a director with a distinct and recognizable style is considered the prime author of the film.
-a scene that has a foreground action, a middle action, and a background action, and they are all in focus.
-EX: In Citizen Kane, the man and woman are sitting down looking at papers in the foreground, there is another man leaning on the wall in the middle ground, and there is a boy playing outside through the window in the background.
-The showing of a past event
-EX: In Citizen Kane, there is a flashback to the boy playing in the snow and throwing snowballs at the "MRS. KANE'S BOARDING HOUSE" sign.
French New Wave
-A group of french film critics became directors and their style of filmmaking was radically different from that of established tradition.
High Angle Shot
-A shot taken from high above the subject to make the subject look small and weak.
-EX: In Psycho, the camera was pointed down at the woman getting stabbed in the shower during the "shower scene" to make her look weak.
-A shot in which a circular lens making device contracts or expands to isolate or reveal an area of the frame.
-EX: (#1) In Breathless, the circular frame closed in on the man, and then opened back up with coins in his hand.
(#2) in Breathless, an Iris opened up to the ticket booth before she gets on the plane.