5/2/09 7:48 PM Ideal Bodies Rosalind Coward : ?The Body Beautiful? Cultural ideals of beauty have changed over time; comparison of Venus of Orbino and Marylin Monroe/Twiggy In our culture, marketing and consumer products these ideals are generated; thinner and skinnier than previous ideals Constantly chasing the ideal, but never able to get there because there?s always something else Different ideals within different communities latino, African American, etc.. Dehumanizing to pick apart body parts Advertisements work to make women unhappy with wither bodies; Tori Spelling AD?puts pressure on women to lose weight in the media It is similar for men bigger and tones; muscular, athletic, increase in eating disorders The way suits are constructed make men look muscular; casual clothes have become more form fitted which puts more pressure on men Many fears around aging Roland Marchand : ?Grotesque Moderne? In the 1920?s and 30?s illustrators distorted women?s bodies to make them more sexually alluring by slimming down figures. High fashion modern woman then was a flapper Stretched and distorted figures to make them more sexually appealing & photographed at extreme angles Reclaiming Women?s Bodies Ameena Meer : ?Bombay Talkie? Born in Boston of Indian parents, and educated in Britain, Ameena Meer has published short stories in Flaming Spirit and New Writing, among others. She was managing editor of the New-York based art literary magazine Bomb. In her novel, Bombay Talkie (1994), Sabah, a second-generation adolescent immigrant, visits India and is drawn into the unravelling lives of her movie-star uncle and family, and her American-born friend, Rani. Dressed in American style clothing; people sexually harassed her about the way she looked; her response she starts to challenge them and they think she is overreacting and apologize, but she is unsatisfied They don?t get where she is coming from How does she negotiate her bicultural heritage? She spots a group of Indian women custom dressed and covered upbig contrast she says she doesn?t want to dress like that but makes her pause & become somewhat embarrassed by what she is wearing Eleanor Antin : ?Carving : A Traditional Sculpture? An American performance artist, film-maker and installation artist Her work focuses on women?s issues 148 black and white photos document 37 days (four photos per day) of the artist's weight loss Antin hacked an ideal form out of her flesh, creating a socially approved, perfect woman ?The sculptor's hand can only break the spell/To free the figures slumbering in the stone.? Michelangelo Jenny Saville : Focuses on depicting nudes, not according to some ideal, but paints to how women feel about themselves Anxiety about large female body is that it ?has to be hidden? She was influenced by feminism and always interested in art; wanted role of being viewed and the viewer She demonstrated the disparity between the way women are perceived and the way they feel about their bodies; there?s a certain honesty about her paintings Born in 1970, she came of age in the 1980s: "Everyone was obsessed with the body - it was all about dieting, gym, the body beautiful." Unruly Genders Our focus is on the social construction of gender ? the idea that gender is not an innate, biological ?given,? but something that we largely create What are some examples of how gender is created in our culture? Through norms and expectations ?How has this changed over time? Has changed overtime through expectations of society The binary model says that there are just two genders: man/woman The gender continuum model says that there are many ways of being gendered ?transsexuals: those who are considering surgically changing their sex called pre-operative, and those who have already done so, called post-operative. They can be female-to-male (transsexual men) as well as male-to-female (transsexual women). ?transgenderists: persons living full-time in a gender opposite their birth sex but who have no desire to pursue surgery. Transgenderists can be female-to-male (transgendered men) as well as male-to-female transgendered women) ?transvestites (the clinical term) and crossdressers (the colloquial term): those who express their gender in a way that differs from their birth sex, as well as "mannish" women, whose gender expression is masculine and who are often assumed to be lesbians, though this is not necessarily the case and "effeminate" men, whose gender expression is feminine and who are often assumed to be homosexuals, though this also is not necessarily the case. Drag Kings and Queens make us conscious that gender is a performance for all of us. ?We are born naked, the rest is drag?