Week 3 Lecture UK Reform Bill 1832 Corn Laws- Repealed 1846 (R. Peel) Chartism Europe: Liberalism-Uk (Lambton, Jas Mill, Russell); Europe- Constand, Tocqueville Szecheny) Nationalism-Herder, Mazzini, Palacky, Mickiewicz Socialism- St Simon, Fourier, Marx/Engels Greek Revolution 1821-1830 French Revolution 1830- Louis Philippe (?King of the French?) on Belgium Poland Democratization/ idea of rights People will say that there is an ultimate goal for every time. Routed in memory. Make sense with the change they can see in their lives. Try to make sense by historical narratives. Power of thinking about the market, ability to produce wealth-social change Most visible results of Industrial revolution are two powerful forces Urban workers -factories, mass employers, crowdedness, workers who articulate discontents as peasants did, individuals make deals with individuals, see workers protesting against laws, creates unfair monopolies and prices. Wages start to decline when deskilling takes place. Attack the technologies that they see. Always been poverty, but now seeing relative poverty. Smokestacks overtake the skyline in Manchester. Bad to have many poor people concentrated. Merchant and trading classes- shop owners are being taken over by entreprenuers. Materialistic, non noble class are getting access to respect. Find themselves as insiders and outsiders. Insiders because they have a role in the political determinations of the country. They make claim to insider status by picking up on argument under absolutism that rulers get to rule because they stand above the people. People start to achieve understanding what it takes to gain harmony. New middle class needs teachers, lawyers, medical care, means need to educate higher class. Loyal subjects cooperate with the government for better nation. Civil society helps out with the crown. Start to see divergence can determine of what is good for society as well as the state. These people give into their vices and passions. More concerned with the narrows of the state and not the good of society. Begin to see effects of change immediately after the creation of two new classes. British empire has new expansion into countries all over the world. Merchants of Britain are trying to get profits for Britain in any way possible. Abolition of british slave trade, especially in Caribbean. Reform movement-voting in public, corruption of free commercial Britain, Lambton-cause of reform Jas Mill- great apostle of liberalism Reform Bill- expands franchise of # of voters. Vote have to be male, lease property, pay taxes, creation of 168 new seats in parliament. Two consequences: elements of crystallization of cold war. Second, validates power of reform in general. Many new reforms come into play. Government needs to provide more domestic order. Creation of royal police force- Bobbies- state taking on active role in society. Revisitation of laws and punishments of crime. Crimes that would have lead to death sentence, instead you were loaded on ship to go to Africa or other country. Mobeliaztion of mass politics-Charter-Chartism-1839 petition to parliament with 1.3 million signatures on it calling for universal sufferage, ability to understand the real issues, voting by secret ballot, abolition of property rights for parliament. Too much too fast. Leads to divisions within the Chartism. First example to industrial workers to act in solidarity (with each other) Formation of first trade unions which become great dominant political forces. Start from Chartism. Countryside vs. Cities= Corn Laws Parliament passed laws with high tariffs for the import of wheat. Protected farmers, but prices become unjust to the urban poor. Attempts to undo the corn laws. Social ties-rural-going to support. Took the torries to undo the laws. Robert Peel and the potato famine. Peel creates the liberal party in great Britain. Tend to be very inward looking. Politics concerned with accomidating the new social classes. 1840s in Britain and look at experience and crystal palace becomes the symbol of the end of that time. Try to bring all embracing view of the world-takes place of what religion had done in the past. Challenged and displaced religion- ?age of isms?. Focused on the forces and downplayed the effect of religion. Created new universal realm in self-realization. Nationalism-imagined communities that invest with meaning. Ability to relate and care. Liberalism: will become a qualifier for nationalism. UK shares the concern of balancing individuals rights with the ideas of the state. Right thinking people have been wondering how to make the state less arbitrary/good. State should be like a referee. Trying to domesticate the state power with the use of the sword. Words do not hurt anyone. Proper distribution of goods and power- example household with wife and husband. Has become more domesticated through time. Wanna use things like education to educate the poor so they can make smart decisions for the state (voting). Emphasis on just laws and support of educated citizenry recreate the working class in our image. Not such a hassle to be around. Europe favors necessity of law of arbitrary personal power, abolition of hereditary priviledges, etc. Wants change with order. Believe that society is founded on a balance. Material progress. Only people with property should be able to vote. Property does not need to be inherited, can be earned. Szecheny- Hungarian land owner who studies agriculture and importance of producing surplus. (Economic) Establishes newspaper in modern day hungary. Influential voice against Metternich. Nationalism/Socialism: individual has the right for their own destiny. Cannot do good if someone forces you to do it, do by self. Self-determination. Nationalism: persisted even with forces trying to overcome it. Socialism: shares a providence in the way people