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The Roman senators responded to Tiberius Gracchus
by fearing him as a democratic demagogue seeking to establish a tyranny.
Hadrian's concern in Spain was
popular resistance to military conscription.
The first Christian groups, led by Peter,
initiated the sacraments of baptism and communion but otherwise remained entirely within the Jewish tradition.
Which of the following statements concerning the early Christian religious communities is most accurate?
Bishops took up the challenge of refuting external criticisms of Christianity and determining orthodoxy.
Among the Jews, the Sadducees
were willing to work with Rome and even adopt some elements of Hellenism.
What Roman politician and ally of Crassus joined a conspiracy of Sullan veterans and populares in support of Crassus?
In the civil war that broke out among the members of the second triumvirate, Mark Antony depended almost entirely on his alliance with
Cleopatra, the Ptolemaic ruler of Egypt.
Hillel was a Pharisee who began a tradition of legal and scriptural interpretation which, in an expanded version, centuries later became the
What emperor was most closely associated with Stoicism?
The revolt of the Italian allies over the failure of the republic to extend citizenship was called the
Which of the following was a reform proposed by Gaius Gracchus?
Citizenship for the Italian allies
As a politician, Cicero was aligned with the
Which of the following authors did Augustus exile for writing unacceptable poetry?
Which of the following offices did Augustus NOT hold as princeps?
Who was the first Roman commander to create a personal army by ignoring property qualifications for military service?
Which of the following was NOT a reform passed by Sulla?
Abolition of the office of dictator
Weaknesses in the Roman Empire evident in the second century A.D. included all of the following EXCEPT which one?
Growing cultural identity between the cities and the separatist rural regions
The continued smooth functioning of the empire after Augustus' death was a tribute to
the soundness of Augustus' constitutional changes and the vested interests that aristocratic supporters had in them.
Who of the following was NOT a member of the first triumvirate?
In Britain, Hadrian ordered the construction of a
wall from one coast of Britain to the other.
Roman conquest of the Mediterranean world
spelled the end of the republican system.
Who of the following was NOT a member of the second triumvirate?
At the same time Rome was being racked with internal tension, the Germanic world was
developing into a number of powerful military tribal confederations.
The definitive form of the monastic community in the Greek-speaking world of the East was provided by
What Roman commander in fifth-century Gaul was referred to as "king of the Romans"?
Where did monastic communal societies originate in the ancient world?
Where was the Visigothic kingdom established within the Roman empire?
In southern Gaul and Spain
Who was the intellectual who founded a monastery in Bethlehem and also translated the Bible into Latin?
What group insisted that Christ had only one nature - the divine?
Which of the following was NOT a reform for which Emperor Diocletian was responsible in the late empire?
The reduction of the bureaucracy of imperial administration
Which of the following statements concerning Augustine is NOT correct?
In his early career, Augustine was a member of the Pelagians.
What city formerly known as Byzantium became "the new Rome" of Constantine's reformed empire?
Diocletian's persecution of the Christians was caused by a perceived belief that the Christians were
What theologian was the primary opponent of the Donatists and Pelagians?
Augustine of Hippo
The goal of communal monasticism was to
seek spiritual perfection through physical self-mortification and subordination of the will to that of the abbot.
What individual functioned like a Roman "Robin Hood" or bandit, indicating the desperate conditions of common people such as slaves, soldiers, and peasants in the late Roman Empire?
Christianity became the established state religion of the Roman Empire
when Constantine converted to Christianity followed by Theodosius' banning of other religions.
The prestige of the papacy increased in the mid-fifth century when which of the following occurred?
Pope Leo I was able to get Attila and his barbarian Huns to withdraw from Rome's gates.
Which North African sect argued that the Church on earth had to be as perfect as the invisible one and that they alone had preserved this purity?
Which of the following statements concerning the emperors of the third century is most accurate?
Between 235 and 284, seventeen of the twenty emperors were assassinated or killed in civil war.
The Goths were unique as a Germanic tribe in that
their kings exercised more military authority than was usual.
Which of the following statements concerning the Visigothic settlement in the Roman Empire is most accurate?
The emperor Theodosius was forced to allow the Visigoths to be ruled by their own leaders despite residing within the empire.
What did St. Augustine mean by the "city of God"?
Those who participated in the heavenly Church as saints or as earthly recipients of Grace through the sacraments
Which of the following groups was negatively affected by Diocletian's reforms?
Decurions, members of local city councils
The average citizens or humiliores of the late empire suffered most of the economic burden because of
tax increases they could not avoid by bribing or intimidating tax collectors.
Which sect believed that human nature was capable of achieving perfection in this life?
What tetrarchy leader took control of the transforming Roman world after the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian, using Christianity as his centraling belief for a new Rome?
