Lecture 2 Handout Hu Shi/Hu Shih born Hu Hung-hsing key contributor to Chinese liberalism DT Suzuki wrote essays, books, etc on spreading Zen Buddhism to West translator of Japanese, Chinese, Sanskrit literature spent years teaching courses at Western Schools as well as at Otani University in Japan studied Zen under teacher, Soyen Shaku while studying at Tokyo University; did much seated meditation (zazen, zuochan) The Debate Hu Shih historical, religious phenomenon view believed that you must understand Zen history from the beginning to grasp the religion DT Suzuki believed Zen to be irrational, be yond logical understanding for general population theological view The Transmission of the Lamp primary source of Chan buddhism history in China Lecture 3 Handout Buddhist before Zen/Chan Mahayana (means ?Great Vehicle?) originated in India the path of seeking complete enlightenment for all sentient beings spread to other nations; helped foster Zen/Chan, Pure Land, Esoteric Buddhism, among others In Mah?y?na Buddhism life in this world is compared to people living in a house that is on fire. People take this world as reality pursuing worldly projects and pleasures without realising that the house is on fire and will soon burn down (due to the inevitability of death). Mahayana followers venerate bodhisattvas and read the Mahayana sutras (see below for bodhisattvas) Hinayana (means ?Abandoned Vehicle?) Bodhisattva anyone motivated by great compassion who spontaneously wishes to attain Buddhahood for benefit of all sentient beings it is someone on the path to enlightenment/liberation Dependent co-origination (Prat?tyasamutp?da) This represents the Second Noble Truth, stating that there is always a cause for dukkha, or suffering. (There is always a cause and effect that sustains our suffering). If we do not seek the path to cease the suffering, we will continue to roam in samsara, or the cycle of birth and death that everybody lives in. Emptiness (Sunyata) No object or person in the world is a self-contained, existing thing. Every object is defined by cause and effect relationships, by shifting phenomena constantly occuring example: a person is not a person, but an entity made up of relationships with people and places, everyday, all the time a car may be registered as a single serial number, but it is made up of a variety of parts and pieces. When one piece breaks down, it is replaced, creating this continuously changing entity Two Truths two truths: ?relative?, commonsense, commonplace truth ?absolute?, deepest, ultimate truth both coexistent with one another; two facets of the same phenomenon, neither identical nor different Mind non-physical phenomenon which perceives, thinks, recognizes, experiences and reacts to the environment. The mind is described as having two main aspects: clarity and knowing; the mind is clear, formless and allows for objects to arise in it the mind is knowing, an awareness, a consciousness which can engage with objects. Buddha-nature an intrinsic, immortal potential for reaching enlightenment that exists within the mind of every sentient being not self; Buddha-nature said not to have any defining characteristics (self is merely an entity defined by relationships with people and places, not absolute thing) described as non-dual nature of all reality; can?t be described in dualistic logic (what it is, what it isn?t); often described in negation (apophatic theology) Lecture 4 Handout Bodhidharma As patriarch 28th Indian Patriarch, lived during 5th/6th centuries 1st Patriarch of Chinese Ch?an lineage in pictures: robust beard, frowning, always looking up represented as foreign credited as transmitter of Zen Buddhism Maha-Kasyapa 27th Indian Patriarch? principal disciple of Sakyamuni Buddha In the Flower Sermon, in which Sakyamuni holds up a flower in admiration, Mahakasyapa smiles faintly, and by this act Sakyamuni chooses him to be his successor Bodhidharma followed in line of descent from Mahakasyapa Huike/Hui-k?o 2nd Patriarch of Chinese Ch?an lineage (29th Indian Patriarch) cut off his left arm to prove his dedication and desire to learn from Bodhidharma; Bodhidharma accepted him as his disciple afterwards When asked to prove their understanding, each of Bodhidharma?s disciples stepped forward and presented their thoughts in words; only Huike stepped forward, bowed