14 Cross-cultural and Gender Issues in Leadership Culture - Shapes the leader?s values and norms ? effect the leader?s decisions and actions - Shape the expectations that followers have of their leaders - Ineffective leader Inconsistent with cultural expectations GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) - Project to identify the effect of cultural values on leadership - ?Charismatic visionary?: a universally recognized concept of effective leaders Visionary, inspirational, performance orientation, integrity, and decisiveness - Participative leadership Effective leadership in low power distance culture but less so in high power distance cultures Gender Differences in Leadership Stereotype: consistent with sex role stereotypes - Women People-oriented and participative leadership Relationship-orientated, cooperative, nurturing, and emotional in their leadership roles - Men Task-oriented Real work settings - Task-oriented vs People-oriented leadership Men and women do NOT differ - Participative leadership Women adopt more readily than men ? Reasons Girls are often raised to more egalitarian and less status-oriented Better interpersonal skills=relatively greater use of participative leadership style Based on sex stereotypes Coursepack: How Stereotypes Affect Our Perception of Men and Women at Work Cleveland, Stockdale, Murphy Gender stereotype research Three major goals: Access content of sex stereotypes Determine degree to which characteristics associated with men and women are evaluated favorably Determine pervasiveness of each stereotype Two levels of sex stereotypes Sex-role Sex-trait Male sex role Achievement Suppression of affect Relationship between gender stereotypes and ethnic stereotypes Stereotypes of men and women Men: cluster described as adaptive-instrumental Women: cluster described as integrative -expressive Favorability of stereotypes Gender stereotypes can be: Focused Expanded Need for comparison procedures that take into account variables such as sheer number of attributes given to men vs. women Gender stereotypes and stereotypes of race, age, appearance, and disability Gender stereotypes and race Gender stereotypes in relation to older women Gender stereotypes and appearance Sexuality and gender stereotypes Power and gender stereotypes Effects of gender stereotypes in the workplace Hiring and promotion decisions Interviews and performance evaluation Access to resources and support Self-limiting effects of stereotyping on women?s performace Gender stereotypes and achievements Competence, performance, and pay expectations Glossary terms to know: Access discrimination, achievement, affiliation motivation, attribution, individual information, pathology, perceptual basis, prototype, roles, sexual harassment, and type A behavior Summary: It may be more constructive to think about sex and gender in terms of what women and men bring to a situation as individuals, not in terms of a series of traits 1. Which of the following(s) is true about women?s communication style? A. Using more combative language B. Engage in indirect communication C. Adjust speaking style more D. Interrupt more E. Both B and C 2. What factor(s) causes an object to stand out more in a selective attention process? A. Intensity B. Motion C. Repetition D. Novelty E. All of the above. 3. Which of the following process come last in the Social Identity Theory? A. Homogenization B. Differentiation C. Stereotyping D. Discrimination E. Categorization 4. Which of the following(s) is NOT included in the Social Learning Theory? A. Behavior Modeling B. Learning Behavior Consequences C. Action Learning D. Self-Reinforcement E. Both C and D 5. Which of these is not a major goal for gender stereotype research? A. To assess the content of sex stereotypes B. To determine pervasiveness of such stereotypes C. To determine the magnitude of such stereotypes in individual urban centers D. To determine the degree to which characteristics associated with men and women are Evaluated favorably E. None of the above are major goals for gender stereotype research
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