-Drag Queen Ru Paul. Gender is something we do Women and Colonialism Judith Williamson : images of non-western women to represent a simpler, exotic ?lost? way of life in advertisements Colonialism destroys cultural differences Colonialism people colonizing others have often pretended it benefits colonized people ? ?we?re superior and just trying to help the other people? Gender & colonialism colonized women have distinctive experiene involving race, gender and colonial control Catherin Lurz & Jane L Colins : National Geographics example of ?mass culture? Nude women=racialized; no white women with bare breasts, only women of color Marnia Lazrey : Labels like Islamic women, ?Middle Eastern? women, etc=problematic because it stereotypes and work to erase differences within groups ?American Women? erases class difference, races, age, sexuality, physical disability, education she?s asking us to be more specific with terminology would never except American women label; but use it about others Sarah Graham Brown Didn?t have opportunity for education and work, ?social marriage? so escaped and became a woman traveler this is what motivated 19th/20th century European and American travelers. Get out of confines of upper class women?s lives because of contradictions and paid more attention to the women where they traveled to What is ?harim? taken on stereotypes; large group of naked women in sexually aroused situations, erotic sensual places,but its really about the secluded par of the house that men outside the family cannot enter Poor: don?t have secluded space and also have to work outside the home Contemporary Photographers of Islamic Women Iranian Revolution began in 1978 with the first major demonstration against the Shah Shah=autocratic, very repressive after demonstration, now a theocracy 1936, Muhammed Rezah Shah granted women?s suffrage and women elected Islamic Revolution women continued to advance in education and work, at the same time, gave harsh restriction on women?s dress and behavior Veiling became compulsory; buses schools and other public places were strictly segregated by gender Now= have own personal style of veiling practices Westerners assume veiling=oppression, but it doesn?t Shirin Neshat : photographer Born in 1957 in Qazvin, Iran to an upper class, progressive family. Now lives in NY and left Iran in the 70s to study art. Father very westernized Her work addresses : social, political and psychological dimensions of women?s experience in contemporary Islamic socieites. She recognizes the complex social, intellectual and religious forces shaping the various identities of Muslim women ?Women of Allah?-self portrait photos women veiled, weapon, writing on images (poetry) shows woman caught between the freed of expression evident in creation of photos and complex demands of her Islamic heritage images shows strength in weapon; looking directly at the camera; liberation she focuses on separation of sexes in Islamic cutlures and ways it is traditionally articulated Shadi Ghadirian : photographer Photographer in Iran, bron in 1974 in Tehran has to follow specific moral guidelines when creating her images or she gets in trouble They can?t show women?s hair, let alone physical contact with men. Hotels don?t give rooms to single women and she can?t drive alone Very difficult to be a women photographer ?Qajar series? black and white photos; imitate photos of 19th century westernization show difficulties women face in Iran; torn between tradition and modernity of globalization. Unsure of era to belong to friends and neighbors gave her domestic utensils to use in her photos shows repetitive routine of women to which they find themselves consigned Forced Relations and Removals Zineb Sedira and Paula Gunn Allen Contemporary experience of women relocated With the rise of global capitalism, how has movement of people/populations changed? Speed and scale at which things happen, lots more people moving and faster communications; more types of communication Why is this a feminist concern? Who you are matters; class, gender, sexuality?all shape experience How does the traditional travel-adventure story reinforce gendered stereotypes? Leads are typically male (the adventurer/hero) Usually white men cast in that role Women rescued or get in the way of the stories lead roles Women of color are largely ignored Not all voluntary migration; circumstances and press of institution Slavery forced population movement to support capitalism Movement of people through modern wars Filipina women male order brides; underdeveloped nation, need to emigrate to support; usually women to be nannies or do domestic things Internal migration migration within a nation Free enterprise zones Mexico/US ?border zones? Move for economic opportunity Feminist activists need transnational perspective need info about other countries Paula Gunn Allen : ?Deep Purple? Native American first scholars and critics to publish N.A. writers and make their work accessible Migration of N.A. and others (internal migration) Haven?t lost traditions; just moved and grew and changes Uses her art to critique the women?s movement from inside Leela dating white women; belong to women?s group and confronted with issues as a N.A. woman in the area Leela feels marginalized, other prejudices Zineb Sedira Born in France, but parents Algerian. How to negotiate world is the overriding question in Zineb?s work; worlds that collide or concord Communication of the speaking videos oldest and youngest have a wide generation gap; they don?t speak the same language, or it has changed Different dialects and combos of the language Shows losses that occur with migration Shows communication break-down Parents and herparents have dominant voice Diaspora & Judith Baca?s Great Wall of Los Angeles Stuart Hall Diaspora scattered and dispersed peoples who must settle in a new cultural context and who therefore belong to more than one culture, who have to negotiate and translate between cultures Examples: jewish people, African americans How does gender affect diaspora? Men chosen to leave, men could earn