Module 4 - Chapter 24: Chinese and Korean Art after 1279 Unit 8: The Mongol Invasions and the Yuan Dynasty (p. 831-835) The Mongol Invasions: In this unit, we will be exploring the art of the Mongols - the nomadic horde that invaded China and established themselves as the rulers of the new unified dynasty. At the beginning of the thirteenth century the Mongols ? first led by Jenghiz Khan (1162- 1227CE) then by his sons and grandsons swept westward into central Europe and overran Islamic lands from Central Asia through present day Iraq. To the East they quickly captured Northern China, and in 1279 CE, led by Kublai Khan, they captured Southern China as well. Kublai Khan proclaimed himself emperor of China and founder of the Yuan dynasty (1280-1368). At the height of the Mongol power they occupied the largest area in the world. Yuan dynasty Timeline: (1280-1368 CE) Map 24-1 China after 1280 It was during the rule of the Mongols, that the Venetian traveler Marco Polo (read the text box on Marco Polo p.804) visited the court of Kublai Khan. His accounts were later compiled and chronicled after his return to Venice in 1295. Although partially exaggerated, Marco Polo?s account clearly reveals his fascination and admiration for the Chinese cities of the time and he marveled at their prosperity and luxurious lifestyle. 1 During the Yuan rule trade and travel between Asia and Europe increased since the Mongols controlled almost all of the territory that linked the East and the West. Native Chinese and their situation during the Mongol rule: (Read this section from the textbook as well) This new reign turned out to be very difficult for the native Chinese. It was a traumatic experience and its effect lasted long. During the Song Dynasty China had grown increasingly reflective. They had rejected foreign ideas and influences; intellectuals had focused on defining the qualities that constituted true ?Chinese ? ness.? They considered the Middle kingdom and its people to be superior to outsiders and especially from the ?barbarians? of the north. In the thirteenth century the Chinese were faced with the realization of barbarian occupation. So many Chinese turned inward. The inward gaze intensified as a form of resistance to the Mongols who were ruling them. As the textbook notes, even after the Mongols were gone, the leading Chinese scholars continued the following: ? intellectually more challenging representations, ? Philosophically more profound and artistically more subtle expressions that could be identified as completely Chinese. Yuan Dynasty: The Mongols established their capital in the northern city of Beijing (see map in textbook or above). The cultural centers of China however were still the great cities of the south, where the Song court had been located for the previous 150 years. Combined with the tensions of Yuan rule, this separation of China?s political and cultural centers created a new situation dynamic in the arts. Beijing known as Dadu during the Mongol era: The area around the modern city of Beijing had been used since the 12 th century as a capital in some form by the Liao and the Jin dynasty. Under the Mongols, today?s Beijing was called the city of Dadu 2 and it became the largest city in the known world in the 13 th century. As rulers of China the Mongols incorporated the Chinese geomantic principles in the design of the new city. It retained the square format and faced south with gates located at the axis on all four sides. None of the structures of the Yuan dynasty capital has survived but the texts and later rebuilding reveal that the Mongols incorporated all the Chinese symbols of heavenly power and authority in the design of the palace, gardens and pavilions. Imperial court painting vs. Arts of the Brush: From the Yuan period you will start noticing a distinctive style of painting called the literati painting. It was already practiced by scholars in the Song period, but it took on 1 Mary S. Lawton, Hangzhou [Hangchow, Hang-chou; formerly Lin?an], Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ 2 Beijing History and urban development, Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ significance in the Yuan period because of the foreign rule. Many scholars practiced it exclusively. There was a clear distinction between the imperial court art and the art of the scholars. Throughout most of Chinese history the imperial court had set the tone for artistic taste; artisans attached to the court produced architecture, paintings, gardens and objects of jade, lacquer, ceramics and silk especially for imperial use. Over the centuries, painters and calligraphers gradually moved higher and higher up the social scale, for the ?arts of the brush?- that is the painting and calligraphy was practiced by both the scholars and even emperors, whose high status reflected positively on whatever interested them. It was during the Song period that painters finally achieved a status equal to that of court officials. For the ?literati,? 