deeply, and stepped back in silence. Immediately after Bodhidharma presented him with his robe and bowl (proof of dharma succession), and possibly a copy of the Lankavatara Sutra. Teachings (Bodhidharma and Huike): likely Bodhidharma and Huike based teachings off of Lankavatara Sutra, which urges self-enlightenment and forgetting of words and thoughts. Buddha Nature was within each person, must be realized by meditation rather than studying sutras, ceremonies, doing good deeds, or worshipping the Buddhas (later to become Chan emphasized) Sudden approach to enlightenment (sword method) rather than gradual approach Liang Wudi (Emperor Wu of Liang) known for using Buddhist ideologies for reform during his reign supported Buddhist monasteries and monks was even a monk for a short time co-authored Emperor Liang Jeweled Repentance Emperor Wu?s encounter with Bodhidharma (Legend) Meets Bodhidharma, wants to show the good he?s done for Buddhism. Shows Bodhidharma all the temples he?s built, the financial support he?s given, etc. Thinking that the emperor might have been attached to his own ego, Bodhidharma replied, "Actually, you have no merit and virtue. In truth, no merit and virtue at all." Perplexed, the emperor then asked, "Well, what is the fundamental teaching of Buddhism?" The bewildering reply was "vast emptiness". "Listen", said the emperor, now losing all patience, "just who do you think you are?" Bodhidharma replied, "I have no idea." The Emperor refuses to listen to the Bodhidharma from then on, and Bodhidharma goes into mediation for 9 years shortly after. Shaolin Temple Chan Buddhist Temple built in 5th century later associated with martial arts Background to Bodhidharma Anthology Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall (?) describes Bodhidharma encounter with Emperor Wu (see above) likely written by one of Bodhidharma?s disciples, too elegant to be written by foreign monk Two Entrances Of Principle understand through teachings (no written teachings) common and sagely people do not see true nature because of a false perception observing, understanding, contemplating ?like a wall? nondiscriminative, quiescent, inactive Of Practice Practice of Retribution of Enmity (Practice of Injury) Bad things in previous lifetimes come back as bad karma fruits as suffering do not react to suffering, must bear it and survive Practice of Acceptance of Circumstances Good things happen due to conditions and good deeds in past lives No Self Practice of Absence of Craving (Nothing to be Sought) burning house: world we live in seeking nothing is joy; seeking is suffering Practice of Accordance with Dharma Six Perfections Giving Moral Behavior Forbearance Effort Meditation Wisdom Six Perfections are Progression Four Practices are Progression ?Of Principle? is not First Letter Multiverse Concept: The world we see is only one of many possible worlds Thusness: state of appreciating true nature at any given moment; womb of Buddhahood in everyone to have active, fluid thoughts is proper means of livelihood (attempting to awaken to principle) Conventional Practices Four Fruits: four steps to attaining the path (Four Noble Truths) Eightfold Path: Stated in Fourth Fruit/Truth as way to cease suffering, specific steps to be taken Second Letter Identity of Nirvana and Samsara Nirvana: perfect peace of the state of mind that is free from craving, anger and other afflicting states. achieved by following the Noble Eightfold Path; achieved bodhi (enlightenment, and knowledge that accompanies enlightenment) Samsara: cycle of birth and death that all beings in the universe participate in, and which an only be escaped by enlightenment. Lecture 5 Handout Bodhidharma and Heirs Two Entrances and Four Practices see above Tanlin student of Bodhidharma, but also likely disciple of Huike Huike see above Lankavatara Sutra recounts teaching between Buddha and a bodhisattva Mahatmi main component of Bodhidharma and Huike?s teachings East Mountain Teachings no reliance on a single sutra or set of sutras Huangmei, Hubei ?East Mountain Teachings? name comes from East Mountain Temple of Huangmei Huangmei is location, far from capital Daoxin Fourth Ancestor Dayi Daoxin early 7th century Established East Mountain School at East Mountain Temple created first home for Bodhidharma?swe Zen teachings Brought about 3 