A movement to give more power and responsibility back to the state governments. According to the text, the U.S. is currently in a period of devolution.
A political system in which authority is divided between different levels of government (the national and state levels, in America's case). E.g., Germany, Canada, Mexico, Australia and Switzerland also have federal systems.
Enumerated powers of Congress
Article I, Section 8: This list is followed by a clause that gives Congress the power to make all laws that are "necessary and proper" to carry out its powers.
The necessary and proper clause
Has been used to justify giving Congress many powers never mentioned in the Constitution.
Article VI: says that the Constitution and laws made in accordance with it are "the supreme law of the land."
Limitations on the national government
Article I, Section 9: list some specific powers not granted to Congress, and the Bill of Rights (the first ten amendments to the Constitution) limits the power of the national government over individuals.