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a bond between a hydrogen atom and electronegative atom using covalent bonding.
Hydrogen bonds work like cows and horses sharing food because there two differet atoms sharing electrons while horses and cows are different species but can share food.
bonding hydrogen and electronegative atoms
makes it easier sharing electrons in the atoms
covelant bonding because they are close to the same
something that minimizes changes in pH by associating with (binding with) hydrogen ions when their
concentration increases, and dissociating with (releasing) hydrogen ions when their concentration decreases.
2 types of chemical reactions that are involved in building or breaking macromolecules
Dehydtion Synthesis removes a molecule of water that links two monomers together to creat a polymer.
Hydrolysis is the breaking of polymers into monomers by adding a molecule of water
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
- also called simply peptide or protein
stores energy that can be released quicklythrough chemical reactions in cells; made of one sugarmolecule, a pair of sugar molecules, or a chain ofsugar molecules
if two atoms share two pairs of electrons
When combining atoms share threeelectron pairs as in the case of twonitrogen atoms in the N2 molecule and thetwo carbon atoms in the ethyne molecule,a triple bond is formed
-Non -is equal share niether is pulling harder than the other
-Polar- a polar molecule is H2O
they share electrons but not equally
a carbonyl-containing organic compound in which the carbonyl carbon atom has at least one hydrogen atom directly attached to it.
building blocks for most complex lipids. long chains of carbons ended with carbox acid.
-Cell shape,internal organization,
- intracellular transport (transports material into -the cell by moving organelles
-assembly of cells into tissues
-movement helps cells move.
• Keeps fat suspended in water
• Component of cell membranes
• Lecithin in food industry to mix oil
and water in suspension
the sensor isw what notices the change from set point and notifies the effector which will change the parameter(measures homeo)
ex. Hypothalamus recongnizes chnage in bod temp.
ex.nervous sys makes change for change in temp.
-hor is a chemical marker made to regulate body functions.
-nervous sys-regulate bod functions through electrical signals and chemical signals.
-Nervous sys- control bod throu electrical and chemical sig.
ex.short tem changes
-endocrine sys- chemical signals called hormones to reg bodily functions
ex. long term changes
fake, harmless treatment or substance used a control which participants believe are real.
-common in drug trials; sugar pills
Principal parts and organelles
The basic functional unit of most living organisms.
Principal parts: Nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane.
Organelles: Mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, perioxisomes
Cytoskeleton: Insoluble protein fibers that form the cells internal support system
Peroxisomes: contain enzymes that break down fatty acids and some foreign materials.
Lysosomes: small, spherical storage vesicles that contain powerful digestive enzymes.
Centrioles: made from microtubules and direct DNA movement during cell division.
Cell Membrane: a phospholipid bilayer studded with proteins that act as structural anchors, transporters,
enzymes, or signal receptors. The cell membrane acts as both a gateway and a barrier between the cytoplasm and the extracellular fluid.
Mitochondria: spherical organelles with a double wall that creates two separate compartments w/in the organelle. The inner matrix is surrounded by a membrane that folds into leaflets called cristae. The intermembrane space, which lies between the two membranes plays an important role in ATP production. It is the site of most ATP synthesis in cell.
Golgi Apparatus: consists of a series of hollow curved sacs called cisternae stacked on top of one another and surrounded by vesicles. It participates in protein modification and packaging.
Endoplasmic Reticulum: a network of interconnected membrane tubes that are a continuation of the outer nuclear membrane. Rough ER has a granular appearance due to rows of ribosomes dotting its cytoplasmic surface. Smooth ER lacks ribosomes and appears as smooth membrane tubes.
Rough ER is the main site of protein synthesis. Smooth ER synthesizes lipids and, in some cells, concentrates and stores calcium ions.
Nucleus: is surrounded by a double-membrane nuclear envelope. Bothe membranes of the envelope are pierced here and there by pores to allow communication with the cytoplasm. Usually contains 1-4 larger dark-staining bodies of DNA, RNA and a protein called nucleoli.
cytoplasmic bridges between adjacent cells, created by linked membrane proteins. Protein called conexin. Gap Junctions can open and close - allows cytoplasmic exchange of ions, amino acids, cAMP.
Nearly all cells have Gap junctions (except cancer cells)
Connective: provide structural support and sometimes a physical barrier that helps defend the body from foreign invaders. It has extensive extracellular matrix that contains widely scattered cells that secrete and modify the matrix.
Muscular: has the ability to contract and produce force and movement.
