Land mass between present-day Alaska and Eastern Siberia during Pleistocene ice ages. Allowed people to migrate from Asia to the Americas.
Ancient indigenous city (600-1400 CE) located near present day St. Louis, across the MS River. By 1150 boasted a population of 15,000 to 20,000 and more than one hundred temple mounds, one of them as large as the great Egyptian pyramids.
Native Americans living in SW U.S. in "villages" in structures of multi-room stone or mud-brick pueblos. First encountered by the Spanish in the 16th century.
Groups of people which consisted of free Aztec commoners who farmed communal land.
Native American culture where women cultivated the fields around semipermanent villages and passed the use rights to these fields to their daughters. The father stood outside the main lines of descent and authority. The muskogean and algonquian ppl
Certain ethnic group of central Mexico who dominated parts of mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th, 16th centuries.
Archaeological site in the Basin of Mexico, containing some of the largest pyramidal structures built in the pre-Columbian America. From 100 BCE until 250 CE
Based upon the Hopewell culture that existed along the Hopewell exchange from SE U.S. to SE Canada. Large mounds were built in some of the villages.
Dramatic widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture and human population (slaves). Most significant events concerning ecology, agriculture, and culture in all of human history. Also brought disease to Native Americans who weren't immune.
MesoAmerican civilization noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as for its art, architecture, mathematical, and astronomical systems. 2000 BCE -> 900 CE
Calvinistic theory that all events are predetermined by God. Some people are predestined to go to Heaven. John Calvin started the philosophy.
Spanish (Castilian) conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castle in the early 1500s.
Rooms used by modern Puebloans for religious rituals.
Economic doctrine that states gov. controlled foreign trade is of paramount importance for ensuring the prosperity and security of a state. High tariffs, exclusive trade with colonies, forbidding trade to be carried in foreign ships, limiting wages
A shamanic professional, who is a highly-trained and very often spiritually selected individual
(10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German priest and professor of theology who initiated the Protestant Reformation. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment of sin could be purchased with money.
was led by Martin Luther, John Calvin, etc.. The efforts of the self-described "reformers" who objected to the doctrines, rituals and ecclesiastical structure of the Catholic Church, led to the creation of new national Protestant churches.
mound-building Native American culture that flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 800 CE to 1500 CE, varying regionally.
Agricultural worker who generally works land owned or rented from a noble. The peasant was bound to the land and could not move or change their occupation unless they became a yeoman (free person), which generally happened by buying their freedom
association of several tribes of indigenous people of North America. After the Iroquoian-speaking peoples coalesced as distinct tribes, based mostly in present-day central and upstate New York.
were Spanish and Portuguese soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas under the control of Spain and Portugal in the 15th to 16th centuries, following Columbus.
was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism.
was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century. it encompassed a flowering of literature, science, art, religion, and politics, and a resurgence of learning based on classical sources.
Chapter One Highlights
First Americans, Mayas & Aztecs, Indians in the North, European Agricultural Society, Hierarchy and Authority, Power of Religion, Renaissance Change Europe, West African Society and Slavery, Spanish conquest, Protestant movement..
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