major teachings: Unification of Zen practice with acceptance of the Buddhist precepts The unification of the Lankavatara Sutra with the Mahaprajnaparamita Sutra (Heart and Diamond Sutras included) Incorporation of chanting, and the chanting of Buddha?s name, into Zen practice Hongren Fifth Ancestor Daman Hongren, disciple of Daoxin after Daoxin died, Hongren continued East Mountain School teachings passed on bowl and robe to heir Huineng this is decided after poetry contest between his disciples, in which Shenxui writes a verse but, even though Hongren tells his disciples to recite it, tells Shenxui privately its not correct. Huineng then write his own verse anonymously, and gains praise and bowl and robe proves Buddha-enlightenment open to all focused on meditation practice to clear mind ?Treatise on Cultivating the Mind? teachings of Hongren compiled by students related mind to sun - sun?s light never extinguished, just reflected by clouds remove clouds from mind cannot escape birth/death by reflecting on buddhas divorced from yourself, will reach other shore of nirvana by maintaining awareness of own fundamental mind teachings for East Mountain School ?maintaining the mind? Shenxiu 7th/8th century believed Buddhahood could be attained in all daily activities saw taking a bath as a religious act In meditation practice, taught to see stillness and tranquility in all things contemplative analysis - every activity is meditative except meditation itself ?Northern School? Teachings, criticized for teaching gradual enlightenment capitals: Chang?an and Luoyang travelled between the capitals preaching the Buddha Dharma from 701 until his death in 706 Wu Zetian/Empress Wu invited Shenxiu in late 700 because he was an important guy... to teach Chan Buddhism (?) in Luoyang, when he arrived in 701 the Empress kneeled before him in an unprecedented act of deep respect first person in contemporary Zen history whose existence is proved by other verifiable historical sources Shenhui 8th century sought to establish Huineng as Sixth Patriarch Southern School ideals attacked Shenxiu disciples publically said they didn?t talk about sudden enlightenment and should reinterpreted meditation, but didn?t give instruction Sudden Enlightenment supporter used Platform Sutra to help catapult Southern School teachings forward, crushing Northern School and gaining new followers used this as way to identify Huineng as Sixth Patriarch and himself as Seventh Shen hui exiled after bringing to court his Buddhist ideals shut down because many Northern School supporters were on court, exiled him shortly after An Lu-Shan Rebellion (755-763) took place, government needed men to issue monk certifications Shen hui did extremely well, rewarded with very own temple to support his teachings Southern School began to phase out Northern School Northern School begun by Shenxiu personally called his teachings East Mountain Teachings later identified as Northern School by Shenhui gradual enlightenment differentiation between practice of attainment and enlightenment two entities of samadhi and prajna (cause and effect; samadhi -> prajna) recommended religious activity in every aspect of life baths, etc. Shenxiu?s lineage dies out after Platform Sutra kills gradual used the Lankavatara Sutra combined with other sutras (Heart and Diamond for example) Southern School preached by Shen hui supports that Hui-neng was Sixth Patriarch No Thought!!! cutting off one thought means cutting off all thoughts, by this process leads to ?no thought?, which is state of enlightenment did not rely on any sutras, Platform Sutra was more of a marketing campaign based on Platform Sutra Ox-head School this school sought to maintain a middle of way path between the extremes that the Northern and Southern Schools sought to teach agreed that mediative practice was necessary for the realization of perfect wisdom (Southern School) but did not agree with a abandonment of all scriptures and other practices in favor of meditation (Northern School) Someone in Ox Head School wrote Platform Sutra (supposedly) Platform Sutra Buddhist scripture centered on discourses given by Sixth Patriarch, Huineng. Main topics: sudden enlightenment direct perception of one?s true nature Southern Chan (?Sudden Enlightenment) School based doctrine on Platform Sutra (Southern School