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Modifications of transverse processes.
Extrinsic mm. not as important in the hind limb during force transfer because the sacroiliac joint facilitates much of the force transfer from limbs to axial skeleton
-Composed of the coccygeus and levator ani mm. that arise from the inside or edge of the pelvis and attach on terminal parts of the digestive UG tracts and tail
-Main value here is to provide the main visceral pressure of abdominal press (the grunt)
Greater: sciatic nerve and cranial gluteal artery
Lesser: internal obturator tendon in the HORSE; caudal gluteal a. in the OX
Problems more likely to occur at the inletInlet is much larger, but problems occur there more often (because the outlet is quite elastic in response to hormones)
-Hook bones: tuber coxae
-Pin bones: tuber ischii
-Wider tuber ischii facilitate greater ease during parturition
-Pelvic diaphragm: composed of two muscles; accommodates visceral pressure for abdominal press; attaches on the terminal parts of digestive and UG tracts; more dorsal
-Urogenital diaphragm: more ventral; fibrous connection between ischial arch and vestibule; functions to anchor the caudal part of the tract against the pull of a gravid uterus
-Cow: U-shaped; blends with the caudal ventral part of the levator ani m. near external anal sphincter; just caudal to major vestibular gland; covers retractor clitoris m.; contraction narrows the genital passage and raises a ridge in its floor and makes the vulvar opening gape.
-Carnivore ovarian position is more cranial due to the suspensory ligament
-Ungulate ovarian position is more caudal, there is no suspensory ligament
-Mesosalpinx forms the bursa along w/ the mesovarium
-The peritoneal opening in the carnivore is small and fat filled
-In the ungulate it is wide open and transparent
-amputation: tying off the ext pudendal a. (main supply of blood to mammary) resulting in the gland atrophies and sloughs off
-edema: udder edema is caused by poor development of the secondary venous supply
suburethral diverticulum & transverse folds
queen= 4 pair
cow=2 pairsmare, ewe and doe=1 pair
-dog: musculocavernosus; retractor penis not essential for normal penile function
-horse: musculocavernosus; retractor penis not essential; urethral sinus
-bull: fibrous (rigid rather than elastic); sigmoid flexure; retractor penis essential
-shortening of the gubernaculums
-failure of descent is known as cryptorchidism
Derived from the internal abdominal oblique
It lies outside the spermatic cord
The urethral process is a projection from the end of the penis; elongated in the ram and buck
-testis: singular testical
-testicles: testis and epididymis
-vas deferens: clinical term
-ductus deferens: anatomical term
-Lesser trochanter: 1/3 of the way down femur on the medial side
-Third trochanter: 1/3 of the way down femur on the lateral side
-Extensor fossa: distal to the lateral condyle-Trochlea lip: the craniometrical side of the distal femur
-Lesser trochanter attaches to the superficial gluteal muscle
-Third trochanter attaches to the iliopsoas muscle
-talus: semicircular trochlea (pulley), which rotates the tibia, virtually all hock movement occurs in the tibio/talal joint, and is weight bearing
-calcaneous: is a lever arm which is not weight bearing
Horses: have a semicircular oblique trochlea that articulates with the tibia. The tibio/talal joint which has a wide range of movement and slackened joint capsule.Ruminants: have proximal and distal trochleas of the talus. The proximal trochlea articulates with the tibial cochlea. The distal trochlea articulates with the calcaneus and the fused central and 4th tarsal bones. This means that both joints can flex and extend.
lateral tendon of the deep digital flexor muscle
plantar ligament tearing causes a round swelling
-occurs as a result of great force applied to the calcaneus by the tendons of the calcanean group
-bog spavin: is a swelling to the dorsal side medial to the peroneus tertius/ cranial tibial tendons and medial collateral ligament
-bone spavin: is an arthritis in the region of tc/t3 and t3/mt3 in the horse
-cuneal tendon: medial tendon of the cranial tibial m
-often cut to release pressure it applies which exasperates the pain cased by bone spavin
-They support the body weight and are usually extensors and stronger than their non weight-bearing antagonists.
-Though flexors, the digital flexor muscles are also antigravity muscles.
-Dog: perineal hernias
-Mare: perineal lacerations during parturition
Compare the pelvic floor of cow and horse. Why are the tuber ischii prominent in cattle but not in the horse?
-pelvic floor is flat in mare and concave in cow
-in the horse, they are covered by the vertebral origin of the semimembranosus m.
-widest at greater trochanters in fetus
-this can casue hip lock at the pelvic inlet during calving
colli: refers to collar/neck
coli: refers to intestines or colon
Differentiate between: peroneal and perineal
peroneal: pertains to outer side of leg
perineal: pertains to perineum/pelvis
Differentiate between: ilium and ileum; iliac and ileal
Differentiate between: sciatic and ischiatic
sciatic and ischiatic: both pertain to ischium
Differentiate between: estrus and estrous
estrous: adjective form
preputial: adjective form
-Extrinsic muscles attach the limb to the body: serratus ventralis, deep pectoral, latissimus dorsi, brachiocephalicus
-Intrinsic muscles make attachments only within the limb: brachialis, biceps brachii, shoulder muscles, extensor carpi radialis
Radial nerve paralysis
Brachial plexus paralysis
Long tendon of the biceps
Connects central tendon of biceps to extensor carpi radialis (forms the forelimb stay apparatus)
Continuous tendon extending from metacarpus to scapula; fixes the shoulder and carpal joints with little or no effect on the elbow joint
Hind: stifle/patella lock mechanism, superficial digital flexor, and suspensory apparatus; locks one leg at a time
Fore: biceps tendon, lacertus fibrosus, extensor carpi radialis, and suspensory apparatus; both legs are fixed at the same time so that a support tripod is established
Pig: fibrous fusion of radius and ulna
Cow: bony fusion of radius and ulna
Horse: bony fusion; distal part of ulna is absorbed within radius
Retraction: deep pectoral m. (ascending) and latissimus mm.
