Prehistoric era with first stone tools by hominids, agriculture, and control of fire. Africa. (Early Stone Age)
Middle Stone Age; farming, new settlements, even more stone tools. Holocene warming period. Invented microliths, bows and canoes.
New Stone Age. Pottery, animal husbandry, polished stone tools. Began 9500 BC in Middle East.
Structures made of such large stones, utilizing an interlocking system without the use of mortar or cement. Started in Neolithic age and carried on to Bronze Age.
4 Bronze Age "Cradles of Civilization"
During Mesopotamia (in Middle East), they included the Sumer, Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian empires. Land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. (Began 3100 BC)
Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh of the early dynastic period. He united Upper and Lower Egypt into one kingdom and founded the first Dynasty. First Pharaoh of Egypt.
Reigned from 2270 to 2215 BC as Sargon the Great. Akkadian Emperor who founded the dynasty of Akkad. Controlled Mesopotamia for a century and a half, by killing King of Kish and leading conquest of the Sumerian city-states.
The earliest known writing system in the world. Emerged in the Sumerian civilization of southern Iraq around the 34th century BCEduring the middle Uruk period, beginning as a pictographic system of writing.
Ancient Near Eastern traditional tribe who gained control of Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire after 1531 - 1155 BC.
Ancient Anatolian people who established a kingdom centered at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia in 18th century BC. Belonged to Bronze age, but were forerunners of Iron Age because of their iron. Also built chariots. Overtook Kassites and Mitanni
A loosely organized Hurrian-speaking state in North Syria and SE Anatolia from 1500–1300 BC. Founded by an Indo-Aryan ruling class, it came to power after the Hittite destroyed Kassite Babylon and created a power vacuum in Mesopotamia. Hittites won
Nomarchs (Middle Kingdom)
Semi-feudal rulers of Ancient Egyptian provinces. Serving as provincial governors, they each held authority over one of the 42 nomes into which the country was divided. They each exercised considerable power in their realms.
Hyksos (Second Intermediate Period)
Asiatic people who invaded the eastern Nile Delta in the 12th dynasty of Egypt, initiating the Second Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt. They wore cloaks of many colors. Controlled Avaris and Delta. Introduced many weapons of warfare.
A kingdom centered on the Upper Tigris river, in Mesopotamia (Iraq), that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. During Old Assyrian period (20th-15th centuries BC), they controlled much of Upper Mesopotamia and parts of Asia Minor. In Middle Assyrian period (15th-10th centuries BC), its influence waned and was subsequently regained in a series of conquests.
Library of Ashurbanipal
Named after Ashurbanipal, the last great king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. A collection of 1000s of clay tablets and fragments containing texts from 7th century BCE, including Epic of Gilgamesh. Most of it is irreparably jumbled. Found in Northern Mesopotamia (Iraq). Written in Akkadian and Cuneiform script.
Persian Conquest of Mesopotamia (539 BC)
Cyrus, King of Persia, invaded Babylonia. A battle was fought at Opis in June, where the Babylonians were defeated; and immediately afterwards Sippara surrendered to the invader. The invasion was facilitated by the existence of a disaffected party in the state, as well as by the presence of foreign forced exiles like the Jews, who had been planted in the midst of the country. Cyrus allowed them to return home. He became King of Babylon and it absorbed into the Achaemenid Empire .
Dark Age Greece
1200 BC–800 BC. Collapse of Bronze Age Civilization. Began during Dorian invasion and end of Mycenaean civilization and ended at the first signs of the Greek city-states in the 9th century BC. Around this time, the Hittite civilization suffered serious disruption and cities from Troy to Gaza were destroyed. Following the collapse, fewer and smaller settlements suggest famine and depopulation.
An epic poem by Homer set in the Trojan War, a 10-year siege of Ilion by a coalition of Greek states. It tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles. Although the story covers only a few weeks in the final year of the war, the Iliad mentions or alludes to many of the Greek legends about the siege. Among the oldest works of Western literature, dated to around 8th century BC.
A city-state in Classical Athens. A political entity ruled by its body of citizens. e.g. Athenians or Thebans, NOT Sparta.