more/more possibilites for men. Women often attached to the home and to keep traditions Judith Baca History of CA from prehistory to the 1950s (Great wall of Los Angeles) Includes African americans, asians, poor people, women, migrant workers, that are usually left out of history books Muralist, Mexican heritage Covers ½ mile of concrete wall in the Tujunga Flood Control Channel of San Fernando Valley Longest mural in the world Hired over 400 at-risk youths to work. Collaborated with both scholars and community representatives Provide images of history Used visuals to make broadly accessible Mural Makers Commonly believed founders of LA were Spanish Founded in 1781 by one Spanish , mulatto, black, mestizo, or Indian Gold rush images focus on AA perspective of Gold Rush 1950s end of mural==coming of freeways and minority communities chicanos being separated Velina Hasu Houston Playwright and poet and essayist and screenwriter; anthologies of Asian American Drama by Asian American women Tea written to recognize Japanese war brides who married American servicemen after WWII and lived in Kansas and elsewhere Teruko, Atsuko, Chiz, Setsuko, Himiko (commits suicide) Tea ceremony transcendent experiences, understanding and meaning of life and death of friend Tea is more about just yourself; intense and important For good conversation; it?s a connection; it?s a noble thing (Japanese confidence in America) Tea brings people together (that and the death of himiko bring them together) Discuss why Japanese hate Japanese-americans Japanese and americans have an ambivalent relationship Internalizing their pain; trying to make a community Chiz is most westernized?likes coffee more than tea Write America with a ?k? shows that they don?t have the c/k difference, that they try to make their own community, and they make their own America to survive. Asians don?t speak up, cultural background; himiko commits suicide because she was beaten and didn?t say anything Boys Don?t Cry real-life story of Brandon Teena, a transgendered who was raped and murdered on December 31, 1993 by his male friends; Lincoln, Nebraska everyone in the movie performs a gender role Brandon Teena confronts a world in which he has limited opportunities; transgender, social status, etc.. Swank received criticism from the family of Brandon Teena for her repeated use of the male-gendered pronoun 'he' in her Oscar acceptance speech. Brandon?s mother argued that her son's transgenderism was a defense mechanism that was developed in response to childhood sexual abuse, rather than being an expression of his gendered sense of self: "She pretended she was a man so no other man could touch her." Swank later apologized, but many transgender activists asserted that she was correct in referring to Brandon as a man, as this was the gender in which he preferred to live and act. Teena?s headstone is inscribed with the name "Teena R. Brandon" and the epitaph "daughter, sister, & friend". Men in Falls City, Nebraska perform their gender role by getting involved in ?manly? activities in the area, i.e. riding on the back of cars, getting drunk, etc.. Lana and Candace perform gender in that they are seen as sexual beings, dainty, always looked after Different views of femininity Lana, Candace, Lana?s mother Why does Lana believe so strongly in Brandon? What do they share? They are both going against the norms Penalties for not conforming? Verbal and physical harassment and violence, loss of work, social and emotional isolation The Human Rights Campaign (HRC) estimates that 1 in 12 transgender Americans face the chance of being murdered, and the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (NCAVP)?s recent report showed that the largest increase in violence against any demographic targeted transgender men. Judith Halbersteam : ?Mackdaddy, Superfly, Rapper: Gender, Race, and Masculinity in the Drag King Scene? Halberstam reminds us that drag kings are not a recent white lesbian phenomenon Male impersonators like Storme DeLaverie were part of twentieth century theatrical troupes that performed in mainstream theatres Women have impersonated men to get to be soldiers Harry Hansberry Gladys Bentley appeared at Harry Hansberry's "Clam House" on 133rd Street, one of New York City's most notorious gay speakeasies, in the 1920s, and headlined in the early thirties at Harlem's Ubangi Club, where she was backed up by a chorus line of drag queens. Shigeyuki Kihara: Fafafine artist Shigeyuki Kihara (b.1975 -) is a visual and performance artist of Samoan & Japanese decent She is fafafine ? in Samoa, a person born anatomically male who lives as a woman Faa ? ?to do? fafine ? ?woman?: literal translation ?to do as a woman does? ? speaks to the idea of the social construction of gender Fafafine are often accepted without a problem by their families and by society at large She took colonial photographs and repainted them. Challenges the fantasies using her gender identity. Her posture: frontal, towards the camera Sina and the Eel: traditional story and challenges stereotypes; Kihara portrays herself as the woman Sina, a character in a traditional Samoan story. Real Women Have Curves Ana?s family needs her to stay in work to help with the sweat shop Relationship between mother and daughter; mother is very traditional Mexican family moved there and got stuck in old fashioned ways; mother tries to stop Ana