A form of collective farming in Imperial Russia, which was formed for practical purposes. It acted as a village government in practice and divided the land among the villagers, who chose which land they wanted to work on. Survived for a long period of time, even the Russian Revolution of 1917.
The last tsar of Russia and the Romanov dynasty. An autocrat opposed to any reforms and the reforms he enabled in the 1905 revolution were practically irrelevant as he was ruling still without the consent of the Duma. When asked by his generals and advisers to step down he so did and said that he just wanted to live as a normal citizen of the state. Was killed by the Reds when the Check Legion was moving close to the Trans-Siberian railway.
Group of people in the intelligentsia that believed in an utopian socialist society and wanted a peasant based communist country, in which socialism was built upon by the peasant institutions
Town councils composed of workers, soldiers and sailors first organized in 1905. Gained increasing power in the Revolutions of 1917. Real power didn’t lie with the provisional government but more with the Soviets. First dominated by SRs and Mensheviks, however it gradually evolved into an instrument of Bolshevik power as they dominated the Soviets and demanded that all power be given to the Soviets. In the Soviet Union however the soviets became local government bodies.
Successor of the Communist party leadership after Lenin died. Was General secretary and Lenin had warned other leaders that Stalin in such a power would eventually misuse it. However Stalin gained power over Trotsky, the Left with Bukharin and the Right and made the USSR a totalitarian state. Believed in Socialism in one country.
An ideological policy centered on the eradication of private policy. Initiated during a time when the whole economy was failing. The state eventually nationalized all essential industries and local soviets took over factories. Money wasn’t worth anything and the country was on a path of a runaway inflation and all sorts of trade were prohibited.
the Security force of the new regime, which subsided anti-regime protests. Not as harsh as the Tsarist secret police however assassinated tons of people during the post-revolutionary period. When it evolved into the GPU there became no difference between this repressive security force and Tsarist secret police.
A police began by Lenin, which made a partial return to private ownership to bring up the economy again. It was very successful however it created a new class of wealthy peasants and merchants that resembled bourgesois tendencies.
A belief opposed to World Revolution that said that socialism could flourish in only one country, as proletarian revolutions in Europe were definitely failing to win. Instead of hoping for a world revolution the Soviet Union should strengthen itself internally first and strengthen up. It was more an ideology of necessity than a one of belief.
Prussian King who was albeit being conservative allowed some reforms to take place to silence the liberals in Germany. His reforms lead opposition to belief that change was underway and in the 1848 revolutions he actually sided with the movement until his position was more secure. Made a three-tier electoral assembly in the new constitution that guaranteed representation relative to the amount of taxes you pay.
A junker is a member of the landed nobility in Prussia who welded immense influence and had strong ties with the military and the state as the not-first-sons moved into them. Mostly anti-liberal and were represented by the Conservative party. Representation of a very strong state with an army that had a country.
The biggest socialist party in Germany that advocates a welfare state. It supported the government’s decision for entering Germany in the 1st world war and thus some left-wing radicals broke away. Supported by unions, workers and big cities. Garnered most votes in Germany by 1912.
Religion in Iran that united the various classes under a single ideology. Leader of that ideology was Ayatollah Kholmeini. Shiaists believed that the 12th Imam is still out there and until he comes regimes had no legitimacy to rule unless they had the blessing of the Imam or the rulers are waiting for the Imam to come forward and take his seat.
Regimes that have a high tendency to foster a revolution as the state is the leader, all state resources go into the leader’s bank account, has an extraordinary amount of corruption, hard to reform and essentially is backed by a superpower. Leader is very brutal and doesn’t need any societal groups for support generating multi-class opposition systems that just want to see the leader fall.
Movement, lead by Mosaddeq, which wanted to nationalize the British-Persian Oil company. Had strong support in the parliament and wanted to limit the powers of the Shah. The British and American caught with anti-communist sentiment wanted to overthrow him and make Iran a puppet state.
the secret police of the Shah which arrested thousands of people for anti-regime thoughts. Seen as the most hated organization in Iran, trained by the CIA and used excessive use of force and torture to achieve repression among the population.
A story in the Quran, in history, that pitted a matyr against a corrupt tyrannical regime by Yazid. People thought that the modern-day representation was between the Shah and the people of Iran, giving the revolution strong cultural backings.
A strong spiritual leader who was exiled in 1963 but allowed to return in 1979 sparking huge followings of him and his ideas of an Islamic state influenced hundreds to come. After the Revolution he seized power over all the other groups and established various Islamic-friendly institutions. He himself was the spiritual leader and most powerful person in Iran
Former President of Iran who succeeded the Ayatollah Khomeini when he died in 1989. Doesn’t have the same authority or charisma as Khomeini did. Supports the conservative groups in Iran however faces opposition from liberal groups who want reforms.
First prime minister of the interim Iranian governed, he was denied to put on the ballot of the presidential race. Opposed the cultural revolution and advocates civil rule and democracy. Seen as an idol for moderates and modern Muslims who see him as a representative of liberal-democratic Iran.
a military branch founded after the revolution, the Guard’s duty is to protect the Islamic values in Iran. Practically it suppresses dissent and uprisings. Its power has grown larger and it has a huge clout in society, politics and business.
the supreme body in Iran which legitimizes all decisions made by the president or parliament. Consists of clerics only and has the power of veto and ban presidential candidates in Iran. Essentially the real power in Iran. Composed of six faqihs and six jurists. Reviews if laws are compatible with Islam or the constitutions.
Members of the Council, six in number, that have a power to overrule a bill or law that is against Islam. The Jurists doesn’t have the power to veto bills because they’re against the Islam, however the Faqihs are allowed to do so with bills questioned by constitutionality.
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