What new barbarian menace, originating in central Asia, swept into the Black Sea region in 376 A.D. and threw the entire barbarian world into chaos?
Which of the following statements concerning German social and economic organization prior to entry into the Roman Empire is most accurate?
Men measured their social status by the number of cattle and wives possessed and by martial ability.
Which of the following statements most accurately describes Byzantine monasticism?
The religious appeal of the monasteries was often based on icons.
What was the drawback of Justinian's Reconquest?
The cost of his campaigns bankrupted his successors.
All of the following were serious problems for the successors of the Macedonian emperors EXCEPT which one?
The inability of the emperors to hire mercenary armies
How did the Muslims treat the social and economic structures of the conquered territories?
They confiscated only state property while leaving private property, including land, in the hands of the original owners.
Under what dynasty did Byzantium dominate the Mediterranean during the tenth and eleventh centuries?
The first dynasty in Islam after the end of the orthodox caliphate was the
Which of the following statements concerning the Byzantine agricultural system is most accurate?
Almost all peasants survived on the labor of their families and perhaps a few slaves.
Which of the following was NOT a reason for Constantinople's commercial dominance in the Byzantine Empire?
The Byzantine love of the sea
Because of their religious views, many Christians of Egypt and Syria regarded the Muslim conquest as
a liberation from the repressive measures of the Orthodox Church and the emperors.
What was referred to as the "foretaste of heaven"?
the liturgy of the Orthodox Church
What Turkish empire emerged from the ruins of the Mongol invasions?
Which of the following statements best describes the impact of the `Abbasid caliphate on the economies of the conquered territories?
Commerce and agriculture both flourished under the Muslim caliphates.
All of the following areas were restored to the Byzantine Empire during Justinian's reign EXCEPT which one?
The `Abbasids established what form of government?
An autocratic imperial system based on the model of the Sassanids
The Byzantine state was in theory and often in fact
Which of the following was NOT typical of Arab Bedouin society?
Strongly hierarchical political control under sheikhs
The final downfall of the Byzantine Empire began under Emperor Romanus IV following his defeat at the battle of
Muhammad's revelations were copied word for word in what came to be known as the
In 1204 the Fourth Crusade successfully captured and pillaged
Under the orthodox caliph `Umar, Islam conquered all of the following territories EXCEPT which one?
According to Islamic orthodoxy, which of the following statements best describes the Qur'an?
It is an exact and complete revelation without need for interpretation.
What Germanic people replaced the Ostrogoths as rulers of much of the Italian peninsula?
What weakened the central authority of the Frankish empire after Charlemagne's death?
Competition among descendants and grants to the aristocracy
Like their Germanic counterparts, Roman aristocrats in the early Middle Ages
acquired a sacred legitimacy, often through monopolization of the office of bishop.
What people destroyed the Franks' puppet Moravian empire in 895 and split the Slavic world into two parts?
While the majority of Romans had become orthodox Christians in late antiquity, the Ostrogoths were
"Viking" in Scandinavian usage literally means
one who goes raiding
What pope laid the foundations for the medieval papacy by maintaining the governors of Rome and providing welfare for the Roman population at the end of the sixth century?
Gregory the Great
Charlemagne maintained control over his counts through the use of what court officials?
Which of the following statements concerning the early European peasantry is NOT accurate?
As late as the eleventh century, a clear distinction was maintained between slaves and free peasants.
King Offa, considered by Charlemagne to be his equal, hailed from what English kingdom?
Pippin became "king of the Franks" through
legitimation by a papal proclamation.
Which of the following was NOT typical of early medieval aristocratic lifestyles?
The practice of maintaining multiple wives
Which of the following statements concerning the Anglo-Saxons is NOT accurate?
Like the Goths, the Anglo-Saxons were an exclusively military elite who imposed their rule on an indigenous peasantry.
Charlemagne was all of the following EXCEPT which one?
Founder of a new Frankish dynasty
What Umayyad leader established an independent emirate in Spain in 756?
The Saxons, Angles, Jutes, Frisians, Suebians, and other barbarians who came to Britain
enslaved or drove the natives into Wales and carved out their own small kingdoms.
Which of the following statements concerning the Carolingian artistic tradition is most accurate?
In the Carolingian period, the combination of Mediterranean style and northern style created a dynamic and plastic representative form.
Which of the following statements concerning Umayyad Spain is NOT accurate?
Although the agricultural economy of Spain recovered from the Muslim invasions, urban life was irreparably damaged.
Germanic art prior to the Carolingian renaissance
featured nonrepresentational, geometric forms.
How did the religious identity and legitimacy of the Frankish aristocracy north of the Loire differ from that south of the Loire?
Northern Frankish aristocrats identified with Irish monasticism introduced by Saint Columbanus.
What event on Christmas day 800 testified to Charlemagne's position as the most powerful and capable western leader?
His coronation as emperor
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