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(1) poor diversity of aquatic habitats, (2) severed tributaries (dispersal barriers), and (3) lack of thermal refugia
Creates pool, structure to hide in or behind, and creates more habitat
A. Funding B. Good plans and Designs C. Stakeholders and partnering D. All of the above
Dioecious- having the male and female reproductive organs in separate individuals.Gonochoristic- unisexualism or gonochory describes the state of having just one of at least two distinct sexes in any one individual organism
What characteristics separate an embryo from a larval fish?
Why is the larval stage such a dangerous time for fish?
What characteristics separate a larval from juvenile fish?
What are four other terms that are commonly used for juvenile fish?
Fry, Fingerling, Parr, Smolts
What characteristics separate a juvenile from an adult fish?
Egg--> Larval fish--> Fry--> Juvenile--> Adult spawning back to eggs
Oviparous- producing young by means of eggs that are hatched after they have been laid by the parent
Ovoviviparous- producing young by means of eggs that are hatched within the body of the parent, as in some snakes
Viviparous- bringing forth live young that have developed inside the body of the parent.
Semelparity- it is characterized by a single reproductive episode before death
Iteroparity- it is characterized by multiple reproductive cycles over the course of its lifetime.
Draw a graph of the number of the relationship between the number of eggs produced by a female and the relative size of the female. Given this, what is a potential affect of harvest if larger females are targeted?
T or F. Hatcheries were among the earliest forms of fisheries management in the world.
Father of fish culture in U.S. wrote about artificial propagation of fish in 1857
T or F. In the mid to late 1800s fisheries management tended to focus on habitat restoration.
Contrast the pragmatist vs. purist school of thought when it comes to fish stocking and the role of hatcheries.
Purist—maintaining near pristine aquatic habitats, and maintaining or restoring the fish community to a state before human disturbance; fishery in natural state
Pragmatist—seeks to use habitats and fish largely for human benefit, and establish a fish community that is suitable within the extent possible; craft and maintain a sustainable fishery
Should be broadly described, long-term targets that are clear and not vague
Establish trout fishery in Deckers Creek gorge section
Establish native trout fishery in Deckers Creek gorge section
Explicitly justify needs before stocking
Should be explicit, short-term statements of achievements that are quantifiable
Maintain catch rate of brook trout in Deckers Creek gorge section at 2 fish per hour
T or F. Walleye are a very commonly stocked coolwater species.
T or F. Stocking of warmwater species, such as largemouth bass, has increase significantly in recent years.
Fill a niche (void) – a pelagic fishery that didn’t exist (stripers)
Trophy fishery (musky)
Supplemental—to enhance a weak year class or supplement poor recruitment; stocking prey fish; Put-grow-take fishery; walleye or pike in reservoirs without good nursery areas; non-game species
Maintenance—to sustain population when recruitment fails or is not expected; not expected to be self-sustaining; put-take
striped bass without headwaters to migrate and spawn, or “sterile” hybrids
Two story fishery—trout can’t spawn in reservoir and die yearly anyway
Introductory or Establishment
Introductions where they never existed (good or bad???)
Control of pests
Grass carp to veg control
Mosquito fish for mosquito control
Larger predators to crop prey and for biomanipulation
LMB, BG, CC combo is a favorite
Compare and contrast “put-and-take” stocking with “put-grow-and-take” stocking. Should these methods be used in modern fisheries management? Why or why not?
Put-and-take Fisheries—placing fish into water bodies for the sole purpose of harvest by anglers in a relatively short time
Put-grow-and-take Fishery—stocking relatively small (<4 inch) fish (subcatchable) into waters that will support growth to catchable size
We should be doing this because otherwise we would deplete the fisheries that is left if no stocking of fish occurred.
What are the series of questions (6 total) that must be answered before starting a stocking program?
When and Where?What Quality?
The name of the lumber town that was founded on the banks of Shavers Fork is ___________________.
Prior to timber harvest, Shaver’s Fork was likely shadier, cooler, and the channel contained large amounts of ____________, which provided trout habitat.
Cutting off the tributaries prevented fish from reaching _________ water, which is necessary during summer months, and spawning grounds.
__________ ________ is a byproduct of sulfur compounds released from coal fire power plants.
Adding ________ _________ has been a popular mitigation technique to restore these streams.
Ecological traps, or __________ _______ , are places that contain attractive habitat but result in low or no recruitment the following spring.
The mains source of funding for the second phase of the restoration of Shaver’s Fork came through mitigation funds from ______ ________ Conservation District.
List the main objective of the Clean Water Act.
Objective was to restore and maintain physical, biological, and chemical integrity of nation’s waterways
List four principal foundations of Rapid Bioassessment Protocols.
Easily reported to the public
Distinguish between stock, fisheries, and ecosystem assessments.
Stock assessment Mostly population levels stuff
Typically for a game species
Pop Structure---Pop size, age, size, harvestability, condition index, size distribution, survivorship, productivity
Focuses on fish community, Community metrics used for description
Comprehensive evaluation of
biological conditions of the fishery
Assessing the integrity of the ecosystem
List the three most common groups of organisms that are measured in biosurveys.
Periphyton, Benthic Invertebrates, Fishes
Describe the benefits of a biological assessment over chemical or physical assessments.
Distinguish between probabilistic and targeted sampling design and describe when you would use each.
Probabilistic – Characterized general conditions
Targeted – Determine impairment of specific streams
Assess Water Quality and Impaired Water
Set Protection and Restoration Goals
Evaluate designated use attainment
Evaluate restoration success
Provide evidence for re-issuance NPDES
Watershed and resources management services
An index that combines indicators, or community metrics, into a single index value.
Example is WV Stream Condition Index
Distinguish between positive and negative scoring metrics.
Positive scoring metric- values increase as watershed health increases
Negative scoring metric- values decrease as watershed health increases
Broadly note how metrics are selected for biological indexes. What makes a single metric “acceptable” to include in an index of biotic integrity?
What is a reference site and why is it needed? Describe the criteria for a reference site (list 3).
Provides a standard for comparisons
Least impacted sites within the area of study
May be stratified by watershed, ecoregion, OR HABTITAT TYPE etc.
List the three major components of an ecosystem assessment.
Bio-survey of benthic invertebrates and fish
What does WV SCI stand for? List three metrics used in this index.
WV Stream Condition Index
EPT taxa richness
Total taxa richness
% Top 2 dominant taxa
List three advantages and two disadvantages to using Indexes of Biotic Integrity to assess stream condition.
More detailed taxonomic information and tolerance scores
Calibrated by ecoregion and season
Must better at discriminating between reference and impaired streams.
The West Virginia Fish IBI must be specified for each ecoregion across the state to be most effective. T of F.
List and describe four components of the Mid Atlantic Highlands fish IBI.
Richness Cyprinid species
Richness native benthic species
Richness sensitive species
% individuals Cottidae
% tolerant individuals *
% non-indigenous individuals *
% invertivore-piscivore individuals
% macro-omnivores *
% clean gravel spawning species
Which physiographic province in the Mid-Atlantic Region scores best among fish, aquatic invertebrates, and water quality parameters? Why may this be so?
Imagine that you are the project lead at an environmental consulting company that has been tasked with developing a new comprehensive ecosystem assessment index. What components would you include to get a holistic description of ecosystem assessment? Write a paragraph about specific metrics that you would use (make sure they cover each of the three components of ecosystem assessments).
Holistic fishery assessment using
Chemical and physical habitat
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