3 painting came to be grouped with calligraphy and poetry as the trio of accomplishments suited to members of the cultural elite. The textbook deals with the literati painting. We will look at the extremely significant Yuan dynasty scholarly painting after we complete the court arts of the Yuan period. The Imperial Arts: The court painting during the Yuan dynasty reflected the interest of the court. The court artists included sculptors, court painters who worked on official commissions and the rare Chinese scholar officials who were willing to serve at the court. 4 Many of the scholars worked in the academic and polished styles that were expected of the court artists. Many of the court paintings dealt with the rulers and their interest in horse and hunting. One of the examples below is from the National Palace Museum from Taipei by the court artist Liu Kuan Tao. 3 Literati painting: A style of painting that reflects the taste of the educated class of East Asian intellectuals and scholars. Aspects include an appreciation for the antique, small scale and an intimate connection between maker and audience 4 P.285 R. Thorp & R. Vinograd, Chinese Art & Culture, Prentice Hall, 2001 Figure 24-2a Liu Kuan Tao: Kublai khan Hunting: 5 Figure 24-2a Liu Kuan Tao, Kublai Khan Hunting, Yuan, 1280, Hanging scroll, ink and colors on silk, 6? 14? National Palace Museum, Taipei This composition dated from 1280 features a hunting scene in the court of the great Khan. Figures from the Mongol court are placed in a barren desert. In the far distance are rolling hills and horsemen. In the center seated on a black horse is the figure of Kublai Khan, flanked by his queen and surrounded by attendants. The mounted figures around the king and queen reflect a range of ethnic groups. This painting chronicles the interest of the Mongol court and it shows a different interest from the court paintings of the southern Song period. As we have seen already from the early centuries of Chinese Art ? horse painting was a favorite theme. 5 Source http://www.npm.gov.tw/english/dm/painting/b_01.htm (Yuan Dynasty, Treasured painting and calligraphy, National palace Museum, Taiwan) Figure 24-2b Ren Renfa Horse and Groom: A remarkable artist from the Yuan period was Ren Renfa, who painted the scroll Horses and Groom. It continues the archaistic style seen in the Tang horse painting in the use of line and color, 6 as well as the neutral setting. Figure 24-2b Ren Renfa Horse and Groom, detail of the handscroll, ink and color on silk, 113/8?*53 1/8?, Yuan dynasty, China, Cleveland Museum of Art This example is a continuous scroll with images of horses and the groom. Horses were symbolically associated with government officials. If an imperial stable had excellent breed of horses ? it was associated with the ability to hire competent officials and it represented good administration. In the Yuan period ? a fat horse was related to an official under imperial favor and a thin horse to an official who was protesting against the Mongol rule. 7 Court patronage of religious architecture: The court patronage during the Yuan period led to the development of both Buddhist and Daoist art and architecture. The new patrons followed Tibetan Tantric Buddhism and Daoism. The patronage of Tibetan Buddhism was to placate the non Chinese population and it did affect art and architecture. The new Buddhism included esoteric Buddhist pantheon and in architecture a new type of Stupa evolved at a temple called the Miaoying temple. 6 P 459, Sherman Lee, History of Far Eastern Art, Prentice Hall, 1994 7 P.286 R. Thorp & R. Vinograd, Chinese Art & Culture, Prentice Hall, 2001 Figure 24-2c Anige, White Stupa, Miaoying temple, Beijing, Yuan, 1279 CE, China Figure 24-2c: Anige, White Stupa: Stupa-type pagodas flourished from the 13 th century. The temple of Miaoying at Beijing was built by a Nepalese architect Anige, who was renowned as an architect, sculptor and painter. This stupa is similar in form to the Tibetan Chorten. It consists of a square base, followed by a circular drum and a thirteen step tapering bottle shape that is topped with bronze umbrella or parasol 8 . This structure is covered with white lime plaster and hence the name White Stupa. Daoism was given equal importance as Buddhism during the Mongol time, since it was practiced by all sections of society. Popular form of Daoism evolved around the cult of immortals. One of the immortals was born in a small town called the Yongle where a temple was completed in the 13 th century. Figure24-2d Yongle Gong: The temple was called Yongle Gong or Yongle palace. This is one of the early surviving Daoist religious architecture. The main hall (see reconstruction drawing) was constructed with seven by four bays. Lattice doors cover five of the seven bays bringing in light to the interior. The structure is huge raised on a high base and with a ceremonial platform in the front. The exterior has a heavy hipped roof while the interior has elaborate coffered ceiling. 