In reaction to significant elements of rationalism and deism, in what two countries did some ordinary Protestant churchgoers chose new religion movements?
Issac Newton's scientific discoveries...
although readily accepted in his own country, were resisted on the continent.
created his evangelical Methodist movement using revivalist techniques.
Bourbon and Habsburg
The Thirty Years War was a struggle between what two dynastys?
the nobility and the middle class
The French Philosophes mostly included people from....
maintaining a balance among the various branches of government.
Above all, Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws was concerned with...
By using Copernicus's heliocentric theories.
Johannes Kepler used date to derive laws of planetary motion that confirmed Copernicus's heliocentric theory, but that showed the orbits were elliptical.
in their belief in natural economic laws, they were harsh critics of economic mercantilism.
28-volume encyclopedia compiling articles by many influential philosophes.
Diderot's most famous contribution to the Enlightenment's battle was...
Of all the French philosophes, Montesquieu had the most influence upon the writing of the American Constitution. True or False?
is not a possible influences and causes of the Scientifiv Revolution.
the practical knowledge and technical skills emphasized by the sixteenth-century universities...
The French philosophes.
literate intellectuals who meant to change the world through reason and rationality.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in his System of Nature, claimed that everything in the universe was merely matter in motion, that materialism was the only reality, and that there was no God. True or False?
The great scientists of the seventeenth century, such as Galileo, Kepler, and Newton, pursued their exploration of science in a spirit of exalting God rather than in questioning and undermining religion. True or False?
Who was the scientist-philosopher who provides a link between the scientists of the 17th centery and the philosophes of the next?
freedom is achieved by being forced to follow what is best for all or the "general will".
In Rousseau's The Social Contract, he expressed his belief that...
Who said that individuals "will forced to be free"?
environment, not by innate ideas.
John Locke's philosophy contributed to the development of Enlightenment ideas by arguing that a person's character was shaped by...
Heliocentric, meaning Sun-centered.
Copernicus proposed that the earth orbited the Sun. His new conceptualization of the solar system is called?
________ is based on the Newtonian world-machine with God as it's mechanic, designing the universe in accord with rational laws.
The first European to make systematic observations of the heavens by telescope was...
Whose philosophy stressed separation of mind and matter?
forced him to recant them in a trial before the Inquisition.
What actions did the Catholic Church pursue concerning Galileo and his ideas?
Copernicus was a native of...
the same principles inherent in mathematical thinking.
Descartes believed that the world could be understood by...
The best statement of laissez-faire was made in 1776 by...
In his novel, Emile, with it's emphasis upon the heart and sentiment, Rousseau anticipated the Romantic movement of the early nineteenth century. True or False?
support Copernicus through a publication in Italian accessible to a wide audience.
Galileo's Dialogue of the Two World Systems was really an attempt to...
What developments during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance contributed to the Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century?
Earth-centered; symmetric and concentric.
Another name for medieval scientists
What did Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton contribute to a new vision of the universe, and how did it differ from the Ptolomaic conception of the universe?
Copernicus: heliocentric conception, put the sun at the center of the universe.
Kepler: 3 laws of planetary motion (derived from Copernicus), confirmed, but modified Copernicus' heliocentric theory.
Galileo: inaugurated a new age in astronomy by observing the heavens by means of a telescope, demolished yet another aspect of the traditional cosmology in that the universe seemed to be composed of material substance similar to that of earth.
Newton: calculus and the universal law of gravity.
Newton's conception of the universe as one huge, regulated, and uniform machine that operated according to natural laws in absolute time, space, and motion.
querelles des femmes
"arguments about women." A centuries old debate about the nature of women that continued during the Scientific Revolution as those who argued for the inferiority of women found additional support in the new anatomy and medicine.
A system of thought based on the belief that human reason and experience are the chief sources of knowledge.
the practice of relying on observation and experiment.
Descartes principle of the separation of mind and matter that enabled scientists to view matter as something separate from themselves that could be investigated by reason.
an eighteenth century intellectual movement.
a doubtful or questioning attitude, especially about religion.
the belief that no one culture is superior to another because culture is a mater of custom, not reason, and derives it's meaning from the group holding it.
intellectuals of the Enlightenment who believed in applying a spirit of rational criticism to all things, including religion and politics, and who focused on improving and enjoying this world, rather than on the afterlife.
the quality of being sophisticated and having wide international experience.
Separation of Powers
a doctrine enunciated by Montequieu in the 18th century that separate executive, legislative, and judicial powers serve to limit and control each other.
"let (them) do (as they please)"
government doesn't interfere, but allows the economy to self-regulate according to suplly and demand.
the idea that the government should not interfere in the workings of the economy.
a nineteenth century intellectual and artistic movement.
Romantics stressed the importance of intuition, feeling, emotion, and imagination as sources of knowledge.
the belief in the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes; also organized activity to advance women's rights.
gathering of philosophes and notables to discuss the ideas of Enlightenment: the elegant rooms where they'd meet.
an eighteenth century artistic movement that emphasized grace, gentility, lightness, and charm.
a late 18th century artistic movement that emerged in France. It sought to recapture the dignity, and simplicity of the classical style of ancient Greece and Rome.
the literary and artistic culture of the educated and wealthy ruling class.
the unofficial written and unwritten culture of the masses.
organized massacres of Jews.
a movement that arose in Germany in the seventeenth century whose goal was to foster a personal experience of god as the focus of true religious experience.
CTA: What developments during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance contributed to the Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century?
intense interest in the world around them since it was, after all, "God's handiwork", ancient authors and renaissance artists: desire to discover which school of thought was correct and desire to imitate nature which led to rely on a close observation of nature, technological innovations and mathematics: technical problems such as accurately calculating the tonnage of ships, renaissance magic.
CTA: Why is Descartes considered the "founder of modern rationalism?"
because he believed that human beings could understand the world, itself a mechanical system, by the same rational principles inherent in mathematical thinking.
CTA: What intellectual developments led to the emergence of the Enlightenment? Who were the leading figures of the Enlightenment, and what were their main contributions? In what type of social environment did the philosophers thrive?
The popularization of science, a new skepticism: questioning religious truths and values, the impact of travel literature, the legacy of locke and newton: they were intellectual inspiration; Montesquie and political thought,voltaire: religious tolerance and deism, diderot and the encyclopedia, Rosseau and the social contract; the social background of the philosphes varied considerably from the aristocratic Montesquieu to the lower-middle class Diderot and Rousseau.
CTA: How did popular religion differ from institutional religion in the eighteenth century?
In popular religion the parishoner chose the preacher and denomonation he wanted to assocate himself with. In institutional religion these choices were not offered.
CTA: What is the relationship of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment?
They were both an "Age of Reason", being that they both wanted people to renew their thinking into logical thinking, and putting their religious beliefs behind their logic (they can still keep their religion, but they can't use it as the reason for literally everything).
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