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- Marriage required a marriage license granted by the state in which the two individualsare going to get married
- When a couple married, they became one person (the husband)
- Women had no legal rights, no legal personhood
- 1840 brought about a change
- Reason for laws had more to do with protecting the property of the father
- If women married and brought property with them to the marriage, they could keep the property and it would not revert to her husband’s
- Beginning of changing women’s status in the marriage
- Women and men are virtually equal in marriage
- Courtsstill ruling against other women’s equality cases (i.e. economic and workplaceequality)
- Also made divorce “easier,” you didn’t need a solid legal reason to divorce
- However, almost always in divorce, women suffered economically but always retained thechildren
- Majority of voters in California said there should be no same-sex marriage in the state
- So far, two Courts have ruled Proposition 8 unconstitutional
- Theodore Olsen (conservative, veteran, against Proposition 8, for same-sex marriagelegality) is arguing the proposition case in front of the Supreme Court
- White man & American Indian women lived in rural part of VA w/ no distinction on basis of race
- Married but VA did not recognize the legality of interracial marriages
- Moved to DC, approached by lawyers who wanted to attest to the legality oftheir marriage
- Case was successful and courts overturned VA law an laws in all states makinginterracial marriages illegal
· Sociologist (1940s-1960s)
· Ideas about the Isolated Nuclear Family
- Family members live apart from other relatives (living away from extended familymembers)
- Family is responsible for its own welfare
- Family no longer performs certain responsibilities from the home (i.e. home education,care of sick, production of food and clothing)
1) Stabilization of adult roles (Roles within the family divided by gender)
Instrumental Role = Male breadwinner,
Financial responsibility, Primary decision making
Expressive Role = Female homemaker, Housework,
2) Socialization of children = Raising children to become members of society
1. Stabilizationof adult roles (Roles within the family divided by gender)
a. InstrumentalRole = Male breadwinner,
b. Financialresponsibility, Primary decision making
c. ExpressiveRole = Female homemaker, Housework, Emotional work
2. Socialization of children = Raising childrento become members of society
· Lookedat low-income women (marriage and having children were not linked for them)
· Thesewomen saw marriage as something that required a level of economic stabilitythat they neither had nor imagined achieving
· Sawhaving children as stabilizing, not disruptive
· Peopleare likely to marry people like themselves
· Lookedat married heterosexual couples where both men & women were working
· Womenwere doing an extra month of 24 hour days per year than men
· Traditional= even though both husband and wife were in the workplace, this approachbelieved that males were the breadwinners and females the homemakers
· Egalitarian= approach that saw both men and women as responsible for the householdeconomically as well as the housework
· Transitional= approach somewhere in between traditional and egalitarian
1. Makingan effort to change roles/how the work is divided
2. Super-momming= women try to do everything by themselves
3. Cuttingback at work = not working part-time, but cutting corners
4. Cuttingback at home = usually this ended up being a cutting of one’s relationship withone’s spouse (less time together)
5. Hiringhelp = depended on resources
· Impactof women moving into the work force is seen at the level of the household, notthe individual
· Men’sdissatisfaction with their ability to balance work and family has increased
· Womencomplain that work place hours restrict family time (or vice versa)
· Familyarrangements that exhibited gender flexibility were successful in balancingwork and family
· Taxsubsidies to those who adopt family friendly policies
· Governmentmandated standards for childcare
· Childcareshould be more widely available, more affordable, and available full and part-time
· Benefitsto those who work part time
· Approachto mothering that defines women as the central caregiver
· Labor-intensive,involves a great deal of effort, time-consuming
· Centralidea = mothers should be self-less, children always come first
· Reflectsocial norms, Provide frameworks for behavior
· Workat social and individual levels
· Slut-shaming= fine line between drawing attention and asking for trouble (sexually attractivebut not too much)
· Slut-walk= claiming your sexuality without being victims
· Centralpiece of sexual script
· Ideathat heterosexuality is and should be the norm
3. Indiscriminate nature of the violence
4. Voluntary compliance
5. Perception of the "terrorist"and the "victim"
· Sex-genderpower hierarchy that defines men and women in a specific way, that depicts meansthe pursuer and women as the pursued
· Menpositioned as both the assailant and the protector
· Menare almost always the perpetrator, but can often be the victim of violence aswell
· Sexualviolence, specifically, is most likely women victims
