A ruler with unlimited power and authority over his or her people.
The belief that the ruler's authority come directly from God.
Peace of Augsburg
In 1555 there was an agreement between states in the Holy Roman Empire that gave each German prince to decide whether his state would be Catholic or Protestant.
From 1625-1649 he was king of England, Scotland, and Ireland. His conflicts with Parliament led to the English Civil War. In 1649 he was beheaded.
He was king of Spain(1556-1598), King of Naples(1554-1598), and King of Portugal(1580-1598). He led Roman Catholic efforts to remove Protestantism from parts of Europe. He was defeated by England and the Netherlands
He was king of France from 1589-1610. He issued the Edict of Nantes.
He was king of France from 1610-1643. He was a weak ruler because he let Cardinal Richelieu hold control during has reign.
He was King of France from 1643-1715. The sun king, as he was called, built a palace at Versailles to strengthen absolute power. At the end of his reign wars drained a lot of Frances wealth.
Edict of Nantes
A declaration from King Henry IV in which he promised that Protestants could live peacefully in France and were free to establish houses of worshiping selected French cities
A French Protestant
War of the Spanish Succession
Started in 1703 when Louis XIV wanted it for his son. He fought against the Dutch, English, and Holy Roman Empire to gain the throne for France.
Treaty of Utrecht
During 1713 it ended the War of the Spanish Succession. Louis XIV's grandson was given the throne and also stated that France and Spain would never be ruled by the same monarch.
English Protestants of the late 1500's and most of the 1600's who wanted to purify the Church of England through reforms.
Petition of Right
An English constitutional document that sets out specific freedoms the king can not breach.
When English Scottish and Irish monarchies were restored under Charles II
A monarchy limited by certain laws.
Wealthy Russian landowners.
The title of a Russian Ruler.
AKA: Ivan the Terrible First Russian leader to be called a czar. He killed his own son, leaving no heir to the throne. He focused on terrorizing disfavored boyars.
The adoption of the culture and ideas of Western society. Mostly came from American and European culture and ideas.
Peter the Great
He was Czar of Russia from 1682-1725. He made Russia more modern by bringing European ways into Russia. He was an Absolute Monarch.
Catherine the Great
Czarina of Russia from 1762-1796 and ruled with absolute power. She stayed with Peter the Great's policy of westernization through reforms.
Scientific theory that puts the Earth at the center of the universe with the sun and stars revolving around it.
A transformation in European thought in the 1500s and 1600s that called for scientific observation, experimentation, and the questioning of traditional opinions.
Tycho Brahe hired him to help with a mathematical theory from the detailed measurements he had made of the planets. He published Brahe's measurement of the orbit of Mars. He solved Copernican Theory by noticing planets orbited in ellipses.
He was a polish astronomer who introduced the heliocentric theory.
English scienctist who brought together astronomy, mathematics. He stated the Laws of Gravity, and developed calculus to explain all movement in the universe.
Developed the scientific method.
The time of optimisim and possibility.
In 1651 wrote a book Leviathan. He believed people were "Solitary,Poor,Nasty,Brutish, and Short."Government needed to impose order(Give up freedoms for peace,saftey,and order that the government would supply. For absolute monarchy
English Philosopher, believed people were born naturally happy, people were born equal with the natrural rights of life librty,and property. Government was to protect peoples rights. He believed monarchs were not chosen by god.
(1712-1778) -Swiss-French political philosopher -valured the social contract -adressed the nature of man in his work On the Origin of Inequality
Baron de Montesquieu.
(1689-1755) -French jurist and political philosopher -explored democratic theories of gov't -proposed a gov't divided into 3 branches and great influenced the U.S. consitution
Causes of the French Revolution
Problems in french society.
Groups varried widely in what they contributed to France, in terms of both work and taxes.(first,second,and third estates)
Created June 17 1789 ended feudalism and privileges of the First and Second estates, Approved Declaration of the Rights of Man ans of the Citizens, Seized church lands and made clergy paid employess, Wrote constitution that reduced the kings power.
Storming of the Bastille
On July 14 1789, a mob of parisains went to the Bastile, an acient prison, looking for weapons.When they tried to negotiate, the angry mob and prison guard exhanged fire and the mob swarmed into the prison killing people.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Basic prinicpals of Frech Revolution, "Liberty,equality,fraternity(brotherhood)."