from leaving and have opportunities that she didn?t have in her youth: Keeps her in the factory Makes her feel bad about herself (weight) Makes her work for free for her sister Doesn?t want her to go to Columbia; break up the family bond In terms of race and class what does the dress shop mean? They only get 15-18 dollars a dress, but they sell them for hundreds of dollars at department stores. Push them into keeping the same job , ? you don?t have anything else to do??psychological abuse How does Ana respond to the other women?s lives? She doesn?t connect with their traditional ways. Gender and Race Gender and race are both socially constructed Biologically and socially related Ian F. Haney Lopez : ?The Social Construction of race? no consistent biologoical or genetic basis to racial classification More genetic variation within racial groups than between racial groups Races exist as social, not biological entitites Idea of linked oppressions working in similar ways to dispriviledge social entities. Racial fabrication humans rather than abstract social forces produce races. As human constructs, races constitute an integral part of a whole social fabric that includes gender and class relations. The meaning systems surrounding race change quickly rather than slowly. Races are constructed relationally, against one another, rather than in isolation. Races are created and have profound effect on us Evelynn Hammonds : racial morphing Technologies have the effect of neutralizing and therefore erasing difference and its historical significance within American race relations Hammonds suggests that a false sense of equivalence amongst Americans of all identities is embodied in the TIME magazine ?What kind of citizenship is being imagined or configured in the logic of equivalence that morphing graphically enacts?? Michael Jackson video doesn?t matter what race, we are all the same people; race is staged, juxtaposes/shows extremes of the races and shows we aren?t so different?seamless Way morphing technologies are used celebrates a multicultural America that erases complex racial history & inequality Must be seen against the background of miscegenation laws that were current in the US until Supreme Court decision in Loving v. Virginia in 1967 Celestine Bohlen Denny Mendez, a Dominican immigrant became Miss Italy in 1906 Debates around suitability; not native Italian and doesn?t look it How do these arguments reflect the larger social/political concerns in a changing society? Italy is just recently gaining immigrants rather than losing people. Supposedly a homogenous society Intersection of race, gender and nationality? Challenged fiction of homogeny Personification of a nation (woman) ?La Marianne?- French poster from 1917; woman symbolizes France homogenous and stable population Presentation Information TLC ?unpretty? portrays woman in a positive way Emma Thompson : Journey artwork; seven shipping containers you can walk through that contain artwork that depict Elena, girl sold into the UK sex industry at 18 years old. The containers are big, and they depict various parts of her journey. It grabs peoples attention. Rather than tell a story or write something about it, she portrays it through the paintings on the seven shipping containers. The viewer can walk through it so it gives it a more realistic and engaging experience. They portrayed her as a different age and they weren?t in love. She would ?throw? herself at John Smith, and needed to be ?saved?. She also wears a sexual outfit. Princesses : softer features, usually white, tall, beautiful Villains : sharp features, usually a darker shade purple/blue type skin, voices are shrill and unpleasant, sometimes ugly/fat, short The Color Purple Epistolary novel; form of letters/diary entries Addressed to g-d because she can?t trust anyone else Her dad?s words are the first words in the book?shuts her up and guilt?s her Father rapes her Story of her growth; trapped and suffers from dad and husband; into a girl that claims her voice ?I am? is crossed out; blames herself, manipulated by father sister Nettie stands by her in beginning sisterhood is an important theme in the novel takes her out of school so she won?t tell about him raping her; degrades her, says she?s stupid; marries her off and ?takes her children to g-d? body damaged and can?t have kids anymore mister at first interested in her sister, says Celie is a hard worker but that she?s ugly and she lies(so that if she says anything it is invalid) she calls him mister because she feels like she?s married to a stranger her husband is no better than her father very much suffering in a patriarchal society; she is silenced Sophia helps her claim her voice; Harpos wife, she is stubborn and independent and doesn?t mind speaking out. Opposite of Celie Celie only knows physical abuse Harpo has social pressure due to role reversal He also suffers in a patriarchal society Sofia ends up beating Harpo Celie admits she?s jealous of Sofia and looks up to her Celie gives her ?sisters choice? Sofia punches the mayors wife when insisting she be their made Squeak gets her out of jail by her white uncle who is the Warden raping her she is Harpos new girlfriend Claims voice after this experience by telling Harpo to call her Mary Agnes Women Studies Final Review Notes 5/2/09 7:48 PM 5/2/09 7:48 PM
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