9 8 Frances Wood, Pagoda, China, Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ 9 China, II Architecture: Historical development,(vii) Yuan (1279?1368), Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ Figure24-2d Yongle Gong, Hall of the three pure ones, Ruicheng, Shanxi Province, Yuan period The interior - were the rituals were carried out has three sculptures (no image) of the major Daoist deities surrounded by monumental wall paintings, which reveal the earliest and best evidence of wall paintings aside from the Buddhist frescoes of Dunhuang. 10 11 24-2e Daoist heavenly spirits, Detail of a Daoist wall painting from Yongle Gong, Shanxi province, China The mural paintings (see image above) are purely religious in purpose. It deals with religious Daoism and the figures reflect heroic figural style and are rendered in outline 10 Source: P.124 Craig Clunas, Art in China, Oxford university press, 1997 11 Source; http://www.tcc.leidenuniv.nl/index.php3?m=&c=55 and bright colors with huge figures of heavenly spirits and deities of the Daoist Pantheon and their attendants dominating the composition. It is an assembly of figures around the main sculptures in the room. These paintings did not evolve under direct court patronage but it is derived from the conservative courtly styles. This is one form of popular art and religion practiced in the provincial regions of China. Ceramics: We cannot trace the history of Chinese Art without looking at Ceramics. Ceramic art developed in the fourteenth century both for everyday use and for export. The court patronage declined but regional kilns continued the production. Longquan celadon?s or green wares was produced in various kilns 12 in the south at the Zhejiang province during the Mongol dynasty. During this period large bowls, plates and vases were created with new decorative designs. The multiple firing method of the earlier Song period which resulted in a fine glaze was abandoned for a more limited firing. 24-2f Celadon Vase: This is a Longquan ware with a typical Yuan period decorative element. The iron-spotted decoration was created by applying a stamped molded design on the surface of the glazed but unfired vase. 13 24-2f Celadon Vase, Longquan ware with applied impressed relief decoration, Yuan dynasty China, ht. 10?, Philadelphia Museum of Art The pigment used was either iron oxide or copper oxide. When fired they turn into a contrasting complementary color of terracotta brown. This is a shift away from the plain ceramic wares of the Song period. The motif in this example includes standing figures 12 One of the important discoveries has been the ship wreck from the Yuan period of 14 th century off the coast of Korea in the Sinan county in 1976, which led to the retrieval of 17000 ceramic items from under the sea. Many of which included the green Longquan, white wares from Jingdezhen. Source: Laurence Chi-Sing Tam, Sinan (i) Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ 13 Source: China, VII, 3 (V): Ceramics: Yuan, (b) Longquan wares, Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ placed in a landscape setting. The more common themes in this timeframe were mythical creatures including dragon and other floral designs. Jingdezhen in the southern part of China (look at map in the textbook) was a historic ceramic manufacturing center. In the Yuan period it came under imperial patronage when under-glaze painted porcelain wares were developed. 14 Figure 24-2g Bodhisattva, Yuan-period white porcelain figure, Jingdezhen Qingbai ware, 13th century, Musee Guimet, Paris Qingbai (?blue?white?) is a term given to the white body and bluish tinged glaze used in the ceramic ware created primarily in the kilns at Jingdezhen in the Jiangxi province. This technique was introduced in the Song period but in the 14 th century a proportion of kaolin was added to the clay, making it stronger and more plastic. This resulted in beautiful porcelaneous wares with shiny surface that lent itself to added decorations as in this example of a Bodhisattva. Figure 24-2g Bodhisattva: The serene porcelain figure of a Bodhisattva is rendered in the Qingbai technique in white and light blue glaze ? ?white? considered very auspicious by the Mongols 15 . It has intricate beaded and applied decoration incorporated into the clay. This technique became very popular both within China and outside and large quantities of ceramic objects were produced. 