Reign of Terror
Creating a wave a terror throughout the country.
First met in 1795,run by an executive branch of five directors, weak corrupt and inefficent, endend in 1799 when Napolean seized power.
Top of the third estate; city dwelling merchants, factory owners, and professionals such as lawyers and doctors.
Workers of the third estate ; they wore long pants -in contrast to the tight kneelenghth breeches, or pants.
Revolution used trhe RevolutionaryTribunal to rid the counrty of dissent.
A forced transfer of power.
Prohibited French or allied ships from traiding with Britain.
The Peninsular War
Portegual, which shares , the Iberian Peninsula with Spain, was neutral during the Napolean wars, but the Portegese refused to comply with the Contenetial System because the depended on trade with Britain.
military strategy involves deystroying abything that might be useful to an enemy such as crops, provisions ect. Used when the French invaded Russia and arrived to a burned Moscow.
the Battle of Waterloo
A battle between Napoleon's troops and the British led by Duke Wellington which consisted of British, Belgian, Dutch and German troops. Rain delayed the battle. Towards the end Prussia cam to the aid of Britian and they defeated Napoleon.
The era when the use of power driven machines was developed.
The Factors of Production
The factors of production were 1.) Expoloration and Colonialism 2.)Seapower 3.) Political Stability 4.) Government Support 5.) Growth of private investments
When wealthy landowners bought fields from shared fields of rich and poor farmers. They would combine the fields which allowed for more efficeint farming methods and increased food supply. It also caused the farmers without jobs to flood to the cities and find work in factories.
the cottage industry
A craft or occuptaion performed at home such as weaving
Organizations representing worker's intrests. Also organized strokes.
Factories employed women and children because
Because men expexted higher wages and people also saw unskilled jobs innapropriate for men.
Broken into 3 parts. 1.) wealthy buisness people to invest in town factories 2.) Mid-level employees to run the factories and supervise the day-to-day operations 3.) Low-level employees to run the machines
American inventor of over 1,000 patents including the light bulb, establish power plants .
American buisness leader, revolutionized factory production through the use of the assembly line and popularized the affordable automobile.
Hungarian Zionist leader wrote the Jewish State, outlined plans for an indpeendent Jewish country
Russinan psychologist, conducted experiment where he used a dog to demonstrate that reactions are just a series of conditioned reflexes.
Retained knowledge of machienery created by Richard Awkright, built in America and sold.
Italian patriot, formed nationalist group Young Italy
italin military nationalist leader. Unified southern states of Italy joined them to form the United Kingdom of Italy
(1858-1928) British Woman suffragist; founded the Women's Social and Political Union in 1903. In support of women's suffrage, she led hunger strikes and was arrested often for her actions
Otto von Bismark
(1815-1898) German Statesman; he became the leading force behind German Unification. His main political goal was for Prussia to gain power over Austria
(1869-1964) Self-proclaimed president of the new Philippine Republic in 1899; fought for Filipino independence from the US
Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794-1876) Mexican general, president and dictator; fought in the Texas Revolution and seized the Alamo but was defeated and captured by Sam Houston at San Jacinto
A person opposed to increased industrialization or new technology
A person who uses charts of financial data to predict future trends and to guide investment strategies
(1809-1882) English Scientist; he proposed the theory of evolution through natural selection, which came to be known as Darwinism.
A person who uses charts of financial data to predict future trends and to guide investment strategies
(1823) US President James Monroe's statement forbidding further colonization in the Americas by declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility toward the United States
Army of volunteer troops led by Giuseppe Girabaldi; in 1860 they attacked the island of Sicily and won it for the Italians
a document promising (officialy) for reform, a more democratic government, and a Russian Constitution
Treaty of Kanagawa
(1854) Allowed American ships to stop at two Japanese ports
famine in Ireland
Many people were left without food or income as a result. So they were evicted from homes and apartments because they werent able to pay rent. Ireland continued to export food to the British throughout the famine. Due to the failure of the potatoe about 1 million people starved and another 1.5 million emigrated- many to the US
The Meiji Restoration
forced the shogun to step down; ended military control of Japan. In 1868 Emperor Mutushito took back power of government.
