History 13B 02/19/08 The Slavfkjgfsdkgjfd Rich and poor whites What would happen to black people after What would it mean not to be slaves What did it mean to be free Abraham Lincoln: first assasination First to undertake reconstruction, Andrew Johnson VP 3rd Tennessee democrat, borderstate unionist Represented upcountry where slavery wasn?t so predominant: yeoman Put in order to woo democrats away from mcclellan and copperheads Said to accept 13th amendment and leave the further working out of the undoing of slavery to the states nad white southerners Southern states come up with sets of post-slavery laws (black codes) which come close to reinscribing slavery with obligations to state government Johnson: left to states to figure out what to do First impeachment: Andrew Johnson Congress takes over for readmission of confederate states Between bill of rights and 13th amendment: almost nothing happens Reconstruction amendments 14th amendment: the most actively litigated part of the US consitution Defined citizenship, makes being citizenship of nation then state Born and naturalized By right of birth given citizenship All equal protection laws stem from this Basis of representation therein shall be reduced Male vote only 15th amendment 1866 (before 14th amendment) Terrorist group secret organization, job to frighten former slaves from using new laws 1876 presidential voting thing All of southern states where enganged in battles where tried to take back from black republicans Democrats had half of electoral votes Compromise of 1877 Republicans would get presidency, but in exchange they would remove all federal forces from the south (freedman?s bureau, armies) Southern blacks no longer have any federal protection I. Presidential Reconstruction A. Andrew Johnson B. Black Codes C. Impeachment II. Congressional/Constitutional reconstruction A. Radical Repubs B. 14th Amendment -- section 1: national citizenship -- section II: political rights C. 15th Amendment III. Southern/Black Reconstruction A. Building Af-Am families, communities B. Political gains C. Economic disappointments 02/22/08 The New South Political Reversals Redemption Democratic party in south was lead by the elite Created restoration of the old political hierarchy in the south Making it seem like African Americans were completely defenseless Disenfranchisement Tried to keep African Americans and poor whites away from voting: Poll tax, literacy test Grandfather clause: keeping African Americans from reserving a political place in the south Lost a lot of rights they gained during early reconstruction Still needed cotton to be harvested, but now there were no slaves, so plantation owners wanted to reinstitute gang labor and force AAs into some form of slavery This fails because AAs know that they don?t have to do this Economic Changes ?forty acres and a mule? and sharecropping AAs expected this land and capital to each slave for payback for slavery Liked Jeffersonian view Sharecropping: large planation of former slave owners divided up land and tenants were able to use that land and have their own mini plantation in return for giving owner owner half of their crops and ?rent? Problem: lead to cycle of dept and dependency from bad crop and etc Compromise: allowed former slaves some level of independence (familes on independent land sort of, education, religious freedom) but prevented agriculture innovation and new technologies: south was unable to advance Industrialization and the new south Result of collaboration between northern industrialists and elites of south ?the new south creed? this idea Hengry W. Grady: part of emerging new bsiness class in the south that believed in order for south to modernize it needed to deal with the legacy of the civil war: accept the resentment and move on BY courting northern industries Those who supported it wanted to prove that south was a safe invesement and that they could deal with te effects of civil war He went to north and ?the relations of the southern people with the negro are close and cordial? ?liberty and enfranchisement is as far as law can carry the negro. The rest must be left to conscience and common sense? what we do with our race problem is up to us and our common sense ?no such thing as social equality? that system can be stable but have white over black Steps to industrialization Cotton mills Female and children labor: only white labor Wanted to reserve way of making life to white and not newly freed black Were paid way less than northern industries Steel mills: Birmingham, Alabama Most difficult and undisierable and low paid jobs for AAs Rise of Jim Crow Lynching and Ida B. Wells Accusing someone of a crime and without due process of law is executed; encompasses a whole range of brutal ways of killing them.. not just hanging Middle class black woman who started a campaign to end lynching in the south as a result of two of her friends in 1892 because they had a successful grocery store and were becoming competitive to other white businesses Lynchers claimed that they need to protect their white women and wanted to terrorize quell South to get to root as to why the lynching was occurring Tool by whites to chck politlcla and economy competition by blacks Terrorist form of control to keep blacks from rising politically and economically Common charge against white men was murder, second was rape Creating ?stability? through separation Segregation laws: thought to make it more stable Claimed that it would reduce the possibility for conflict and give them a prescribed social space Started with social Plessy v. ferguson, 1896 Evaluating the New South Booker T. Washington Argued that AAs should stop d stuff befor A for legal and political rihgts and agitating people and instead build up their education and race an d money Thought ndustrulaization and more tow make either wearlthy again ards economic process would
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