Nervous: carry information in the form of chemical and electrical signals from one part of the body to another. TABLE 3.4 PAGE 89
Cartilage: found in structures such as nose, ears, knee and windpipe. A dense ground substance that contains closely packed fibers. Solid, flexible, and notable for its lack of blood supply.
Bone: calcified extracellular matrix that contains mineral deposits, primarily calcium salts. They give the bone strength & rigidity.
e. Induced fit: substrate + enzyme = weakening of existing bonds more easily broken
f. new bonds then are more easily formed
g. Enzyme-substrate model = Induced fit model of enzyme activity.
Autonomic division of the PNS: controls contraction and secretion in the various internal organs. Autonomic neurons are further divided into...
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic branches: these can be distinguished by their anatomical organization and by the chemicals they use to communicate with their target cells.
Enteric Nervous System: a network of neurons in the walls of the digestive tract. It is frequently controlled by the ANS but can function autonomously.
Cardiac: striated, involuntary, single nucleus, centrally located
Smooth: non-striated, involuntary, single nucleus, centrally located.
Skeletal: striated, voluntary, multi-nucleated, peripherally located.
What makes them c.t.? The presence of extensive extracellular matrix containing widely scattered cells that secrete and modify the matrix.
Loose: the elastic tissues that underlie skin and provide support for small glands.
Dense: provide strength or flexibility (tendons, ligaments, sheaths that surround muscles & nerves)
Adipose: very little ground substance
Blood: watery extracellular matrix called Plasma
Neuron: carry information in the form of chemical and electrical signals from one part of the body to another.
Glial cells: (neuroglia) the support cells for neurons.
Apoptosis: cells that undergo programmed cell death. They do not disrupt their neighbors when they die. "Cell suicide" - a normal event in the life of an organism.
Necrosis: cells die from physical trauma, toxins, or lack of oxygen when their blood supply is cut off. Necrotic cells swell, their organelles deteriorate, and finally the cells rupture doing collateral damage to surrounding cells & tissues.
1st: The energy in the universe is constant, it can be transformed from one form to another, but it cannot be created nor destroyed. Each transfer of energy is never 100% efficient, some is lost as heat each time.
2nd: The universe and all things in it are becoming increasingly disorganized or random. Less free energy to do work. Energy is being converted to heat, infrared light rays (entropy)
Metabolism: the sum total of all chemical reactions in an organism.
Kinetic: the energy of motion; a ball rolling down a hill etc.
Potential: stored energy; a ball poised at the top of a hill etc.
Chemical: making and breaking chemical bonds
Transport: moving chemical against a concentration gradient
Mechanical: movement, cilia, flagella, muscle contraction
Kilocalorie: amount of energy needed to raise the temp of 1 liter of water by 1 degree C.
Calorie: 1kcal = 1 dietary Calorie = 1000 calories
1 calorie = amount of heat to raise 1 cc (ml) of water 1 degree C.
Entropy is a condition of randomness or disorder
Free Energy is the amount of energy stored in the chemical bonds of a molecule and available to perform work.
Endergonic: reaction where the products have MORE free energy than the substrates (synthesis of glucose from CO2), protein from AA's, ATP from ADP + Pi)
Exergonic: reactions where the products have LESS free energy than the substrates (respiration, burning fat, glucose, and proteins to CO2+H2O+ATP+Heat
All energy we use eventually ends up as heat.
1. Catalyst increases the rate of a reaction
2. Catalyst is not itself changed at the end of a reaction
3. Catalyst does not change the nature of the reaction or the final outcome.
Enzyme is generally a protein that acts as a biological catalyst. Enzyme function is a result of their structure. Often first synthesized in an inactive form.
a. Each enzyme has a characteristic structure and conformation
b. Active sites are sites with a specific shape; active in catalyzing the reaction
c. Substrates shape fit into active site.
d. Not a perfect fit, but substrate binding causes slight changes.
the more substrates the more reaction - to a point...enzymes reach a maximum rate of saturation...unless you make more enzymes.
Exercise increases mitochondria and ATP production and thus produces more enzymes.
1. Named for job category, what they do
2. Named for primary substrate they bind with
3. Always add the suffix ASE on the end of the name
Hydrolase: promote hydrolysis reactions
Phosphatase: removal of a phosphate group
Synthetase: catalyze dehydration synthesis reactions
Dehydrogenase: remove hydrogens from substrates
Dehydrase: removes water from substrates
Kinase: adds a phosphate group to a substrate
Deaminase: removes an amino group
Cofactor: an inorganic or nonprotein organic molecule required for activation of protein.