(1791-1867) English Scientist; he invented the dynamo- a machine that generated electricity. His invention eventually led to today's electrical generators.
Theory of Relativity
Developed by Einstein. Based on two crucial ideas. 1) No particle of matter can move faster than the speed of light. 2) motion can only be measured from the viewpoint of a particular observer
the first country to give women the vote
the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary
Two separate, equal states ruled by one Monarch
January 22, 1905 the day thatczarist troops fired on protestors at the winter Palace, igniteing the russian Revolution of 1905
Inventions that took people from one place to another and was available for all citizens
He was a Scotish economist who who used reason to analyze economic systems.
The Reform Act of 1832
The Reform act of 1832 gave industrial cities representaion in Parliament for the first time.
The Austro-Prussian War
War fought between prussia and Austrtia lasteing seven weeks; Prussian victory dissloved the German Confederation and led to the exclusion if austria from German Affairs.
the Carlsbad Decrees
The Carlsbad Decrees were a set of reactionary restrictions introduced in the states of the German Confederation by resolution of the Bundesversammlung on 20 September 1819 after a conference held in the spa town of Carlsbad, Bohemia.
They were a national group in 1908 who began a revolution. They fought against the absolute power of the sultan, the ruler of the Ottoman empire.
Czar Alexander II
Came to power 1855 near the end of the Crimean War, which lost Russia to Great Brtitain, France, The Ottoman Empire, and sardinia. He freed The Russsian serfs and gave them land. Also there was a period of unrest during his reign.
The Sepoy Mutiny
in 1857 these strained relations expolded into a rebellion, the sepoys. Sepoys were indina soliders who fought in the British Army.
It was a tradeing war between Great Britian and China. The British gave the Chinese opium in exchange for there goods. The problem was that Opium became such a addive drug the the Chinese governemtn banned it. Later during this period treat's known as unequal treaties were created to benifit the british rather than the chinese.
the Indian National Congress
Was not founded until 1885. It was a popular organization the indian National congress was established by english speaking Indians, most were hindu.
the white man’s burden
a white man's burden is the burden carried by white people to infact save the people of different skin and turn them from savages into noraml humans.
The purpose of the Napoleonic Wars was to
The purpose of the Napoleonic wars were Napolean's quest to conquer Europe.
a political and economic system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns the means of production
Economic system in which most businesses are privately owned.
Economic and political system in which the government owns pretty much all of the economic planning nand the production of goods.
A process the\at was developed in the 1850s that led to faster and cheaper steel production.
This year marked the end of the haitian revolution, when a French colony Saint-Domingue revolted against France.
He was the leading force behind the German unification, his main goal was for Prussia to over come Austria.
Waterway that connected the Mediterranean and red seas, this made the trip from Europe to the Indian ocean much faster.
War between U.S.A. and Spain the U.S. won in four months, gaining Purerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines.
What five factors made Great Britain the ideal location for the birth of the Industrial Revolution?
The five factors are exploration colonialism, seapower, Political Stability, Government support,and the growth of private investment. (land, labor, & capital)
Describe the working conditions in British factories in the late 1700s and early 1800s.
The work day was long and hard, the factories were noisy had a lack of ventilation and poor sanitation. And the lack of food was added into the equation.
Explain how the Reform Act of 1832 dealt with the inequalities of representation in the British government.
The act gave industrial cities representation in parliament, it also gave the right to vote to middle class men which increased the number of eligible voters up 50%.
How did British imperialism contribute to the Sepoy Mutiny?
If Britain never introduced this new rifle they would have never had the Sepoy Mutiny.
What led to the Opium Wars?
The opium wars were a result of a series of unequal treaties between Britain and China. In
What challenges did Italy face in the years after unification?
After unification Italy faced social and economic problems, like a high unemployment rate and rising taxes.
Explain Otto von Bismarck’s political philosophy.
His philosophy was realpolitik was practical rather than idealistic.
Explain how the Bessemer process contributed to transportation and trade.
The faster and cheaper we could make steel the quicker railroads could be put down so it made it easy to transport goods which had a positive effect on trade
Describe the land grab for Africa
It was a race to see which countries could colonize Africa the most and fastest, then ravage its natural resources for money.
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