The conveying of meaningful messages from one person or other living being to another.
A form of communication that is based on a systematic set of learned symbols and signs shared among a group and passed on from generation to generation.
A feature of human language whereby people are able to communicate a potentially infinite number of messages effectively.
A form of oral communication among nonhuman primates with a set repertoire of meaningful sounds generated in response to environmental factors.
A feature of human language whereby people are able to talk about events in the past and future.
A sound that makes a difference for meaning in a spoken language.
The study of the meaning of words, phrases, and sentences in particular cultural contexts.
Critical media anthropology
An approach within the cross-cultural study of media that examines how power interests shape people's access to media and influence the contents of its messages.
Social inequality in access to new and emerging information technology, notably access to up-to-date computers, the internet, and training related to their use.
A perspective in linguistic anthropology which says that language determines thought.
A perspective in linguistic anthropology which says that culture, society, and a person's social position determine language.
Critical discourse analysis
An approach within linguistic anthropology that examine how power and social inequality are reflected and reproduced in communication.
A question placed at the end of a sentence seeking affirmation.
The study of language change using formal methods that compare shifts over time and across space in aspects of language, such as phonetics, syntax, and semantics.
A group of languages descended from a parent language.
A symbol that conveys meaning through a form or picture resembling that to which it refers.
Cords of knotted strings used during the inca empire for keeping accounts and recording events
A contact language that blends elements of at least two languages and that emerges when people with different languages need to communicate.
A language directly descended from a pidgin but possessing its own native speakers and involving linguistic expansion and elaboration.
A language spoken widely throughout the world and in diverse cultural contexts, often replacing indigenous languages.
Condition of a language in which speakers adopt a new language for most situations, begin to use their native language only in certain contexts, and may be only semifluent and have limited vocabulary in their native language.
The condition of a language when it has fewer than 10,000 speakers
The condition of a language in which speakers abandon it in favor of a new language to the extent that the native language loses functions and no longer has competent speakers
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