Heraclitus of Ephesus
A pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, he regarded himself as self-taught and a pioneer of wisdom. From the lonely life he led, he was called "The Obscure," and the "Weeping Philosopher." Famous for his doctrine of change being central to the universe, as stated in his famous saying, "You cannot step twice into the same river." He also believed in the unity of opposites. He stated "All things come to be in accordance with this Logos," (literally, "word," "reason," or "account").
Xenophanes of Colophon
A Greek philosopher, poet, and social and religious critic. Knowledge of his views comes from fragments of his poetry, surviving as quotations by later Greek writers. Hispoetry criticized and satirized a wide range of ideas, including Homer and Hesiod, the belief in the pantheon of anthropomorphic gods and the Greeks' veneration of athleticism. The earliest Greek poet who claims explicitly to be writing for future generations.
Pythagoras of Samos
Greek philosopher and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. Around 530 BC, he moved to Croton, a Greek colony in southern Italy, and set up a religious sect. His followers studied his philosophical theories. They took an active role in the politics of Croton, but this eventually led to their downfall. The Pythagorean meeting-places were burned, and Pythagoras was forced to flee the city. Best known for the Pythagorean theorem. He preached simplicity over luxury and materialism
Means "word," "speech," "account," or "reason." It became a technical term in philosophy, beginning with Heraclitus (535–475 BC), who used the term for the principle of order and knowledge. For Heraclitus, logos provided the link between rational discourse and the world's rational structure. Heraclitus stressed that man can not, and will never, understand logos which is always present.
Battle of Marathon (490 BC)
(490 BC) Took place during the first Persian invasion of Greece. It was fought between the citizens of Athens and a Persian force (commanded by Datis and Artaphernes). It was the culmination of the first attempt by Persia, under King Darius I, to subjugate Greece. The defeat at Marathon marked the end of the first Persian invasion of Greece, and the Persian force retreated to Asia. Showed Greeks that the Persians can be beaten.
Thermopylae (480 BC)
The battle where an outnumbered Greek force of 4000 held off a substantially larger force of Persians under Xerxes. For 3 days they held out between two narrow cliff faces to prevent the use of Xerxes' huge cavalry and infantry force, before being outflanked on the 3rd day via a hidden goat path named the Anopaia Pass.
Cimon and the Delian League (479 - 476 BC)
An Athenian statesman and major political figure in mid-5th century BC Greece. He helped create the powerful Athenian maritime empire following the failure of the Persian invasion of Greece by Xerxes I in 480-479 BC. Cimon became a celebrated military hero and was elevated to the rank of admiral after fighting in the Battle of Salamis. He was the commander of the Delian League, made up of Greek maritime cities who did not want to submit control to Persians again. Led it until 463 BC.
Culture that was highly advanced and it heavily influenced the cultures of Ancient Rome and the Western civilization. Much of modern politics, artistic thought, scientific thought, literature, and philosophy derives from this ancient society. 5th and 4th Centuries BC.
Prominent statesman and General of Athens during the Golden Age (between Persian and Peloponnesian wars). Called the "first citizen of Athens", he turned the Delian League into an Athenian empire and led his men during first 2 years of Peloponnesian War (461-429 BC). Promoted arts and literature (Parthenon) and democracy.
Greek Historian who wrote the History of the Peloponnesian War (between Sparta and Athens in 5th Century BC). Father of Scientific History because of his reliance on evidence and analysis of cause and effect, minus intervention of Gods. One of the first true historians, like Herodotus.
Ancient Greek Historian in 5th Century BC, "father of history" because he collected materials systematically, tested their accuracy and arrange them in a narrative. He wrote The Histories, his inquiry into the origins of the Greco-Persian wars. He covered the history of the four Persian Kings involved in the wars: Cyrus, Cambyses, Darius, and Xerxes.
Founded by Plato in 387 BC in Athens. Persisted throughout Hellenistic period as a skeptical school, and ended in 83 BC. Socrates studies under Plato here. Plato posed problems to be solved by others rather than setting up formal classes and education.
League of Corinthe
(AKA Hellenic League). Federation of Greek states (created by Philip II of Macedon in 338/337 BC after the Battle of Chaeronea) to facilitate Macedon's use of military forces in his war against Persia. They maintained an army levied from member states in approximate proportion to their size. Basically swear their peace and devotion to King Philip (he was the father of Alexander the Great.)
