Water is taken, used then "lost" to the atmosphere through evaporation or transpiration. About 85% irrigation, 8% industrial and 7% domestic.
Water withdrawls and use?
Removing water from a natural system, such as surface waters and groundwater and using it in a human system. About 70% irrigation, 20% industrial and 10% domestic.
How do we use water in the industry and at home? How can we increase efficiency?
Industry = manufacturing, heating and cooling. Domestic = cleaning, cooking, drinking and flushing. Low flow showerheads, toilets, less meats.
Describe Hydrological Cycle?
Condensation in atmosphere sends precipitation to land and water bodies. Transpiration, infliltration, surface runoff, evaporation play a role...
Three sources of freshwater on land?
Soil moisture, Surface water, Groundwater
Where can water be used efficiently? (Eqn)
Where (Precip - Evap) = (Groundwater Flow + Surface Runnoff)
Describe some of the major water crises of the world?
Aral Sea dried up from too much irrigation, creating a desert which allows additional blowing of dusts that could spread more diseases. Ogallala Aquifer - in 1920 avg depth was about 20meters but now less than 3 meters and will probably be depleted by 2020. Also caused by irrigation.
What are some of the biggest environmental problems?
Water pollution, Running out of water before we run out of land, Conflicts that will arise when water is scarce.
Currently, what are our main energy resources?
Oil, which is the most energy rich resource. Coal and gas. All are fossil fuels which means they are finite resources.
Energy use around the world?
Energy use grows with economic development. U.S. uses more energy per person than anyone else. Russia, Europe and Japan are also all above the world average of energy use per person.
Describe Hubbert's Peak?
In 1950s, Hubbert accurately predicted that U.S. oil production would peak in the 1970s and begin to decline. Then, we would use our "easy" resources first and one those were gone, production would slow and costs would increase. This would also result in more imports, which is already true of today.
Describe alt. energy resources?
Hydropower, which would require more dams and contribute to the problem of water loss. Biomass fuels, which we're already seeing is not a good idea because it is contributing to the rise in food prices. Wind would require a million turbines, but considering the number of cell phone towers, this is may not be as hard as it seems. Nuclear Fusion seems like the best option because it could produce limitless energy, but as of now, no useful energy has been produced.
How can we reduce carbon emissions?
Electricity and transportation efficiency. Carbon Capture and Storage. Renewable resources.
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