Inputs: C5-8, T1-2
Outputs: suprascapular, thoracodorsal, subscapular, axillary, median, ulnar, radial, musculocutaneous
Flexor: medial epicondyle; origin of antebrachial flexor mm.
Extensor: lateral epicondyle; origin of antebrachial extensor mm.
-Proximal check ligament is the radial head of SDF m.; attaches to the middle phalanx and prevents buckling forward of the digit by pulling back on the middle phalanx
-Distal check ligament is an extension of palmar carpal ligament; inserts on distal phalanx and counteracts its extension
-SDF arises from medial epicondyle of the humerus and inserts on the proximal end of the middle phalanx and the distal end of the proximal phalanx.
-SDF extends the carpus and digits.-Proximal check ligament is the radial head of the superficial digital flexor m and attaches to the middle phalanx to prevent buckling forward of the digit
-SDF attaches to femur deep to gastroc, attaches superficially to calcanean tuberosity, extends to plantar aspect of the limb to the middle phalange
-SDF is responsible for flexing the stifle and digits & extending the tarsus
-no check ligaments are associated with SDF on hind limb
-The interosseus ligament is between the olecranon and radius.
-The interosseus tendon is homologous to the interosseus muscle in dogs except it is mostly tendonous and plays a role in the stay apparatus and locomotion.
-Radiocarpal – considerable movement, more movement than intercarpal
-Intercarpal – considerable movement-Carpometacarpal – virtually no movement
-Suspensory apparatus – suspensory ligament plus the distal sesamoidean ligaments, the three tendons form a passive support system for the fetlock-Suspensory ligament – just the one ligament
Break joint = distal cannon bone physis
If the physis is broken at the slaughter house the animal is considered to be a lamb.
toe, quarters, and heel
The bar is where the wall is reflected inward and back towards the toe (at the heel).
-Plantigrade= All of the foot (the entire sole) is on the ground – humans, bears
-Digitigrade=stands on digital pads – camelids and carnivores
-Unguligrade= stands on hoof – horses, cows, most ungulates
-Frog = wedge-shaped, horny prominence in the sole of a horse's hoof: the space between the bars
-Heel =caudal part of the hoof
-Bulbs =caudal aspect of the heel
-Coronet =junction between skin and hoof
Middle phalanx= Short Pastern Bone = P2
Distal phalanx= Coffin Bone = P3
Distal sesamoid bone= Navicular bone
Palmar or plantar= Volar
Superficial distal sesamoidean ligament= Straight sesamoidean ligament
-Anters – deer, moose, & elk males only have antlers
-Horns – occurs in both sexes except for in Dorset sheep
-Teeth – horse canines in mares are often small and may not erupt
2 (I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4, M 3/3) = 44 (full adult mouth)
2 (Di 3/3, Dc 1/1, Dp 3/3) = 28 (full deciduous mouth)
-Pig is the only mammal that has the full set
-Llama and ruminants both have dental pads but llamas have upper canines and I3 in addition to dental pad
-Llama lower canines are differentiated from incisors; in ruminants the canine is I4
Fighting teeth are llamas upper canines and I3; often cut off
-Tusks of swine are the canines
-Tusks of elephants are upper I2’s
-Molars and premolars are differentiated by premolars having deciduous precursors (except for PM1)
-The exception is horses where the molars and premolars are indistinguishable except for eruption patterns.
-Eruption dates (most reliable)
-Wear - are first “in wear” and when entire occlusal surface is worn down then the tooth is level
-Hypsodont teeth are protected because enamel protects the unerupted portion of the tooth from bacterial penetration
-Alveolar periostitis (inflammation of the alveolar periostium) occurs instead
-Only in ruminants, communicates with the maxillary sinus
The facial crest (unique to the horse) forms a prominent external landmark for the equine maxillary sinus.
- Pigs and ruminants only have one maxillary sinus.
- In the horse only, the maxillary sinus is divided into caudal and rostral compartments. Caudal maxillary communicates with the frontal sinus via frontal-maxillary opening (unique). Rostral maxillary separated from caudal by a perpendicular bony septum but opens into the nasal cavity and the other sinus via a nasomaxillary opening.
glottic cleft = the narrow passageway through the glottis
glottis = vocal folds + arytenoid cartilages and covering mucosa
stylohyoid bone is the largest
basihyoid bone (the lingual process is where the base of the tongue attaches)
Closes off the respiratory pathway in order to:
1. Prevent entry of food or other debris into the trachea
2. Create a negative pressure in the thorax to aspirate ingesta into the thoracic esophagus for regurgitation
3. Trap air in the lungs during the abdominal press in defecation and parturition to stabilize the diaphragm
4. Dislodge foreign matter from the vestibule by coughing and causing a forced expiration against a closed glottis
Cranial laryngeal nerve is the afferent nerve of the gag reflex for when foreign material gets in the larynx.
-epiglottis: flap-shaped; elastic cartilage; marks entry to larynx
-thyroid cartilages: U-shaped and large; hyaline cartilage; cradles larynx ventrally
-cricoid cartilages: ring-shaped; hyaline cartilage; surrounds larynx, wide dorsally for CAD attachment-arytenoid cartilage: paired, small and triangular; hyaline cartilage; intermediate position, articulates with cricoid cartilage
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