(AKA Claudius Ptolemaeus). Roman citizen of Egypt who wrote in Greek. Mathematician, astronomer, geographer, etc. Wrote Almagest, a scientific treaty, Geography, a discussion of the Greco-Roman world's geography, and Apotelematika, an astrological treatise about horoscopes. Made handy-tables, star-catalogues, and constellation catalogues.
Second largest city in Egypt. Founded by Alexander the Great in 331 BC. Was supposed to supersede Naucratis as a Hellenistic centre in Egypt and to link Greece to Nile Valley. A few months after the foundation, Alexander left Egypt for the East and never returned. His viceroy, Cleomenes, continued the expansion. His general Ptolemy succeeded in bringing Alexander's body to Alexandria. It was also home to largest Jewish community in the world.
Law of Twelve Tables (450 BC)
Ancient legislation at the foundation of Roman Law. Formed the centerpiece of the constitution of the Roman Republic. Was secret and kept among Patrician class initially, but Plebeians found out and demanded that it be published so they would know the law. The Decemvirate (board of ten men) completed the first ten codes by 450 BC.
During Roman Republic, nobiles described social rank, indicating a family member achieved the consulship. Hereditary patrician families were noble, but plebeians whose ancestors were consuls were also 'nobiles'. Transition to nobilitas requires rise of an exceptional individual. Two famous ones include: Gaius Marius and Marcus Tullius Cicero.
A right of tribunes (elected officials) in Ancient Rome to not be harmed physically. Plebeians (lower-class) took an oath to regard anyone who laid hands on a tribune as an outlaw liable to be killed without penalty.
A series of 3 wars fought between Rome and Carthage (264-146 BC). Largest wars of their time. Main cause of these wars was conflicts of interest between existing Carthaginian Empire and the expanding Roman Republic. Romans wanted to expand via Sicily, part of which lay under Carthaginian control. Carthage was in control at beginning, but by the end, Rome had conquered the empire and became most powerful state of Western Mediterranean.
A Carthaginian general and statesman who commanded the land forces in Sicily during the later stages of the First Punic War. He was successful in Sicily. He punished rebellious mercenaries by killing them and improved spirit of his army with discipline and versatility.
Quintus Fabius Maximus
General and Statesman of the late Roman Republic. Served under Julius Ceasar as a legate during Gallic Wars and remained on his side against Pompey the Great. In civil war, he was sent as general in command to advance guard to Spain; he was a consul to Caesar until the day he died.
Battle of Cannae
Major battle in 2nd Punic War in 216 BC. Army of Carthage defeated a high numbered army of the Roman Republic. One of the greatest tactical feats in military history to this day and the 2nd greatest defeat of Rome (in number of people killed).
General in the 2nd Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. Defeated Hannibal (Carthage) at final battle of the 2nd Punic War at Zama, which made him one of the finest commanders in military history. He was a consul.
Battle of Zama (202 BC)
Final and decisive end of 2nd Punic War. Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibals force here, and soon after the Carthaginian senate sued for peace which was given to them by Roman Republic on humiliating terms ending the 17-year war. The treaty was unlike the first one to ensure they would never have a chance at military might in the future again. They could not wage war against Rome again without Rome's permission.
The Gracchi Land Commission (122 BC)
Gracchus was elected tribune in 123 BC and proposed numerous reforms: protecting citizens from banishment by magistrates without trial, dividing public lands among the poor, supplying soldiers with clothing at state expense, extending the franchise to Italians, founding colonies at Tarentum and Capua, constructing roads, and providing grain for the poor at a low price. Facing the people instead of senate when he spoke, all these laws were passed and Gaius was allowed to select the new jurors.
A roman general and statesman elected consul 7 times. Made dramatic reforms of Roman Armies (Marian Reforms), authorized recruitment of landless citizens, and reorganized structure of legions into separate cohorts. He helped Rome transition from Republic to Empire. He promised land after war to landless citizens who proved to be successful in war, so they would have prerogative.
