Week #7 Constructivist and liberal Approaches: International Law and International Institutions Coral Bell, ?Normative Shift?, The National Interest, Winter 2002-2003, pp. 44-54. How can we define ?norm?? How is it different from ?law?? Give some examples of international norms and international laws. Norm=prescriptions or expectations about right behavior (what is expected and required) Ex: thou shalt not murder Laws=rules for behavior, usually more formal, may have sanctions Ex: prohibition What are the three main factors that have been driving normative changes in international politics? Which one among the three, according to the author, is the most important and why? Institutionalization of diplomacy The end of the Cold War and the advent of the unipolar world Informational/communications revolution (MOST important and fundamental) ? near universalization of the internet Explain the differences between nationalism, regionalism, internationalism and cosmopolitanism. Nationalism ? most solidly entrenched and universal of the four norms. (flexible) Regionalism ? spreading to much of the world. Internationalism ? seeks greater cooperation among peoples, but it focuses on and reinforces the concept of the nation - or the sovereign state as represented by its gov?t ? as the central player in world politics. Cosmopolitanism ? sees the individual as a citizen of ?the universal city? ? of the single worldwide community of humankind, all of whose members are deemed to be entitled to equal rights independent of what their existing governments are prepared to allow them. Discuss the relationship between ?normative change? and ?international power relations?. How does structural reality affect normative changes? What are some normative issues that might cause clash between west and non west? ?Forced emulation? ? The west is trying to force upon Japan the norm that whales are not for eating and they are resisting. The U.S. pushing for antiterrorism in Western Societies and Muslism Fundamentalists resisting. Kegley, World Politics: Trend and Transformation, pp. 232-251. What are the five categories of internationally recognized human rights? Right of the person (life, liberty, and security of the person) Rights associated with the rule of law (equal recognition before the law and equal protection of the law) Political rights (freedom of expression, assembly, and association) Economic and Social Rights (adequate standard of living, free choice of employment) Rights of communities (self determination and protection of minority cultures) Why is humanitarian intervention such a controversial issue? Humanitarian intervention is the use of peacekeeping troops by foreign states or international organizations to protect endangered people from gross violations of their human rights and from mass murder. It is elusive. The issue is about how to craft a just response, when any response will compromise interference in the domestic affairs of a sovereign state. Kegley, World Politics: Trend and Transformation, Ch. 16. What is Public International Law and what are the core principles of it? Public Int?l Law is law pertaining to government-to-government relations as well as countries? relations with other types of transnational actors. Covers issues of relations between gov?ts and the interactions of gov?ts with IGOs and NGOs The processes by which int?l law is created and revised, and the institutional mechanisms available for the interpretation and enforcement of the global system?s rules. What are some of the criteria for the modern ?Just War?? Just War Doctrine-the moral criteria identifying when a just war may be undertaken and how it should be fought once it begins Some Criteria (4 of the 10 key ideas) A just war must have a reasonable chance of succeeding in these limited goals A just war must be proclaimed by a legitimate gov?t authority Only legal and moral means may be employed to conduct a just war Final goal of war must be to reestablish peace and justice. How much does international law contribute to inter-state peace? What are the weaknesses of international law in managing the threat of war between states? Pg 511
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