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War that lasted 30 years under Emperor Charles V. War for Holy Roman Empire.
Caused by Hapsburg efforts to strengthen rule and resistance of both catholic and protestant to it and Hapsburg hopes reducing or ending Protestantism in any part of empire. Included widespread destruction of land and population as well as intervention by interested powers (Spain for the emperor, Sweden, Denmark, france, for proestant princes, and finally Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden.
Treaty of West Phalia – representative have an agreement to end holy roman empire.
Took place in Holy Roman Empire
Ferdinand II (Emperor)-said everyone must be Catholic which leads to war
Protestant Princes vs Ferdinand II
Accomplishes NOTHING…Princes can still choose religion..adds Calvinism as well
Slows down German unificationHolland becomes liberated
EMPEROR CHARLES V
Abdicated in 1556, died in 1558
Gave throne of emperor up because wanted to have God forgive him
Went to monastery because he honestly thought he had failed God.
Holy Roman EmperorWell known for being against Protestant Reformation
Defeated by English in 1588
Married Queen of Scotts
Focused on Mediterranean and Turkish expansion first half of his rule
Spain reached the height of its influence and power, directing explorations all around the world and settling the colonization of territories in all the known continents.
the son of Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire,
was founder of the Swedish Empire at the beginning of what is widely regarded as the Golden Age of Sweden.
Ally of Protestant Princes during 30 years war..sent money
King of Sweden
WHOSE THE REGION, HIS THE RELIGION
Policy made after Treaty of West Phalia
Charles VIdea that prince decides what religion his kingdom should follow
Charles V left the “Spanish Hapsburgs” to his son…spain and all its land including new world chiefly under Charles V and Philip II of Spain), Spain reached the zenith of its influence and power, controlling territory ranging from the Americas to the
THE IMPERIAL (AUSTRIAN) HAPSBURGS
Charles V left to his brother
TREATY OF WESTPHALIA
of the House of Habsburg, Holy Roman Emperor
unpopular by Bohemians and caused Bohemian Revolt( prodestants assembly)
Defenestraton of Prauge of 22 may 1618 considered 1st in 30 steo years warAgainst Protestants
Essentially a ruler, inherited Austrian throne through the death of her father
Belvedere Palace, ViennaWrote letters
HOHENZOLLERN DYNASTY OF PRUSSIA
Rulers of PrussiaFredrick II
WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION (`1740-1748)
War between Prussia/France verse Austria/England
Prussia seizes some Austrian land because maria thresa was seen as a weak ruler
Austria-Maria Theresa and king george helps her fight off the Prussian attacks .
Prussia wants land because Theresa is a woman basicallyThey fight for around 8 years….treaty of paris. basically just gives Prussia the land they wanted
Prussia/Great Britian verse Austria/French/Russia
French and Indian War same war but on the United States side
Fredrick II invades part of France…Saxony
Prussia ends up not doing very well
Fredrick II’s leadership holds Prussia together
Britain’s finance also holds Prussia togetherEventually Czar in Russia dies and new one likes Prussia and treaty is formed.
James I/ Charles I first 2 Stuart’s were kings of Scotland and cousins of queen Elizabeth but when she died she made james her successor.
James thought that the king is only responsible to god
In pursuit of adequate income, Stuart monarchs of 17th century England threatened the local political interests and economic well being of the nobility and the landed and commercial elites represented in parliament.
England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of worship and doctrine, as well as personal and group piety. Puritans felt that the English Reformation had not gone far enough, and that the Church of England was tolerant of practices which they associated with the Catholic Church.
Ruled England and Scotland
Great religious views
Going to be restored said God wanted men to be rulers
English hated his rule
THE LONG PARLIAMENT
the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I. It received its name from the fact that through an Act of Parliament, it could only be dissolved with the agreement of the members, and those members did not agree to its dissolution until after the English Civil War and at the end of Interregnum in 1660
Charles I dismissed parliament which lead to English Civil War…Charles beheadedOlive Cromwell sets up Godly Republic
Charles I responsible for he moves up north and gets his own army
parliament get there own army
Basically just getting rid of Charles IResulted in Charles I beheading
was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland
Rule is called protectorate , his military dictatorship
gave all christians the right to practice their faith accept roman catholics
we he died the monarchy was restored
Set up republic form of government in England
“Godly” because Cromwell was Puritan
Wanted to purify Church of England
Archbishop of Canterbury
Highest Clergymen of Church of England
In power under Charles I
ttempted to impose Anglican ceremony and on all churches in Britain, the Scots revolted
Wrote book...Book of Common Prayer which laid out how churches would
One large reason why Charles I was so unpopular
BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER
Ruled over England and Scotland. Reign began in 1689. Ended glorious revolution by signing English Bill of Rights.
was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland and II of Ireland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians with an invading army led by the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange) who, as a result, ascended the English throne as William III of England.
King of France 1589-1610
And King of Navarie 1572-1610
Involved in Wars of Religion
Changed his faith from Calvinism to Catholicism because he thought it was better for his public image
Came from Bourban branch of Captain Dynasty in France
enacted the edict of nates because he still had friends who were calvinism
was an Italian cardinal, diplomat, and politician, who served as the chief minister of France from 1642 until his death. Mazarin succeeded his mentor, Cardinal Richelieu.
King of France and Navarre from 1643 until 1715
Conquest documented reign of any monarch
worked hard at buisness of governing and ruled through several councils of state
he spent tons and tons of money on wars which screwed his grandson and next rulers
moved his palace at versailes
revoked edict of nantes
colbert was his finacial guide and a damn good one
Capitcal of France for over a century from 1682 to 1789.
holds captial of versailles
Last Hapsburg King of Spain
Had physical, emotional and intellectual problems
First Bourban King of Spain
grandson of louis xvi..
regine of 45 YEARS and became throught the war of spanish succesion
Ruled Russia longer than any other dynasty (1613-1917)Overthrown in 1917 by communis
was a period when new ideas in physics, astronomy,biology, human anatomy, chemistry, and other sciences led to a rejection of doctrines that had prevailed starting in Ancient Greece and continuing through the Middle Ages, and laid the foundation of modern science.
Ptolemy = astronomer
of amathematical and astronomical treatise proposing the complex motions of the stars and planetary paths, originally written inGreek
The Almagest is the most important source of information on ancient Greek astronomy.
Geo= earth center of universe
Helio=Sun is center
Invented analytical geometry. Argued that the world was governed by mathematical laws that could be deduced by reason.
On the basis of mathematical analysis argued that the earth moved around the sun
Helped start scientific revolution
TYCHO BRAHE (ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS)
Used Brahe’s data to argue that the orbits of the planets were elliptical
Came up with planetary laws of motion
German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer
Key figure in scientific revolution
Described the effect of gravity mathematically and established a theoretical basis for physics that endured until the late nineteenth century
Argued that the human mind is a blank slate that may be molded by modifying the environment. Human beings could thus take charge of their destiny without divine aid.
Considered one of the first British empiricist
Most influential of enlightenment thinkersIdeas are in American Dec. Of independence
Let economy function on its own without Government regulation/interference
Voltaire: Writer Essayist, philosopher
he bleieved in god but his writings challenged the catholic church
hated religious intolerance
seemed to have a deism aproach
Book by Jean-Jaques Rouseau
he thought equal and lobied for citizenship for the hole person
he saw the goodness in individuals
Most famous for being King in American Revolution
“King who lost the Americas”
Parliament began to actually have power-Prime minister was Robert Walpole
Came to throne at age 8
Was an unpopular King of France
Intelligent and dedicated
Europe and Russia (ruled)
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