remember the French revolution also a product of romanticism. Burschenschafien (Frat?s) Wartburg )1817) Greek War of Independence (1821-1830) Belgium, Poland (1830) Ferdinand (Habsburg) 1835-1848 Nicholas I (Russia) 1825-1855 Zollverein (Customs Union) ? Prussia 1834 Nationalism: Is part of broader movement called Romanticism-movement in arts doesn?t stress orderliness of nature, argues underneath fašade of order/reason there is something transcendent (emotions) overpowers humanity sometimes. Religiosity is branched from romanticism. Idea behind us there are emotioins. Nature itself is wild, natural, element contains life force that is intelligible through reason. LOVE, fellow feeling, attach human beings to one another. Reason unbalanced by feeling, can only divide and destroy and calculate. Spiritual part participates in larger realm. Also found in philosophy. Nationalism is the most powerful/pervasive. Offers chance to solve the problems for 18th century thinkers. Kant-wants to figure how human beings can get to the golden rule?reason and logic are universal?reason dictates what is good but how can you do good on your own without coercion? Can choose between passions and reasons- means that we are FREE. Internally in conflict with self, but that?s the price you pay for being free. People start thinking that they are being alienated from true nature. Seperation that they are someone that they don?t want to be and strive to be. Juxtaposition, that is artificial position. Nationalists argue that nations are naturally existing units. Just like individuals, they have certain rights, self-determining, unit has a right to be self-determining. Thinkers look as French revolution as self aware people as community getting rid of monarchy to govern themselves as a community. Mankind is made up of many nations, because of own cultures, essence in material world, language, costume, own history, own role to play in history. When get full potential ,will realize they can all help one another and compliment each other. But on the other hand, some nations are not going to survive. Scholars and young church men seek the existence of nationhood in home lands. Look at peasant villages as slumbering essence of nation. Languages we know now were called ?kitchen? languages, languages of the poor people. First literary advances. National history, prove it has a past, you have taken claim that it exists and merely needs to be brought back to conscientiousness to become a self-determined nation. Selfishness of dynasty. You are not of that nation because you look like it, but because you feel like you are from there and participate in the community; voluntary self-representation. Communities-romantic elements-socialism: (carl marx and f. engels) defense of the economy like adam smith. People felt that if people produced and traded as individual, respect of law, collective goods out of individual production. Not clear that this will work. People divide and share as one community, not incombered by materialism. Wants to reconcile the division of wealth. See people in complete poverty and no labor. Sees as stunting of growth of human beings. Sets up free medical care, education, etc. to make up the way up the social ladder. St. Simon lost everything in revolution, but didn?t mind. Felt that goes through organic ages-harmony, praised same god, etc. then went into reformation. Thinkers started critizing the social hierarchy. New organic period taking place: technology. Man was divided by scarcity, once you have enough to go around, no need for competition. Simon says that this new organic era is the era of scientists and engineers. Religion ?new Christianity?. All property will be public. Social conflict rooted in selfishness saying this is mine? make moral decisions freely. Socialists against rousou. Marx says that hagel is going towards maximum rationality. Want to make legal decisions freely. Development in freedom in Greece in Athens (democratic). Hagel says there are free citizens but there are still slaves. Idea advances. Roman republic spreads also, citizenship, Julius Cesar. Says that there are laws to protect him. Jesus idea of freedom and equality. Marx says historical leaps towards more just societies. Man?s nature to work, transform environment, and socieities on different ideas. Marx says that modest people have changed face of world. Right the balances of social hierarchy. Nature is to labor, once you sell it you have made yourself a commodity. Beginning of era, problem of nationalism is on everyone?s mind. Alex I advances against napolean, called on germans to fight for liberation. Appeals to german nation-different writer guy. Germany is not going to be a result of Napoleonic era. Secret society: campus?s have students make own secret societies called burschenschafien (frat?s). Reach out to one another. Talk about celebrating germany. Will gather in the shadow of german castle celebrating the german culture. Lots of students. German student kills the poet and Metternich takes a stand. Carlsbad laws. Nationalism takes real steps in Greece under ottoman rule. Church functioning, population impoverish, start to think of restoring independent Greece. Organize armed bragades. Ipsolante, get into trouble, but have enough $ to keep fighting. Throws everyone off. Greece is Christian, ottomans are muslim. Plight of the christians and slaughter ottoman forces. Greece is the homeland of liberty. If Britain, Greece is your ancestor. Greece/Athens trading republic free trade, overseas empire, Brtis see themselves as greek. Greek cause becomes so popular and concern of Russia on public strait, brit are against them. International aggrement of making Greece a nation. Greek revolt shows faultline of Vienna peacemakers. Nationalism is contagious.
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