based on Huineng teachings anyways) takes form of Indian sutras, but written with Chinese confidence Phrases Mind is the Buddha Buddha nature Mind is the Way Huineng?s enlightenment meant to prove that anybody can become enlightened (of any social level) supported sudden enlightenment (Southern School) Lecture 7 Recluses in Tiantai Mountains Tang Dynasty 618-907 Hanshan literally translates to ?Cold Mountain? figure associated with collection of poems during Tang Dynasty 9th century characterized by poems written (not all verified to be written by him) 307 poems have survived Shide lived during same time as Hanshan and Fenggan poet/monk lived in Tiantai Mountain range 9th century Fenggan 9th century member of ?Tiantai Trio? with Shide and Hanshan poet/monks Lecture 8 Handout Huairang Student of Huineng master of Mazu Daoyi rubbed tile to encourage mirror/meditation analogy Mazu Daoyi sitting in meditation, master comes up and sits across from him and rubs a tile. Mazu asks: ?why do you rub the tile?? the master says: ?i?m making a mirror?. Mazu says: ?you can?t make a mirror out of a tile?. the master says: ?as you cannot be enlightened by sitting in meditation? above is example of encounter dialogue Mazu?s enlightenment experience Started Hongzhou school many historical texts and sutras samples and puts bits and pieces into old shows confidence in own authority and confidence shows that Zen doesn?t break from earlier Buddhism Mind is Buddha Buddha nature is within the body Ordinary Mind is the Way If mind is enlightened (If mind is Buddha), then all activities thereafter are proof of enlightenment Linji Yixuan 2 generations after Mazu Disciple of Huangpo Shouts and blows are characteristic of his teachings Shouts meant to clear mind of all dualistic thinking, to encourage contemplation within themselves Blows are strikes to the body to encourage search for true enlightenment within one?s own self, not in the surrounding world Linji Lu Record of Words of Linji characteristics of Linji Lu elegant language, fictional stories, etc. Key ideas true man without rank, host and guest (host responds to all situations freely, guests do not) Lamp Record coalition of many different masters? teachings Record of Words Four Step Process to Record of Words someone takes notes on a master?s life Placed in Lamp Record pull out teachings of one specific person example: Linji Lu Lecture 9 Blue Cliff Record Yuanwu Keqin?s publishing of lecture material lecture material derived from Xuedou Chongxian and his 100 koans (public cases) Layout: Pointer, Case, Notes, Commentary Verse, Notes, Commentary (Huatou is verse, main phrase from koans) Koan/Gongan public case from which the Ultimate Truth can be derived collected by Xuedou Chongxian originally Huatou main key phrase or idea of koan ex. Wu or Mu do not attempt to evaluate, think, describe, understand the huatou, just think it until it IS in your mind...it consumes it Dahui Zonggao describes how to handle hautou observe the phrase, don?t try to explain (see above) Caodong School preaches not studying cases, instead preaches to sit and meditate Dahui did not approve of Caodong School, sitting in meditation achieves nothing Linji school wins Lecture 11 (2/3/11) Hakuin Ekaku (1686 -1769) first studied with teacher Shoju Rojin what we know about Hakuin comes from personal relation tradition is to go from teacher to teacher from Hara, ?Home to Mt. Fuji? travels a lot, writes letters to a wide variety of people wants to revive koan study koan study: great doubt, perseverance Mu on the MInd What is the Sound of One Hand Clapping? uses this koan to instruct his disciples want to encourage ball of doubt which will lead to breakthrough said could be enlightened in 3-5 days thinking about this Hakuin on Pure Land Practice pure, completely concentrated reciting of Buddha?s name to achieve rebirth in Pure Land, could work However, Mu koan gives rise to ball of doubt; more effective, more efficient says Pure Land recitation is not true Chan teaching anyways emerged as guy that gave new life to Rinzai practice 5 levels of koans, each of which is ?passed? by interview with teacher finishing curriculum is what makes you a Zen master conducted at main temple; most monks just go to learn and return to their family temples
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