Sulla - Proscription of the Senate (83 BC)
Roman General and statesman, who held office and dictatorship. Didn't lose battles, only man in history to have attacked and occupied both Athens and Rome. Reformed Roman constitution to restore balance of power between Senate and Tribunes, then resigned dictatorship restoring normal constitutional government. He instituted a program of executing those he perceived to be enemies of the state. Proscribing (outlawing) those against him, he ordered 1500 nobles (senators) to be executed.
Pompey (106-48 BC)
a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic on Sulla's side. ompey joined his rival Marcus Licinius Crassus and his ally and father-in-law Julius Caesar in the military-political alliance known as the First Triumvirate. He sided with the Optimates though, and when Caesar defeated him at the battle of Pharsalus, he sought refuge in Egypt, where he was assassinated. His career and defeat are significant in Rome's subsequent transformation from Republic to Principate and Empire.
The First Triumvirate (60 B.C.)
The political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar, Crassus and Pompey. Had no official status, but had overwhelming power in the roman republic and was kept secret for some time. Crassus and Pompey were consuls and colleagues, but competitive. Caesar combined their clout with his own to be elected consul in 59 BC. he was already friends with crassus but solidified his friendship with Pompey by giving him his daughters hand in marriage. Combined wealth, power and popularity dominated roman politics.
The Crossing of the Rubicon (49 BC)
The idiom "Crossing the Rubicon" means to pass apoint of no return, and refers to Julius Caesar's crossing of the river in 49 BC, which was considered an act of war. Roman law specified that only the elected magistrates (consuls and praetors) could hold imperium within Italy. Any promagistrate who entered Italy forfeited his imperium and was therefore no longer legally allowed to command troops. It was punishable by death. Pompey and Roman Senate fled in fear. This was followed by his victory.
THe Ides of March
March 15. festive day dedicated to the God Mars and a military parade was usually held. It is the date that Caesar was killed in 44BC. Stabbed to death by Roman Senate led by Brutus, Longinus and 60 other co-conspirators.
Ancestor of Julio-Claudian dynasty, father of Augustus, grandpa of TIberius, and Great Great grandpa of Caligula, etc. His family was Plebeian, and he was a "new man" who became great. his deeds included leading the Roman forces to victory in an unexpected battle against the Thracian Bessian tribe. He was elected Consul because Cicero liked him.
The Second Triumvirate (44 BC)
Political alliance of Augustus or Octavius, Lepidus and Mark Antony in 43 BC with the enactment of Lex Titia, the adoption of which marked the end of the Roman Republic. They existed for 2 five-year terms. They were official and legally established, overwhelmingly powerful and outranked other magistrates including the consuls. Antony marries Octavia, Octavius's sister, but lived with Cleopatra. He chased him to Egypt and the lovers committed suicide.
Augustus (Octavius) was granted proconsular imperium (extended in 19 BC to a life term), and this meant that he could overrule the authority of other provincial governors in their own provinces. Although there were (dubious) Republican precedents for the holding ofmaius imperium (Pompey had had it in the 60's), Augustus' was unique in that it did not stop at thepomerium, the sacred boundary of the city.
Town buried by volcano of Mt. Vesuvius, still being explored today for artifacts indicating Ancient Rome's history and artifacts.
The Good Emperors
The Nerva–Antonine dynasty is a dynasty of seven consecutive Roman Emperors, who ruled over the Roman Empire from 96 to 192. These Emperors are Nerva, Trajan,Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, and Commodus. A unique feature is their method of succession, under which an emperor adopted the candidate of his choice to be successor. Under Roman law, an adoption established a bond legally as strong as that of kinship. They are also called Adoptive Emperors. Senate also liked them
Roman Emperor from 180 to 192. He also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180. His accession as emperor was the first time a son had succeeded his father since Titus succeeded Vespasian in 79. Commodus was the first emperor "born to the purple"; i.e., born during his father's reign. Selfish, lavish and disinterested in business. Senate didn't like him, army did and people did.
Battle of Milvian Bridge (312 BC)
Took place between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius on 28 October 312. It takes its name from the Milvian Bridge, an important route over the Tiber. Constantine won the battle and started on the path that led him to end the Tetrarchy and become the sole ruler of the Roman Empire. Maxentius drowned in the Tiber during the battle. the battle marked the beginning of Constantine's conversion to Christianity. Constantine and his soldiers had a vision that God promised victory.
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