14 Source: China VII, 3 (V)(a): Ceramics: Yuan ? period Jingdezhen wares, Whitewares Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ 15 ibid Literati Painting: Now you can turn back to the description in your book to read about a uniquely Chinese style of pictorial expression in the 14 th century. The ?literati? were the scholar officials who practiced the art of painting, calligraphy and poetry. They elevated the status of painting by virtue of practicing it and they also developed their own ideas of what a painting should be. Many of these artists did not need an income from their works of art. They cultivated a unique concept that we in the 21 st century are very familiar with - they stressed that a painting should have an amateur ideal and that a personal expression counted more than ?mere? professional skill. They emphasized their creativity and created for themselves a status as artists totally separate from and superior to professional artists. They believed that the position of the professional or court painters was compromised since it was done to please others and it was tainted because they painted for money. The Mongol rule under the Yuan dynasty created a situation in which many Chinese artists refused to serve the court. This created a clear distinction between the court taste ministered to by the professionals and the literati artists. The Yuan continued the imperial role as patron of artists as we saw in some of the examples above. But scholars who were alienated from the new government took no notice of these accomplishments and in the similar manner the Yuan rulers had no use for the scholars especially if they were from the south. The civil service exam was abolished and the positions were given only to those that the Mongols favored. Scholars therefore turned inward and tried to express themselves in personal and symbolic terms. Early Yuan literati artists: Zhao Mengfu (1254-1322): was a leading artist of the Yuan period. Zhao Mengfu?s work is illustrated in your book. He was unlike other scholar painters in that he gave up scholarly ideals and he did serve the Yuan government and was made a high official. He was skilled in all the arts ? painting, calligraphy and poetry. As a court painter he became a specialist in horse painting. But he was also renowned for his more original works ? such as the one from the textbook. Look at the textbook for a better image of his work. Figure 24-2 Zhao Mengfu, Section of Autumn Colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains: This is considered by Chinese Art theorists as a very significant work. He painted this work for a friend, whose ancestors came from an area called Jinan, the present day capital of Shandong province and the painting is said to depict the landscape there. Figure 24-2 Zhao Mengfu, Section of Autumn Colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains, Yuan dynasty, 1296 CE, handscroll, ink and color on paper, 11 ¼? * 36 ¾?, National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan Yet when you look at the work ? the mountains and trees are not in the Chinese naturalistic style, rather it is in the elegant archaic ?blue-green? style of the Tang period. The Tang period if you remember was a period when China was ruled by the Chinese, it was both militarily and culturally vibrant. Through his painting Zhao evoked a nostalgia not only for his friend?s distant homeland but also for China?s past. I hear you saying ? so, what is new about these works ? we have seen many such landscapes before. There were certain characteristics that the Chinese scholar connoisseur was looking for - even as early as the fourteenth century. Following are some of the characteristics of a literati painting: ? ?Spirit of antiquity? ? Unassuming brushwork ? Subtle colors or no colors at all ? Conveys some form of personal meaning to the artist or those who commissioned it. ? The painting was not created for public display but meant to be viewed only by the artists? social group. ? Small formats were preferred such as hand scrolls, hanging scrolls or album leaves, which could be carried around and displayed. ( Read the textbox on the different Formats of Chinese painting and how each one was viewed) ? In general ? the use of paper instead of silk as the ground for painting. An esteemed woman Yuan artist was Guan Daosheng. She was the wife of Zhao Mengfu. She was a very well educated person skilled in the arts of poetry, painting and calligraphy. She was one of the most famous female artists in Chinese history to have worked with the subject of Bamboo. This was a popular subject among the male artists. It symbolized the strength and integrity and moral resilience of a Chinese scholar who bends like a bamboo and yet reverts back to position. The example below shows here very personal approach to the subject of bamboo painting. Figure 24-2h Guan Daosheng, Bamboo Groves in Mist and Rain: Guan Daosheng approach to the subject of bamboo was unique in that she was the first artist to depict Bamboo groves by water. In this painting the bamboo refers to the two consorts of the mythical emperor Shun who wept over his tomb on the banks of Xiang River. Bamboo groves by water generally symbolize marital fidelity. 