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the thin layer of air(atmosphere), water(hydrosphere), soil and rock(lithosphere) that surrounds the planet and contains the conditions to support life
the sum of all living organisms, the relationships between organisms and their environment.
nonliving physical surroundings
living organisms in the surroundings
the process of change with continuity in successive generations of organisms
a random change within the genetic material of an individual that is passed on to their offspring
the separation of populations of organisms originally able to interbreed into independent evolutionary units that cant interbreed anymore.
3 causes of environmental problems
population growth, abuse of resources, and pollution
occurs when a quantity is increased by a fixed number over a certain period of time.
occurs when a quantity is increased by a fixed percentage over a period of time
Anything that serves a need
is one that originates from a source which is essentially exhaustible like solar energy.
can be replaced by the environment as long as they are not used as quickly as the environment can create them.
exists in finite supply, like coal, oil and fossil fuels.
Net Primary Productivity
the total amount of solar energy fixed biologically through the process of photosynthesis---the amount of energy that plants use for their own needs
a substance of energy such as heat that adversely alters the physical , chemical , or biological quality of natural systems
the study of the structure function and behavior of the natural systems that are the biosphere
a process of observation, hypothesis, and experimentation.
the study of the human impact on the environment
the expression of human belief in a super human power that controls everything.
Belief in multiple Gods
belief in a single God
a way of perceiving reality that places humans at the top and the rest of nature underneath it.
both humans and other parts of creation are equal
a code of conduct based on the premises that resources are essentially unlimited
the earth is at the top of concerns and the humans are below
the principles that help distinguish between good and evil . Usually based on a faith component
principles of respect and care for the natural world
principle of cooperation between humans and other biospheric components
a guide for behavior based on the belief that humans should act as caretakers and nurturers of the nature world
skill and labor
clothing and appliances
a self-sufficient economic system where people grow their own food and make their own goods.
Pure command economy
the government makes all economic decisions.
Pure market economy
economic decisions are made by buyers and sellers in a marketplace. Supply/demand.
an increase in the capacity of the economy to produce goods and services
gross national product. The total national output of all goods and services valued at market prices
net national product. Based on GNP but factors in depletion of natural resources
Human development Index
Uses three indictators to estimate the average quality of life in a country:
LIfe expectancy, literacy rates, and real GNP per capita
index of sustainable economic welfare. Adjusts GNP according to inequalities in income, resource depletion, loss of wetlands and farmland and cost of pollution
direct costs of production
Harmful social or environmental effects of the production and consumption of a good.
a technique used to compare the estimated costs
The relationship between dynamic human economic systems and larger dynamics
an economy characterized by a constant level of human population and a constant level of artifacts
Improving quality of human life while living within the carrying capacity of ecosystems
Fees assessed to discourage the use of environmentally harmful practices
an organized way of using all the laws in the legal system to prevent the actions that damage the environment
a body of written and unwritten rules based on precedent
the most common cause of action in the field of environmental law
the unwarranted entry upon another's property
the body of facts passed by a local legislature or congress
the process of learning about the biosphere , its problems, and the human role in causing and resolving there problems.
all organisms of a particular kind that re capable of producing viable offspring
a distinct group of individuals that live, interbreed, and interact in the same geographic area.
the ability to do work.
first law of thermo
during a physical or chemical reaction, energy is neither created nor destroyed
second law of thermo
with each change in form energy is degraded to a less useful form, like heat.
where energy constantly flows from a high quality, organized form to a low-quality, dispersed form.
chemicals needed to by living organisms in a large quantity to construct proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.
substances needed in trace amounts
organisms containing chlorophyll that produces complex chemical compounds by photosynthesis
When plants make the food they need from sunlight
autotrophs that use energy found in inorganic chemical compounds
microscopic floating plants and algae. Major producers
consumers. con only consume items cant produce food.
primary consumers. Eat producers directly
secondary consumers. eat both plants and animals
Carnivores that eat secondary consumers also. Tertiary consumers
consume dead organisms
digest materials outside of their cell through enzymes
the natural aging of a lake
a species that indicates by either its presence or absence, certain environmental conditions.
a species that has a significant role in community organization due to its impact on other species.
net primary productivity.
plants and animals require oxygen to release energy
dont require oxygen to obtain energy from fuel molecules
a semi enclosed coastal body of water composed of salt and fresh water
the producers and successive steps removed from the producers
Detritus Food Web
based on decomposing plants and animal material or animal waste products
Pyramid of Energy
depicts, the production, use, and transfer of energy from one trophic level to another
10 percent rule
explains why food chains are generally short and why pyramidal relationships exist
Pyramid of biomass
depicts the total amount of living material at each trophic level
Pyramid of numbers
depicts the relative abundance of organisms at each trophic level
a series of processes by which materials cycle through ecosystems
includes al the processes that are involves in circulation of water bodies of air land and water
as materials circulate from air t, through land, and water and back again. Carbon and nitrogen cycles are common gaseous cycles.
the process by which certain kinds of bacteria convent to ammonia
involves material that move primary from land to oceans and back to land
functions of a natural ecosystem that provide benefits to human society
the process by which the ecosystem matures
takes into account the accompanying modifications in the physical environment brought about by organisms
Hardy organisms such as lichens and microbes that can become established on bare rocks and start soil building
property of constant adjustment to change, maintaining an overall balance
refers to the ability of an ecosystem to resist change
refers to the capacity of an ecosystem to undergo change and return to a similar system configuration.
competition between members of the same species
competition between members of different species
the complete ecological description of an individual species including all factors
competitive exclusion principle
different species with similar requirements sometimes compete to the elimination of one of them
The intimate association of two dissimilar species, regardless of the benefits or lack of them to both species
is an association of two species in which both benefit
an association of two species in which on benefits and the other neither benefits nor is harmed
an association of two species in which one benefits and the other is harmed
when one species consumes another
the max. growth rate that a population could achieve, given unlimited resources and ideal environment conditions
exerts a controlling influence on the population size
the population size that can best be supported by the environment over time
biotic. their effect is greater when the population density is high
tend to set upper limits on the population
suggests the biodiversity promotes resistance to disturbance bc species differ in their traits
likens species in an ecosystem to the rivets that hold together on airplane
contends that there is considerable overlap in the roles that species play within an ecosystem
ecosystem functions or processes are insensitive to the addition or deletion of species
Acute pollution effects
occur immediately upon or shortly after the introduction of a pollutant and they are readily detected
Chronic pollution effects
act in the long term. they arent noticed until years after the introduction of the pollutant
in the presence of sunlight , the damage caused by such pollutants increases
their combined effect is greater or more harmful than the sum of their individual effects.
the storage of chemicals in an organism in higher concentrations than are normally found in the environment
the accumulation of chemicals in organisms in increasingly higher concentrations at successive trophic levels
emitted from an identifiable specific source or point
Nonpoint source pollution
cannot be traced to a specific source but rather comes from multiple generalized sources in a wide area
affect an ecosystem by moving from one medium to another
Materials that can be broken down and rendered harmless by living systems
unusable by the organisms present in that system
a pollutant that accumulates in a natural system over time
the rapid change in the species composition of a community that can be traced directly to a specific human activity
the conversion of a natural system, such as wetland, to a less complex human system, such as a farm.
land degradation in arid, and dry sub-humid regions resulting mainly from adverse human impact
the build-up of salts in the soil
the cutting down and clearing away of forests
the process by which soil erodes from land surfaces and accumulates in streams and lakes
Expansive tracts of contiguous forest largely untouched by human activities
a patchwork of cropland, logging roads, and smaller discrete forest areas
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