What is Culture? Culture is a shared way of life?U.S. vs Japan Nonmaterial culture (Superstructure) Values, beliefs, behavior, ideology that constitute a people?s way of life Material Culture (Substructure) Material objects Culture shock ? an inability to ?read? the meaning of new surroundings and symbols (Pleasantville) Symbols and their particular meaning to people sharing a culture (greetings, gender) Nation - a political entity Society - people who interact in a defined territory and share culture (East coast v. West coast) Language ... a system of symbols allowing people to communicate (gender specific) Cultural transmission ... one generation passes culture to the next Oral cultural tradition began about 5,000 years ago Sapir-Whorf thesis...the cultural lens of language Language shapes but also confines the way we perceive reality Euphemism and political correctness Values ... culturally defined standards ... freedom, democracy, equality Norms...rules and expectations by which a society is guided Mores or taboos ... sanctioned by laws valuesFolkways...customs for casual interaction (ex: not taking a shower for 14 days) behaviorIdeal and real culture Do as I say, not as I do High culture vs popular culture Subculture vs counterculture ... cultural integration Multiculturalism ... recognizing and promoting diversity and equality of all cultural traditions Eurocentrism vs. Afrocentrism Cultural change and culture lag ... material vs non-material Substructure vs. superstructure Global culture and McDonaldization Sociobiology...biology?s affects on human culture Natural selection....survival of the fittest Instincts pushed aside by culture Cultural freedom and constraint Man is born free, but he is everywhere in chains ... Jean Jacques Rousseau 1755
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