· Most assaults take place in the home byknown acquaintances
· Womenaccept the views of the dominant society that exclude violence
· Theextent to which we are all part of the same system of ideals and beliefs
1. ViolenceAgainst Women must be understood in a context of socially constructed ideasabout masculinity and femininity
2. Violenceis a power issue and it has to be linked to masculine power at a social orpolitical level
3. Wemust consider the ways violence is eroticized and sexualized in our culture
4. Understandviolence against women in terms of normalization of violence in society
Oregon in 1977
· Definesitself not only in its opposition to female-ness, but as inherently superior,drawing its strength from dominance over women’s “weakness,” and creating menwho are happy to deliberately undermine women’s power
· Mostschool shooters are white males, yet race/class/gender is ignored (if mostshooters were black females, all of these would erupt in controversy)
· “Genderis the single most obvious and intractable difference when it comes to violencein America”
· 95%of all violent crimes are committed by males
· Thebetter the victim knows her assailant, the lesser the charge
· Conducteda study for Ms. magazine of over 3000 randomly selected college womenand surveyed them with a series of questions
· Shediscovered that 27%, from the answers to the questions she asked, had beenraped or an attempt of rape
· Stage1– Adjustment
o Coming to terms with what happened
o Victim might bury feelings about rape
· Stage2– Integration
o Depression can continue or come onquickly
o Victim may obsess about rape(Nightmares)
o Trial could trigger more serious issues
· Stage3– Recovery
o Returning to a level of functioningthat existed prior to the assault
· Violencethat occurs b/w intimate partners who are cohabitating
· Repetitiveand escalates over time
· Amountof time between episodes decreases while the intensity of the violene increases
· Alsoincludes violence between dating couples
1. Threats& Coercion = Exertion of power thru fear
2. Intimidation= focuses on instilling fear
3. EmotionalAbuse = Targets self-esteem, insecurities, Meant to hurt confidence
4. Isolation= Keeping someone to yourself so they lose their contacts and support system
5. Children= Often results in the worst domestic abuse cases, Used as pawns
6. EconomicAbuse = No sharing of resources
7. Minimizing,Denying, Blaming
women who are raped are not responsible for their victimization
men are not driven to rape due to uncontrollable sexual urges
rape myths support male privilege and justify sexual violence
· Comfortablehome difficult to give up
· Morewomen are killed trying to leave abusive relationships than while actually inthem
Marriage and Love Published in 1910.
Marriage and love have nothing in common.
If there is love, it survives despite marriage.
Marriage is primarily an economic arrangement.
Women kept ignorant of sex until marriage.
If women do explore sex before marriage, she is deemed unworthy of marriage.
If women work, many look at their work as transitory.
The institution of marriage makes a parasite of woman, & an absolute dependent.
It incapacitates her for life’s struggle, annihilates her social consciousness, paralyzes her imagination.
Decision to marry or not is an emotional one
She wants to help forge a new vision of what marriage is
(#55) What does Bennetts (in Bruggink) mean by the “15 year paradigm”? Why does she believe it is important for women to be in the workforce?
(#56) What are some of the barriers to raising children that lesbian/gay parents face?
(#58) What is the Bedford Hills Program and how does it work?
What are the four target areas of concern of The Violence Against Women Act?
Violence is a power issue and it has to be linked to masculine power at a social or political level
We must consider the ways violence is eroticized and sexualized in our culture
Understand violence against women in terms of normalization of violence in society
Safe Streets, Safe Homes for Women, Civil Rights for Women and Equal Justice for Women, and lastly Protections of Battered Immigrant Women and Children
3 in 4 stalking victims are stalked by someone they know,
persons aged 18-24 experience the highest rate of stalking
1 in 7 stalking victims move as a result of their victimization
1 in 4 victims report being stalked through the use of technology
Rape happens less frequently in our society than women believe, women are partly responsible for their victimization in terms of appearance and behavior, men are not totally responsible for their actions
white dominated human rights organizations often pursue the imperialist agenda of organizing around the human rights violations of woman in other countries and not woman of color in the US.
Women feel the need to be polite (pencil jab story/ rape story)
treaty that established the international criminal court. says ICC can only investigate core international crimes such as genocide, war crimes etc in cases where states are unwilling to do so. majority of international crimes go unpunished until domestic systems can properly deal with them.liberia: 75% of women were raped during the civil war, now 12% of girls aged 17 and under have reported rape
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