16 This example has a delicacy of treatment in the clumps of bamboo and in the background landscape. Painting bamboo is considered one of the most difficult tasks, because the brushwork was paramount just as in calligraphy. Bamboos are depicted with few strokes in a rapid and sketchy style. It required great control and discipline of the brush and hence it was quickly absorbed as a major theme in the literati painting. Figure 21-2h Guan Daosheng, Bamboo Groves in Mist and Rain, Yuan dynasty, 1308, Handscroll, ink on paper, National Palace Museum, Taipei This painting like the other literati works was dedicated to a woman an evidence of the participation of women in cultural life during the Yuan period. Later Yuan literati artists: Several artists took up Zhao?s ideas and became models for later generation of artists. Generally there were four master?s who are considered together in this group. The Four Great Master?s of the Yuan dynasty were ? Huang Gongwang, Wu Zhen, Ni Zan and Wang Meng. The textbook has included one of the four masters ? Ni Zan. Huang Gongwang: (1269-1354) We are going to start out with the Yuan literati master - Huang Gongwang. He is best known for the works done in his later years. One of his late works painted around 1350 is called the Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains. 16 P.148 Craig Clunas, Art in China, Oxford university press, 1997 Figure 24-3a: Huang Gongwang, Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains: Huang Gongwang painted this work for an acquaintance 17 and it is one of the famous works in Chinese art because of the history of ownership. (It was owned by the Ming artists Shen Zhou; Dong Qichang and it was in the imperial collection of emperor Qianlong of the Qing period). It is a very long hand scroll, the length is almost 20?. The Fuchun Mountains was an actual area near the city of Hangzhou in southern China but Huang Gongwang?s painting of the mountains is not in any way realistic. The artist kept a written record of this work and according to his diary - he worked for several years on this painting before gradually building up the picture. Figure 24-3a Huang Gongwang, Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains, d 1347-1350 CE, section of the handscroll, ink on paper, h 12 7/8?, l. 20?11?, China, Yuan dynasty, National Palace Museum, Taipei He has built up a sweeping composition that includes mountains, lakes, valleys and trees. Unlike earlier landscapes the rolling mountains are built up through ropey as well as short and closely built up brush strokes called the ?cun? 18 which creates a rich and varied texture across the surface. The expressive quality of the painting comes from the brushwork which is akin to calligraphy rather than from what is represented. Although still realistic and it has an identifiable title this work is a personal expression of the artists interaction with nature a major theme in this painting. Wu Zhen (1280-1354) is considered the second of the great Yuan masters. He was well educated but did not take up service in the government. He earned his living through fortune telling and painted for pleasure. 17 Source: P.151 Craig Clunas, Art in China, Oxford university press, 1997 18 P.151 Craig Clunas, Art in China, Oxford university press, 1997 19 Fig 24-3b Wu Zhen, Twin Pines, Yuan dynasty, Hanging scroll, ink on silk, China, National Palace Museum, Taiwan, Taipei A strongly individualistic artist, he reveals his brilliance through brush work. His compositions are bold and are represented in a very rapid manner. Most of his works are in ink on paper and combines his calligraphic free brushwork to painting. Fig 24-3b Wu Zhen, Twin Pines: This painting uses the hanging scroll format, but unlike the monumentality of the Song landscape the focus is on the twin trees in the foreground and the distant space. Two cypresses are represented here even though the identifying title refers to it as twin pines. As noted in the works of other Yuan master?s specific strokes such as the hemp-fiber 20 strokes (created by dragging a wet brush on paper) for the tree trunks and the swift rolling strokes for the hills builds up the painting. His works have a strength and simplicity that is derived from his use of wet ink and dry paper. The tree trunks in this example have a craggy and gnarled character and since cypress does not wither in winter they are used metaphorically in Chinese art for friends who remain constant in adversity. 