Covalent modulators: Atoms or functional groups bind to proteins and affect their activity.
Coenzyme: organic cofactors that act as receptors and carriers for atoms or functional groups that are removed from substrates during the course of a reaction.
Activation: binding that causes the activation site to have greater affinity for the substrate
Inhibition: Binding that causes the activation site to have less affinity for the substrate, slowing the reaction rate (end product inhibition)
metabolic pathway that converts glucose to pyruvate ( aerobic) or lactic acid (anaerobic)
Breakdown of glucose---6 carbons to 3 carbons: Glucose to pyruvic acid
the metabolic pathways that yield the most ATP molecules are these that require oxygen. (Oxidative pathways)
Reactions begin in cytosol and end in the mitochondria.
Anaerobic pathways, which are those that can proceed without oxygen, also produce ATP molecules but in much smaller quantities. The lower ATP yield means that humans are unable to survive for extended periods on anaerobic metabolism alone.
All reactions are in the cytosol
key metabolic pathway of aerobic respiration.
a Ketoglutarate (5C)
Succinyl CoA (4C)
process in which fatty acids are broken down by the sequential removal of 2-carbon units. CoA is used to cleave off 2 carbons at a time. Cost 1 ATP for first break. FAD picks up 2 H & 2 e- (1.5 ATP) NAD picks up 2 H & 2 e- (2.5 ATP). Becomes Acetyl-CoA worth 10 ATP in one turn of the Krebs cycle.
Formula for ATP from B oxidation:
(10 ATP/ Acetyl CoA; + 4 ATP/B Oxidation) - 1 ATP = Total # of ATP
2. Acetoacetic Acid
3. B hydroxybuteric Acid
Transfer of an amino group (NH2) from one molecule to another.
Removal of the NH2 by transferring it to a-ketoglutarate.
Done by a Transaminase
NH2 + a-Ketoglutarate = Glutamic acid + intermediate
Will convert AA to 1 of 6 intermediates
Glutamic Acid is deaminated for form a-Ketoglutarate and ammonia + CO2.
Ammonia enters urea cycle...urea (CN2H4O)
A carrier that moves more than one kind of molecule at a time.
(Sometimes cotransport is used in place of symport)
A carrier protein that moves two or more substrates in the same direction across the membrane
(Na & Glu) Sometimes cotransport is used in place of symport
Central Nervous System: consists of the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System: consists of sensory (afferent) neurons & efferent neurons.
Somatic Motor Division: Efferent neurons subdivide into this division which controls skeletal muscles.
Autonomic Division: the other portion of efferent neurons which control smooth and cardiac muscles, exocrine glands, some endocrine glands, and some types of adipose tissue.
The cell body of a neuron resembles a typical cell, with a nucleus and all organelles needed to direct cellular activity. An extensive cytoskeleton extends outward into the axon and dendrites.
The dendrites receive incoming signals: Dendrites are thin, branched processes that receive incoming information from neighboring cells. Dendrites increase the surface area of a neuron, allowing it to communicate with multiple other neurons.
Anatomical type: Multipolar.
Location: cranial nerve motor nuclei, anterior gray column of spinal cord.
They are motor to skeletal muscle
Anatomical type: Multipolar
Location: motor nuclei of cranial nerves 3, 7, 9, 10. lateral gray column in sacral region, autonomic ganglia.
Motor to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glandular epithelium.
Anatomical type: Pseudounipolar - some bipolar
Location: Retina and sensory ganglia of cranial and spinal nerves.
Sensory from retina, internal ear, skin, skeletal muscle, bones, joints
Anatomical type: pseudounipolar - some bipolar.
Location: nasal mucosa and sensory ganglia of cranial and spinal nerves.
Sensory from nasal mucosa, oral mucosa, deep body organs.
moves organelles at rates of up to 400 mm (about 15.75 in.) per day. Fast axonal transport goes in 2 directions. The neuron uses stationary microtubules as tracks along which transported vesicles and mitochondria "walk" with the aid of attached footlike motor proteins. These motor proteins alternately bind and unbind to the microtubules with the help of ATP, stepping their organelles along the axon in a stop and go fashion.
categories: Be able to distinguish which substances require protein transporters and those that don’t.
1. carrier-mediated transport
(a) facilitated diffusion
(b) active transport
2. simple diffusion (including osmosis)
amplification and suppression of cellular responses.
#h premotor cortex
-between prefrontal association area and primary motor cortex
-learned automated movement
where you memorize stuff and store it
#i. Motor cortex (cerebrum)
controls motor movement
primsr motor corter