21 This work is unusual for a Yuan literati painting in that it uses silk instead of paper. Figure 24-3 Ni Zan?s Rongxi Studio: Ni Zan (1308-1374) was the third of the great masters of Yuan dynasty. His work and description are in the book. 19 Source http://www.npm.gov.tw/english/dm/painting/b_01.htm (Yuan Dynasty, Treasured painting and calligraphy (landscapes), National palace Museum, Taiwan) 20 Source http://www.npm.gov.tw/english/dm/painting/b_01.htm (Yuan Dynasty, Treasured painting and calligraphy, landscapes, National palace Museum, Taiwan) 21 P.327C.A.S. Williams, Chinese symbolism and Art Motifs, Tuttle publishing, 2004, Boston Figure 24-3 Ni Zan?s Rongxi Studio, Yuan dynasty, 1372, Hanging scroll, ink on paper, ht 21 3/8?, National Palace Museum, Taipei As noted in the textbook the Rongxi Studio is the most famous painting by Ni Zan. Read the description in the book. Note - the characteristics that we have seen already in the literati painting are evident here ? use of ink, landscape rendered in sparse detail and the dry brush technique is unique to this example. This painting reflects the artists? personality. Another way to identify the work of Ni Zan is that there are no human figures. Consult the book about Ni Zan?s personality and please read the blurbs next to the image in the textbook. Wang Meng (1308-1385) is the last of the four Great Masters. He was the youngest and less renowned of all four during the 14 th century. But the whole idea of personal expression that we saw in the works of other masters is very much evident in the works of Wang Meng. Figure 24-3c Wang Meng: Forest Grotto at Juqu: This work (see image below) deals with the theme of reclusion and retreat. In the midst of the writhing and undulating form of rocks and trees is a grotto or pavilion with figures. The coloring is in the archaic style of the past. His paintings do not have any political content but it does refer to themes of withdrawal ? a common attitude among many literati. There is no opening or sense of empty space in the painting ? it is dominated by rocks from top to bottom with water in the lower half. This complex and congested representation with no reference to space is described as horror vacuii. 22 This painting is the most compressed and congested of all of Wang Meng?s works. His work is the opposite of the cold aloofness seen in Ni Zan?s works. Wang Meng created works that were monumental, fully textured and filled with concentrated energy. His works were created in black, white and color as well as textured brush work as in the example below. It is far from the ordered nature seen in the earlier examples. Figure 24-3c Wang Meng: Forest Grotto at Juqu, Hanging scroll, ink and color on paper, China, Yuan dynasty, National Palace Museum, Taiwan, Taipei Wang is one of the most prominent among the group of painters of the Yuan dynasty and he influenced the art of the later day Ming and Qing artists. All the four masters in their attitude and works reveal the ideal of a scholar, who as the textbook notes was too refined for the dusty world of government and preferred to live as a recluse. That?s it for Yuan dynasty. We move on to the native Ming dynasty next week. 22 P 467, Sherman Lee, History of Far Eastern Art, Prentice Hall, 1994 Study guide Unit 8: The Mongol Invasions and the Yuan Dynasty (p. 802 ? 806) The Mongol Invasions Yuan dynasty Timeline: (1280-1368 CE) Read about how the native Chinese reacted to Mongol rule City of Beijing or Dadu (not in book refer to unit outlines) Look at the difference between the political center (in the north) and the cultural centers in the south Imperial court painting vs. Arts of the Brush Court Painting: Figure 24-2a Liu Kuan Tao: Kublai khan Hunting (not in book refer to unit outlines) Figure 24-2b Ren Renfa Horse and Groom (not in book refer to unit outlines) Court patronage of religious architecture: Figure 24-2c: Anige, White Stupa (not in book refer to unit outlines) Figure24-2d Yongle Gong (not in book refer to unit outlines) Ceramics: 24-2f Celadon Vase (not in book refer to unit outlines) Figure 24-2g Bodhisattva: (not in book refer to unit outlines) Look at the technique used Literati Painting: Early Yuan literati artists: Figure 24-2 Zhao Mengfu, Section of Autumn Colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains example from the book Figure 24-2f Guan Daosheng, Bamboo Groves in Mist and Rain (not in book refer to unit outlines) Later Yuan literati artists or the four masters of Yuan painting Figure 24-3a: Huang Gongwang, Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains (not in book refer to unit outlines) Fig 24-3b Wu Zhen, Twin Pines (not in book refer to unit outlines) Figure 24-3 Ni Zan?s Rongxi Studio example from the book Figure 24-3c Wang Meng: Forest Grotto at Juqu (not in book refer to unit outlines) Terms: Literati painting: A style of painting that reflects the taste of the educated class of East Asian intellectuals and scholars. Aspects include an appreciation for the antique, small scale and an intimate connection between maker and audience Owner Microsoft Word - YUAN DYNASTY Unit 8.doc
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